(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Glass, paints, varnishes and brushes: their history, manufacture, and use"

GLASS-PAINTS 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS 
COMPANY 



c 



/) 




INTERNATIONAL 



Digitized by 
The Association for Preservation Technology International 

For the 

Building Technology Heritage Library 

http://archive.org/details/buildinqtechnoloqvheritagelibrary 




INTERNATIONAL 



Digitized by 
The Association for Preservation Technology International 

For the 

Building Technology Heritage Library 

http://archive.org/details/buildingtechnologyheritagelibrary 



GLASS 



PAINTS, VARNISHES AND 
BRUSHES 



GLASS 

PAINTS, VARNISHES AND 

BRUSHES 

THEIR HISTORY 
MANUFACTURE AND USE 




1923 

PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 

PITTSBURGH 



kS^-A-^ V^?^- 



COPYRIGHT 1923 
PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



CREATED AND DESIGNED 
PHOTOGRAPHY, ART WORK, AND COPY 

BY 

R. R. DONNELLEY & SONS COMPANY 

GLASS SECTION SUPERVISED EDITORIALLY 

COPY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC ART ILLUSTRATIONS 

BY 

(Hi!* SrrarUn &«ut« (Organisation 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 



ORIGINALLY this book was planned to be merely a catalogue, 
though a highly comprehensive and serviceable one, of the 
manifold products of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. 
Since the objective of this Company during the forty years of its 
existence has been Service, and Service its watchword, this catalogue 
likewise was designed to serve the dealer, and through him the ultimate 
consumer, with sincerity and helpfulness far beyond the ordinary. 

The work has grown on our hands ; the book has become a volume ; 
in smaller compass it was impossible to carry out our ideal. 

Even where achievement is actual and worthy, modesty is becom- 
ing; yet unassuming pride just as truly befits the doer of things worth 
while. The American plate glass industry dominates the world-field. 
The history of that industry is the history of the Pittsburgh Plate 
Glass Company, and this Company is justly proud of its large share 
in hard-fought development and of the commanding position won. 

Frankly proud, too, is this Company of the fact that American plate 
glass is unequaled the world over in beauty and sustained quality, and 
that the Proof Paint and Varnish Products and Brushes of the Pitts- 
burgh Plate Glass Company are the accepted standard of excellence. 

This work includes adequate historical notice of the kindred indus- 
tries to which our activities of a lifetime have been devoted: Glass, 
in all commercial and many artistic forms ; Paints, and Varnishes, and 
the Enamels which partake of the nature of both; and the Brush, 
equally important as the paint or varnish. 

This historical record shows how natural has been the growth of 
this Company, how orderly the enlargement of its field of production : 
first, a struggle for existence, culminating in mastery of process in plate 
glass making; then, the firm establishment of the business by large- 






quantity manufacture and the vital economies it makes possible, 
coincident with further development in the manufacture of mirrors, 
window glass, and other kinds of glass used in the building trades; 
and lastly, the solution of the problem of distribution by means of 
the nation-wide Warehouse System. 

Presently, just as in nature cell-growth keeps pace with the develop- 
ing needs of the physical organism, so the desire long ago manifested 
by the building trade for a unified, reliable source of supply for stand- 
ardized paints, and varnishes, and brushes of highest quality appealed 
to this Company as a demand that must be met. Expansion along 
those lines was the logical policy. 

How thoroughgoing our accomplishment has been ; how unstinted 
this Company's expenditure of time, and money, and experimental 
labor to satisfy every demand of our trade, and to produce in every 
manufactured item the very best of its class, may be judged to some 
extent by study of the catalogue pages following. For sure appraisal, 
however, of the high degree in which we have succeeded, we rely con- 
fidently upon the expressed approval of those whose satisfaction is 
our success — our customers throughout the world. 

From cover to cover, this is a practical book. This Company for a 
generation has set itself to the task of educating the American public 
to the countless uses and the supreme usefulness of fine glass. That 
same work of education, as to both glass and paints, this book con- 
tinues, in form for preservation and reference. Without detracting 
in the slightest from its commercial catalogue value, which is rein- 
forced by copious indexes, and, in the Paint Section, by ready-to-use 
Specifications, the volume is intended to be a distinct contribution to 
the literature of three great industries. 

Besides all else, it tells how our products are made. Young and 
old will find this knowledge worth having; and we are glad to believe 
that the host of users of our glass, paints, oils, varnishes, enamels, 



and brushes will have more interest in what they buy, when they 
have seen with their own eyes, as it were, how sincerity of purpose 
and superlative technical skill, with every material resource large 
capital can command, result in an honest product. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

GLASS SECTION 

The Romance of Glass 1 

The History of Glass 5 

The Making of Plate Glass ' . . 13 v 

Plate Glass in America 31 

The Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company Today 35 

Plate Glass and Common Glass 39v 

Glass in Typical Modern Buildings 41 

Advantages of Plate Glass in Building 47 

Mirrors 55 

Plate Glass and the Automobile 77 

Plate Glass and Furniture 81 

The Modern Store Front 87 

Interior Shop Display 105 

Miscellaneous Uses of Plate Glass 115 

Glass with Pattern Surfaces 125 

Prism Glass 133 

Wire Glass 138 

Leaded Glass , . . . 143 



Carrara and Black Glass 159 

The Manufacture of Window Glass . 173 v 

The Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company System of Distribution, 

Education, and Service 187 

Warehouse System of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company 

(Bird's-eye View) • 192 

Bent Glass 199 

The Glazing of Store Fronts 202 

Maximum Sizes, Thicknesses, and Approximate Net and Gross 

Weights 207 

Location and Addresses of Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company's 

Warehouses 208 

Index . i-viii 

PAINT SECTION 

The Origin and First Use of Paint 1 

Progress and Development in the Manufacture of Paint . 5 ^ 

The Manufacture of Varnish 19 

The Use of Color 25 

Proof Products — Paints: Descriptions and Color Chips . . 26 

Proof Products — Varnishes: Descriptions and Color Chips . 50 

Paint Proposition for Dealers 57 



I I UWPHMIH— JIIWLI 



Proof Products — Paints: Descriptions 60 

Proof Products — Varnishes: Descriptions 65 

Pitcairn Proposition for Dealers 77 

The Universal Label 78 

Quantities in which Paints and Varnishes Are Originally 

Packed 80 

Proof Products Specifications 81 

A Service for Industrial Paint Users 96 

Color Suggestions 97 

"Save the Surface and You Save All" — Paint and Varnish . 122 

The Brush — Its History 125 

Bristle " . . 127 

Development of the American Brush Industry 133 t 

Soft Hair 141 

Merchandising Brushes 145 

Painters, Paperhangers, and Glaziers Tools, Equipment, and 

Supplies 157 

Red Wing Quality Linseed Oil . 178 

Index ix-xxii 






GLASS 







THE ROMANCE OF GLASS 




HE ancient Crystal Gazer, peering into the depths of his 
mystic sphere, sought to unveil the strange things that 
lay hidden in the years. Suppose for a moment that by 
some flight of fancy or gift of divination he could have 
traced through centuries to come the future story of that 
very crystal that lay beneath his hand ! How Glass, from its discovery 
in the remote dawn of the handicrafts, a crude, unlovely thing, on down 
through the generations was to wax in beauty and in usefulness — in 
service to the race! 

Would not the Romance of Glass, from its beginning in — who knows 
where? — to the relative perfection of the industry in Twentieth Century 
American glass-works, have unfolded a picture worth the visioning? 

Many thousands of years before the Christian Era this romance began. 
It is older far than Pliny's tale of the Tyrian mariners who, he recounts, 
landed in some Mediterranean harbor to cook themselves food, and to 
prop their kettles over the fire used lumps of natron — ballast from their 
ship. How fire fused seashore sand and sodium-salt together, and in the 
cooling embers these seamen found the first Glass known to man — 'tis 
a plausible fancy: true or not, what matter? 

This much we know: that in some such chance discovery, beyond 
human record or tradition, our industrial Romance had its origin, and 
that Glass, as much by some inherent wizardry as by the genius of man, 
has become handmaiden of the arts and minister to every science. 

[i] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 

The Romance of Glass produced, in Gothic cathedrals, such noble rose 
windows as the masterpiece of Rheims, triumph of Thirteenth Century 
art, known to millions of worshipers in northern Europe as the "Window 
of Paradise." Stained glass, through the ages, has ever been a medium 
through which artistic inspiration has found lofty expression. 

All we know of the planets and suns in remote space falls into place 
in the Romance of Glass. Without lens, and mirror, and prism, we could 




have no telescopes or spectroscopes wherewith to pry into the secrets of 
the stellar systems. Three of the most marvelous of all achievements of 
modern times — wireless telegraphy, wireless telephony, and the Roentgen 
ray — depend in essential particulars on high-vacuum tubes of glass. 

The camera lens has added horizon after horizon to the outlook of 
humanity, for by aid of this carefully wrought bit of glass man is able 
to illustrate the record of his ideas and make known to all who read, the 
actual appearance of things which otherwise they might never see. The 
moving picture camera has its part in this tale of wonders, for glass Iras 
made possible the lenses that record on the film the doings of mankind 
and project them on the screen for the enjoyment of millions. 

Human life has been lengthened and preserved by glass. How could 
disease have been so shorn of its terrors and some scourges practically 
eradicated, had medical and chemical science no microscope for the study 
of bacterial life, no hollow glass for analysis and experiment? Light and 

[2] 






THE ROMANCE OF GLASS 

air in abundance, which are health, have become a universal boon. No 
legislator of today would dare attempt to levy a tax on windows, as 
was done in early England: too keenly this generation appreciates the 
comfort of its homes, and offices, and factories, flooded with light and 
yet airy, thanks to plate glass and window glass, both within reach of all. 
In this Romance of Glass, the mirror has a fascinating chapter all its 
own. The women of Rome, and Athens, and Pompeii must needs content 






themselves with looking-glasses of burnished metal, whereas today perfect 
mirrors of polished plate glass, with flawless silvering, may be found in 
the humblest home. For, from being the gaud of voluptuous fashion and 
of empty vanity, the mirror has come to be a utility and a necessity, serv- 
ing individual self-respect in its personal use, and, in its decorative use 
in the marts of trade, the purposes of business in an industrial age. 

Indeed, it is the requirements of prosaic modern industry that have 
made the Story of Glass the romance that it is. Millions pass daily the 
plate glass fronts that line the business thoroughfares of cities the world 
over, and give never a thought to the industrial achievement that plate 
glass represents. They look, not at the polished plate, but through it at 
the display beyond; they see clearly, perfectly— and plate glass has ac- 
complished what was intended. Centuries of toil, of failure and slow-won 
success, have brought forth this marvel, and those who have been priv- 
ileged to share in the work have warrant for their proper pride. 

[3] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 

These transparent sheets of gleaming crystal have grown, magically as 
a fabled Aladdin's tower, from hard white sand. And the actual wonder- 
worker performing the prodigy is a magician of our own time and 
country — the American plate glass factory. 

Once, when "all roads led to Rome," the road of glass was one of those, 
but today this is but one of the many roads that lead to America. It 
has been the good fortune of this richly endowed land to breed or nurture 
the creators of many things that have changed life conditions on the face 
of the globe. Among them is glass, and though to ancient Oriental races 
we yield the palm for discovering the secret of glass-making, and may 
concede the supremacy of ancient Venice in its field of vitric art, credit for 
the latest and most engrossing chapter in the Romance of Glass belongs 
by good right to America. 




[4] 



-T 




THE HISTORY OF GLASS 




N ALMOST all historical dis- 
cussion of glass there is to be 
noted a failure to distinguish 
clearly between two well- 
defined periods — the one ex- 
tending through many ages when men used 
glass chiefly for ornament and in art ; and the 
other more significant period when glass 
had come to be recognized as a utility capa- 
ble of changing radically the conditions 
of human life. Yet it was this transition 
from one epoch to the other that marked 
one of the mightiest stages in the progress 
of civilization. 

It is true that archaeologists believe, from 
discoveries in excavation, that thg early Ro- 
mans made some small use of slieets of glass 
for window purposes ; but such use may have 
been accidental or incidental, for it certainly 
was not extensive. It was not until the 
Fourth and Fifth Centuries that glass be- 
came really important in the minds of men as 
something to look through rather than to 
look at, and even for .a long time after th^t 
(an interval to be reckoned in centuries) 
men seem to have been singularly blind to 

[5] 



what this use of glass for windows might 
mean to the race. Perhaps the age-long idea 
of glass as merely decorative held them 
bound; in any case, the material was used 
only for glazing churches, and there, ob- 
viously, its value was not for vision, but 
merely for the admission of light. Houses 
of worship required only slight illumination, 
and the glass-maker of the period had no in- 
centive to strive for a high degree of trans- 
parency. We must follow history almost to 
the time of the discoyery of America befor-e 
we find Europe genuinely entering the "age 
of windows. % i 

The exact facts as to the discovery or in- 
vention of glass have been in dispute for 
centuries. The probability js_ that the dis- 
covery was accidental, although it may be 
that some ancient metallurgist came upon 
the process through studying the vitreous 
slag produced in smelting. Nearly all the 
oldest fragments of glass that have come 
down to the present time are colored, and 
the coloring matter appears to be metallic. 

The Roman naturalist Pliny's famous an- 
ecdote about the discovery of glass by Phoe- 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Before Glass Became Transparent 

The wealthy collectors of ancient Rome thought of glass as something to look at, not through. Their glass- 
workers produced beautiful objects, some of which we can see in our museums today, but their windows 
were merely openings in the wall, admitting wind as well as light. 



[6] 






THE HISTORY OF GLASS 

nician sailors does not seem to be supported Greeks, even in the height of their art-period, 

by convincing evidence; but we do know, did not devote themselves very seriously to 

from the indisputable testimony of ancient glass, and their activities are altogether un- 

wall-paintings and relics, that the Egyp- important compared with those of Rome in 

tians made glass many centuries before the its glass-making era. The influence of Greek 

Christian Era. Pictures found in the tombs decorative art is seen in much ancient Roman 

at Memphis and Beni Hassan show men in glass, but the Greeks seem to have left no 

the actual operation of bloMng glass. One impress on the art of making the glass itself, 

picture represents Egyptian glass-makers sit- Historians do not agree on the time when 

ting before an upright circular furnace one Rome became notable for glass-working, 

foot in diameter and about three feet high, The first Latin author who makes any ex- 

apparently taking out molten gkss through tended reference to vitric art is Cicero (106- 

a small hole at the bottom. - ^ - 43 B.C.), writing toward the end of the 

The Assyrians knew glass, and interesting pre-Christian Era, but there are those who 

specimens have been found in the ruijis of contend that Roman activity in glass-making 

Nineveh, but as with the Egyptians, its use began at least four centuries before Cicero's 

was confined to ornament. f, i Some of these day. Certain it is, however, that Rome's real 

ornaments are crude, while many, on the ascendancy in the craft came onl^with the 

other hand, are exquisite and justify our Empire of the Caesars. 

sincere admiration, for our own artists could The Romans carried glass to Asia through 

not produce more beautiful shapes and de- Byzantium, to Germany and France, and into 

signs. Still it is important that the reader England. Later, when the glass-makers, 

understand that this concededly high art with other artisans, were dispersed by the 

was merely the art of the craftsman in incursions of the barbaric hordes, they es- 

manipulating his material and fashioning it tablished the manufacture in many parts of 

wonderfully; the material itself was not good. Europe, and probably it was in such manner 

White glass as we have it (and by this term that Venice attained at so early a period to 

we mean a completely transparent glass that its commanding rank as first and foremost 

is practically colorless) was unknown to the of modern glass-making centers, 

early makers. The art of glass-making may have been 

When therefore we admire, as we must, carried to Venice as early as the Fifth Cen- 

the ancient embossed and moulded vases, tury, but there is no record of the Venetian 

the charming glass mosaics, the beads and industry, as such, earlier than 1090 a.d. 

imitation precious stones, and the many In the latter part of the Thirteenth Century 

graceful flagons, we admire the handiwork Venetian glass-making became localized 

of the artist, not the glass itself. The almost wholly on the suburban island of 

cheapest sheet of modern glass is purer, Murano, where, in the period of greatest 

more transparent, and altogether better than prosperity, the glass-houses extended for 

the best of the ancient material. The an unbroken mile and employed eight 

[7] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



thousand operatives. The manufacture was 
not carried on in large establishments, but 
by artisans working individually or with a 
few helpers, who were bound by oath and 
by law to secrecy. 

This system of small individual estab- 
lishments ruled throughout the glass-making 
world for a considerable time in the early 
Middle Ages. The master kept his methods 
to himself, or imparted them to only a 
chosen few who paid well for instruction. 
Servants or slaves did the manual labor, but 
were excluded from any opportunity of learn- 
ing. Generally the glass-house had only 
one pot, and each glass-maker made only one 
kind of glass. 

Although glass-making came to Venice, 
as has been noted, early in the Christian Era, 
this art, like all others, was depressed by the 
fall of Rome, the wide conquests of the bar- 
barians, and the Dark Ages that followed. 
It was not until many centuries later that 
the reawakening of knowledge and the ex- 
tension of commerce in the great cities of 
Italy and Germany brought back the spirit 
that had glorified ancient art. By the Six- 
teenth Century, Venice had reached its zenith 
in glass-making. During the Seventeenth 
Century, the craft began to decline. By the 
Eighteenth Century, Bohemia had attained 
pre-eminence, which it held until the inven- 
tion in England of the beautiful product ever 
since known as English flint glass. 

That chapter in the story of glass which 
deals with its use as ornament, or as material 
for beautiful utensils, belongs to the history 
of art. But the development of glass made 
clear for vision is part of the record of in- 
dustrial civilization. It is this latter epoch 



that marks the most marvelous advance in 
industry and commerce, in facilities for 
travel, in individual comfort and public san- 
itation, and in intellectual achievement. 
When glass began to shelter and protect 
man, instead of merely pleasing his beauty- 
loving eye, he was set free for undertakings 
and for accomplishment which until that 
moment were impossible. 

Passing over the scant record of attempts 
to use glass for windows in ancient Rome, it 
may be said with confidence that civilized 
Europe knew nothing of window glass as a 
real utility until within a comparatively re- 
cent period. In the early records of the 
present era, we find glazing mentioned only 
in the writings of priests and monks, and by 
them for an obvious reason: its use being 
restricted at the time to church windows. 
This early window glass was not blown, as 
now, but cast; that is, it was poured out, 
molten, on a stone or other flat surface, and 
then smoothed more or less crudely. Saint 
Jerome, in the Fourth Century, writes of 
sheets of glass so made. „ 

The great church at Treves, according to 
reasonably reliable accounts, was glazed 
about 420 a.d. A century later, Rome and 
Ravenna, we know, were proud of many 
churches in which glass protected the 
windows. The practice spread rapidly; 
during the same century the church of Saint 
Sophia at Constantinople was accounted 
one of the wonders of the East largely 
because of its many windows, set with glass 
panes as large as seven and eight inches wide 
by nine and ten inches in height ! 

In the Seventh Century, the Abbot Bene- 



dict sent to the Continent for artists to glaze 



[8] 



m 



THE HISTORY OF GLASS 

the historic church and monastery at Wear- which for centuries were the rule in more 
mouth, and about the same time a similar than one country of Europe. Thus poor 
improvement was made in York Cathedral, quality of glass, limited production, and 
But whereas at this period glazed edifices excessive cost all combined to deny our fore- 
were exceptional, and window glass for do- fathers the comforts and other advantages 
mestic use beyond the dreams of the com- the present generation enjoys, 
monalty, four hundred years later glazed About the time Columbus made his voy- 
windows, at least in churches of importance, ages of discovery, manufacturers had suc- 
had become the rule. ceeded in producing a reasonably good glass 

While the very early window-panes were at a cost not utterly prohibitive. Glass was 

of cast glass, as has been noted, the casting not cheap as cheapness was measured by 

method gradually passed, and was practi- prevailing incomes ; it was not made on a 

cally lost to knowledge until the French in large scale or in great quantities ; it was not 

the Seventeenth Century rediscovered it. good according to the standards of today. 

The old-time cast pane had given place, But production had reached a point where 

toward the end of the Eleventh Century, to glass had compelled recognition as a very 

a pane made from blown glass. Theophilus, necessary utility. 

a monk whose writings shed much light on The first colonists who undertook to make 
the arts and crafts of that period, has left a settlement in Virginia had been educated 
a description of glass-blowing methods that to the need for window glass, but the trans- 
are not greatly different from the simpler portation facilities of the time probably did 
processes of present-day hand manufacture, not encourage its carriage as ship's cargo, 
When Venice won its leadership in the in- for they brought with them ~ 'eight Poles and 
dustry, its blown-glass works became re- Germans to make pitch, tar, glass, and soap- 
nowned and its trade in blown window glass ashes." Somewhere in the Virginia forest, 
throughout Europe was considerable. When about a mile from Jamestown, a glass-house 
its own prestige declined, in the Seventeenth actually was erected. 

Century, Venetian workmen scattered over This would fix the date of the first glass- 
all parts of the Continent, and spread knowl- making in America at 1608 or 1609, and it 
edge of the craft. is not unlikely that this enterprise merits the 

After all these centuries of slow enlight- distinction of being the original manufactur- 

enment, the world was incredibly dull to ing industry in the English Colonies of 

realization of the supreme benefit within its America and hence, of the United States. 

grasp. Occasional sporadic efforts to extend Glass-making, however, even as an infant 

state aid to glass manufacture were negatived industry, did not long survive, for a lustier 

in turn by curious governmental obstruction, infant supplanted it. Tobacco-raising, about 

ranging from narrow-minded regulation to this time, came to engross the attention of 

discriminatory taxation. Even the use of the colonists to the apparent exclusion of 

glass for windows was penalized by imposts everything else, for in a report of 1617 the 

[9] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



"decay" of the glass-works is recorded. 
Nevertheless, only three or four years later 
interest in glass-making was reawakened, a 
new works was built, and Italian artisans 
were imported to man it. This second 
factory seems to have been established rather 
as a sort of mint than as a simple glass- 
works; for its purpose was to make glass 
beads, which then were acceptable as cur- 
rency amongst the Indians. 

This undertaking disappeared with the 
massacre of 1622, and from that time until 
the Revolution there was no further attempt 
at glass manufacture in Virginia. William 
Penn, in a letter dated 1683, mentions a 
"glass-house" in Pennsylvania, but nobody 
knows where it was or if it ever was oper- 
ated. Certainly glass was by no means 
plentiful in that Colony, for in 1689 a sin- 
cere though not inspired poet named Holme 
wrote thus quaintly: 

The window-glass is often here 
Exceeding scarce and very dear, 
So that some in this way do take 
Isinglass windows for to make. 

Massachusetts erected its first glass- 
works in Salem in 1639. The magnitude 
of the enterprise may be judged by the fact 
that in 1641 the General Court, which ap- 
pears to have been more than paternalistic, 
authorized the town to lend the proprietors 
thirty pounds, to be repaid under the elastic 
condition "if the work succeeded, when they 
were able." 

From the time of the Revolution, the at- 
tempts to found glass-working establish- 
ments were so numerous that any narrative 



would be merely a long statistical array, 
with little of cheerfulness, for practically 
all failed. For this there were many rea- 
sons: Although extensive glass-sand de- 
posits were to be found in America, with an 
adequate supply of other raw materials, 
there was a dearth of skilled workmen ; the 
comparatively few foreign-trained experts 
could not themselves man the works, and 
training American artisans in glass-working 
required time. The bad condition of the 
roads and the nature of the product made 
long-haul transportation costly, so that it 
was difficult to extend business beyond the 
immediate vicinity of the works. People 
had little money and therefore bought no 
more glass than was necessary. 

Serious as were these obstacles, they were 
insignificant as compared with the steady, 
relentless competition of foreign glass. 
Through all the records of the industry in 
America, from the Revolution almost to 
our own time, runs the dismal story of 
struggle between native and European pro- 
ducers. The foreign hold on our markets 
was strong and tenacious ; on occasion, when 
necessary, foreign-made glass was sold be- 
low cost in order to throttle competition. So 
it was, that although the American glass 
industry never succumbed completely, it 
waged so unequal a struggle that in 1883, 
only thirty-one years before the World War, 
the United States Census Bureau was com- 
pelled to report: "In undertaking the col- 
lection of returns it was discovered that no 
directory of the glass-works of the United 
States existed." 



[10] 






m^m 






THE MAKING OF PLATE GLASS 







The Outside of the Sand Mountain 



THE MAKING OF PLATE GLASS 



THE manufacture of plate glass is one 
of the highly modernized industries, 
effectively equipped with labor-saving 
machinery and apparatus for accurate proc- 
essing, and utilizing to the full the resources 
of chemistry and other sciences. The con- 
sequence is that polished plate glass of uni- 
formly high quality has become an article 
of such common daily use that the public 
accepts it as a matter of course. 

The making of perfect polished plate 
glass, however, remains one of the very dif- 
ficult arts. From the raw stuffs through all 
processes to the finished product, the mate- 
rial is extremely sensitive. Chemical prob- 
lems attend the melting of every batch. 
Produced in furious heat, the cast glass must 
support mighty cooling-stresses. If these 
are passed safely, many difficult mechanical 
manipulations are still to come. 

Therefore the processes demand such 
painstaking care that the production of the 

[ 



most modern plant, for all its great area and 
costly equipment, is astonishingly small. 
Thus the Ford City (Pennsylvania) plant 
of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, 
which extends for a mile along the Allegheny 
River and is equipped with machinery of 
the very highest type, still turns out less 
than three carloads of plate glass a day. 
Plate glass manufacture is, first and fore- 
most, a matter of quality, and all other con- 
siderations must take second place. 

One of the fundamental difficulties in 
glass-making is the fact that an essential 
'item of equipment, the "pot," or crucible for 
melting, requires years for its preparation 
and lasts only a few days in service. To 
understand glass-making it is therefore 
logical to begin with the making of this 
piece of equipment, for the glass industry 
must produce its own pots, owing to the care 
with which they must be treated and the 
long-term investments involved. The long 

13] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




S c 



[14] 






THE MAKING OF PLATE GLASS 







Pugging Machines Prepare the Clay 

The selected clay is weathered for a year or two in order to disintegrate it and to eliminate impurities; then it is ground, screened, 
mixed with other ingredients, and subjected to a thorough kneading (or "pugging") in the odd-looking machine in the picture. 

time required to produce a pot and its short and the space thus occupied is formidable. 
life involve carrying an immense stock. In These pots are made of certain selected 
large factories as many as 5000 pots, each kinds of clay. Each one is capable of melt- 
weighing 3000 pounds, are kept in storage, ing one and one-half tons of glass at one 




A Few of the 5000 Pots 

In a single large factory as many as 5000 of these 3000-pound pots are held for months in 

storage to dry and season. The storage space required is very great; 

likewise the investment necessary. 

[15] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




5 -. 









[16] 



THE MAKING OF PLATE GLASS 




How Pots are Taken from the Furnace 

Handling mechanism of great power and under absolute control is necessary to remove the pots from the furnace and 

convey them to the casting table. 

time and of supporting a sustained tempera- years before it is to be used. The clays, 

ture of from 2500 to 3000 degrees Fahren- after extraction from the mines, are exposed 

heit through nearly one day and one night. to the weather in order that they may dis- 

The work of making the pot begins three integrate and eliminate impurities. This 




The Dazzling Furnace Interior 

From twelve to twenty pots are placed in a furnace at one time and there, for hours, 
subjected to the terrific heat of from 2500 degrees to 3000 degrees Fahrenheit. Dur- 
ing this period the dry sandy batch becomes liquid glass. The costly pot can en- 
dure less than three weeks of such strenuous life. 

[17] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




THE MAKING OF PLATE GLASS 



may require a year or it may take two, ac- 
cording to conditions. Then the selected 
clay is ground, screened, mixed accurately 
with certain constituents, and kneaded 
("pugged" is what the pot-maker calls it) 
" a P u ggi n g mills of various types. 

After kneading, the clay must be stored 
again, to ripen, a process that often requires 
another six months. Then begins the slow 
work of forming it into a pot, which has to 
be done by hand. Hand-work is necessary 
because a slight defect, such as an air-cavity, 
would cause the pot to crack in the fur- 
nace, thus destroying its valuable contents. 
Therefore the pot-maker builds it up labori- 
ously, making rolls of clay with his hands 
and forming the great receptacle layer by 
layer, with infinite care. 

Even after it leaves the pot-maker's 
hands, the pot still is not an asset for im- 
mediate use. It must be stored for from 
six months to a year, in order to get final 
seasoning. When at last it reaches the 
"ready" stage, the pot is tested empty in a 
temperature approximating the glass-mak- 
ing heat. If it passes, it is filled with a 
batch. And then — its average active life is 
only twenty days ! 

In the terrific heat of the melting-furnace, 
which accommodates from twelve to twenty 
pots at a time, the fusing of the material so 
reduces its bulk that it becomes necessary 
to refill each pot three times, to insure a full 
pot of molten glass at the end. The ex- 
pression "2500 to 3000 degrees Fahren- 
heit" will give the non- technical reader little 
conception of the intense heat required to 
fuse these refractory materials. To know 
what that heat really is, one should see the 
big pots glowing incandescent in the fur- 
naces, each filled with almost blindingly 
luminous fluid. 

As the melting reaches its critical time, 
expert workers maintain close watch over 

[19 



the condition of each pot. With long iron 
testing-rods they draw out small quantities, 
so-called "gathers," as samples to show how 
the fusion progresses. Experience and 
quick decision are needed here, for at the 
exact moment of completed melting the 
heat must be reduced to prevent the forma- 
tion of gas bubbles and to lower the tem- 
perature of the pot to a point where it can 
be approached and manipulated. 

An electric crane now clasps the hot pot 
with a pair of mammoth tongs and lifts it 
through the door or "tuile" of the furnace. 
Workmen stand ready with long imple- 
ments to skim the top of the molten "metal," 
swiftly removing any slag or other impuri- 
ties, and another electric crane swings the 
pot over to the casting table, a great steel 
slab of two hundred tons' weight, thirty- 
two feet long by twenty wide. An ingenious 
device tilts the pot and pours its contents 
so that they flow over the full width of the 
table. This performance, which is known 
as "teeming," is of the utmost importance; 
it calls for skilled and careful operators, for 
an error at this stage, though slight, will 
affect seriously the quality of the glass. 

A steel roller weighing twenty-five tons 
advances and rolls the molten mass flat. 
The thickness of the resulting plate is de- 
termined by gauges, steel strips on which the 
roller runs at the desired height above the 
table. Both table and roller are water- 
cooled to prevent warping under the great 
heat, and when the roller has completed its 
work, the mass which only a moment before 
was a white-hot fluid lies on the steel surface 
a red-hot sheet of glass, in area about the 
size of the table and approximately half an 
inch in thickness. 

The glass by this time has cooled greatly 
from its original temperature, but still is 
intensely hot. This is a critical stage of the 
process, for if it were to remain only a few 

] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Where the Glass Becomes a Plate 

Here is shown the most picturesque and critical moment in the process of making plate glass. Above this great 
water-cooled steel table (20x32 feet) swings the pendent, glowing pot; here it is tilted so that the contents pour in a 
thick, dazzling flood across the table's width, and immediately the 25-ton steel roller moves forward, spreading out 

the molten mass before it as a cook rolls out dough. 



[20] 



THE MAKING OF PLATE GLASS 




The 800-Foot Lehr 

This is the lehr, or annealing oven; through its carefully grad- 
uated temperatures the plate now seen to be entering will be 
moved and slowly cooled. In spite of all precautions, many plates 
develop fractures in the cooling. 




■w * w-m w m v :a, m* 



Inspection at Mouth of Lehr 

As the slowly-moving sheets reach the far end of this long, low 

tunnel, workmen carefully crawl out and with portable lights 

search the surface for cracks, imbedded stones, or other flaws. 

Every defect is marked with chalk for the cutters. 



minutes in the temperature of the outer air, 
the sudden cooling would develop insup- 
portable stresses. The plate must proceed, 
therefore; without the slightest delay to an 
annealing oven the temperature of which 
approximates its own. 

This annealing oven, or "lehr" as it is 
known technically, is in effect a great tun- 



nel, some eight hundred feet long. An elec- 
trical installation carries the glass plate 
through it very slowly — so slowly that it 
requires five hours to traverse the eight 
hundred feet. During this slow progress 
the plate passes under gradually reduced 
temperatures, minutely controlled. There 
is hardly a moment during the five hours 




Rough Cutting to Eliminate Flaivs 

The cooled plates, with their rough edges and wavy surfaces, have now left the lehr and skilled 

workmen are cutting them down to get rid of the flaws marked by the inspectors. This greatly 

reduces the footage of finished glass, but is a necessary process. 

[21] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




THE MAKING OF PLATE GLASS 




The Warehouse for Rough Storage 

No wonder that the manufacture of plate glass calls for elbow-room! This immense building contains many acres of rough glass just as 

it comes from the cutting table. In its present condition it is available for floor lights, skylights, and similar purposes. When this 

product has passed through the operations of grinding and polishing, it becomes plate glass. 



when a crisis may not occur, for any irregu- 
larity in the cooling may, and frequently 
does, produce an internal stress sufficient to 
shatter an entire plate. 

When the plate reaches the end of the 
lehr, it has become cool enough to handle 
and has acquired the requisite toughness. 
The workmen who here receive it are 
trained in the business of examining for 
defects that might cause the plate to break 
in the operations that are to follow. Any 
such defects must be cut out, and a large 
plate may thus be reduced to various sizes 
of what is called "rough stock,7y which is the 
common rough plate of commerce and is 
used for glazing roofs, for floor lights, for 
covering areas in sidewalks, and for other 
purposes where light without transparency 
is required. Before rough glass can be 

[ 



transformed into clear polished plate glass, 
it must pass through the operations of grind- 
ing, smoothing, and polishing. ) 

I For the grinding operation the plates of 
rough glass are lifted by electric cranes and 
laid flat on huge circular steel tables covered 
with wet plaster of Paris that is to hold them 
firmly in place. Plates of various sizes are 
carefully fitted together, the large ones in 
the center and the smaller ones around 
them, till the table is coveredj The tables, 
which are on wheels, then are towed by 
motor-car to a place beneath the grinders. 

f The grinding machinery is ponderous and 
costly in proportion. The tables that sup- 
port the glass weigh seventy tons. The 
machines that rotate the tables cover an area 
of fifty square feet, measure more than fifty 
feet from base to top, and require motors of 

23] 






PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Moving the Tables to the Grinders 

After the glass has been set in the plaster the table thus covered is 

taken in tow by an electric transfer locomotive and conveyed 

to the grinders. 



The Grinders are Ponderous 

These mammoth disks slowly revolve upon the surface of the 

glass and with the aid of sand and emery gradually reduce the 

plate to perfect smoothness. 



five hundred horsepower to drive them. The 
massive iron-shod runners that revolve over 
the surface of the glass to grind it have an 
additional combined weight of one hundred 
and twenty-four thousand pounds. 

As the table begins to revolve, water and 
sand are fed under the runners, which are 
lowered slowly, almost imperceptibly, until 
at last their entire weight rests on the glass. 



Under this powerful abrasive action the sur- 
face is ground with absolute uniformity 
until all the irregularities in the rough glass 
have been worn away. 

As the process continues, finer sands are 
substituted for the first coarse grades, until 
the work reaches the point where the finest 
grade of sand has been used. Then a finer 
abrasive, emery, is employed. >l 







"Jointing" the Glass upon the Table 

One surface of the glass is now ground but not yet polished. In the meantime it is moved to 

the "jointing yard" where it is washed, examined, and carefully inspected. Broken plates 

are replaced and loose joints are re-cemented. 

[24] 






THE MAKING OF PLATE GLASS 




Grinding Emery 

In this room, rough emery is subjected to hours of steady grinding 

in order to reduce it to the degree of fineness and smoothness 

required for work on glass. 



Grading the Emery 

Water flows gently through these rows of tanks. The emery is 

introduced in the top tank and its heavier grains sink, while the 

finer grains are carried on to the tanks below. 



At this stage redoubled care is needed, 
for the work now has reached a point where 
the smooth surface is so far "processed" as 
to be readily liable to injury. Jt must pass 
through final stages of smoothing with emery 
of several degrees of fineness, which must 
be of the best attainable quality, and gradu- 
ated with extreme care. One single particle 
of coarse emery, if it became mixed with the 
finer grades, would destroy the smoothness 
of a whole tableful of glass. . Therefore the 
grinding and grading of emery, though very 
laborious, is one of the mo^t important opera- 
tions in a plate glass factory, in order to avoid 
scratches and imperfect polishing. ) 

(The completion of the grinding process 
has left the glass with a satin-like surface. 
Again the table-car is taken in tow by the 
transfer locomotive and is passed to the 
"jointing yard," where the glass is washed 
and examined minutely. Broken plates are 
replaced and loose joints re-cemented,^ after 
which the table with its fragile burden lis 
moved once more, this time to the polishing 
machine. In size and construction this 
mighty mechanism is similar to the grind- 
ing engine, but instead of iron shoes, it 

[ 



carries many buffing- disks of felt, each about 
eighteen inches in diameter} 

f Once more the table is set revolving, and 
as the felt disks are lowered to the surface 
of the glass, a red oxide of iron commonly 
known as rouge, finest of all abrasives, is 
feci under them in the form of a paste.) 
Under the slow rubbing of the revolving 
felts, the satiny surface of the roughly 
ground glass gradually takes on the brilliant 
polish of the finished product A This opera- 
tion of polishing, although thus simply 
described, is by no means the least difficult 
of the processes in plate glass manufacture.! 
(Close attention and unerring technical skill 
are required to control the operation, so that 
there shall be continuous progress, without 
accident, or even blemish in the work. 

\ When at last the polishing of one side is 
finished, the side that has been imbedded in 
plaster remains to be done. Again the table 
must resume its journey, therefore, going 
first to the "laying yard," where the plates 
are lifted from the plaster, turned, and re- 
laid; then to the grinders and smoothers; 
and finally to the polishers. When this 
finishing work is concluded, the table is 

25] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




[26] 



THE MAKING OF PLATE GLASS 




Where the Glass Receives its Polish 

Revolving felt-eovered disks, with the aid of red oxide of iron, or 
* 'rouge," give the glass its final polish. 

taken to the "stripping yard/' where the 
polished plates are loosened from their 
plaster bed for good and all. J 
( In releasing the plates from the plaster 
investment the utmost care is necessary. To 
avoid scratching or other accidental spoilage, 
the plates must be turned on edge, and in 
that position they are transferred to the 
wash-racks.,) 

Here a bath of muriatic acid removes all 
adhering plaster of Paris; careful washing 



The Process of "Stripping" 

The table on wheels having completed its journey, the plates must 
be released or "stripped" from the plaster bed. 

follows ; (then a painstaking examination for 
any defects that may have escaped the eyes 
of the inspectors during the operations of 
grinding, smoothing, and polishing. ) When 
the glass has passed these inspections it is a 
clear, polished plate ready for use — just 
such a sheet as may be seen in shop windows 
everywhere.) Its original thickness when it 
went to the grinding machines, about half 
an inch, has been reduced one-half by grind- 
ing and buffing, and the brilliant product 




The Final Cutting and Elimination of Defects 

In this strong light, inspectors search for defects that have es- 
caped previous examinations; then trimming and squaring give 
the glass plates their final form. 



Storing the Finished Plates 

Here, carefully set on edge, are racked the polished plates which 

have passed successfully the preceding operations and inspections 

and now are ready for shipment. 



[27] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



represents even a smaller proportion of the 
original quantity of raw material that went 
into the melting-pots. 

Of the original batch of material, about 
thirty per cent is volatilized and lost in 
gaseous form during melting. Almost fifty 
per cent of the rough plate is ground off and 
washed away in the finishing operations, 
while a loss of approximately twenty per cent 
is caused by breakage during machine opera- 
tions or by rejection, for various defects, in 
the final inspections. 

When the glass is delivered to the ware- 
room after having been cleansed of all 



plaster and dirt, it is scrutinized by cutters, 
men experienced in eliminating any small 
remaining defects. This elimination can be 
done only by cutting, which means the re- 
duction of a plate to smaller sizes. Areas 
that do not contain defects are shipped out 
to jobbers as stock sheets, or are reduced to 
sizes for which the factory has orders. 

The polished plates now have assumed 
their final form. From the examination 
frames and cutting tables they are conveyed 
by traveling crane to the packing room, 
where they are boxed and shipped to the 
markets of the world. 



■HHHHm 




Packing and Shipping 



[28] 



PLATE GLASS IN AMERICA 




PLATE GLASS IN AMERICA 



UNTIL comparatively recent times, the 
history of plate glass manufacture in 
America was a chronicle of just such 
failure and loss as attended the early efforts 
to make common glass. Every attempt to 
introduce the industry swallowed up all the 
money that was put into it. The first under- 
taking of any consequence was at Cheshire, 
Massachusetts, in 1850, but after having 
resort to many expedients, including the 
removal of the plant to Brooklyn, New York, 
the enterprise failed in 1856. 

Again hopeful men raised money and 
revived the undertaking at Lenox, Massa- 
chusetts, under the name of the National 
Plate Glass Company, only to meet with 
like disaster. Members of this organization 
then induced other men to join them, Theo- 
dore and James Roosevelt of New York 
City being among the number, and formed 
the Lenox Plate Glass Company in 1865. 
Costly equipment was installed, with much 
machinery from England, and decided im- 
provement in product was attained. Among 
other services the science of polishing was 
advanced greatly. After only six years, how- 

[31 



ever, this determined and energetic effort 
failed as had all that preceded it. 

Business men of New York, Boston, 
Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, Detroit, 
and Louisville had reason in this period of 
American development to rue connection 
with plate glass manufacturing enterprises, 
for the money invested and lost aggregated 
many millions. 

Up to 1880, not a piece of plate glass had 
been made in the United States without loss 
to the manufacturer; all money invested had 
vanished without result. 

But suddenly, in the early 'eighties, the 
situation showed a remarkable change. By 
1884, according to the statement made in 
that year at tariff hearings in Washington, 
the cost of plate glass to the American con- 
sumer approximated only one-half of what 
it had been before 1879. It was evident that 
the United States no longer need be help- 
lessly dependent on the glass-making science 
of Europe, for American workmen had been 
trained to produce plate glass of transpar- 
ency, clear color, and polish equal to any 
that had been imported. 

j 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



This bewildering industrial revolution 
had come to a business which only so re- 
cently as 1880 had employed altogether 
fewer than 1000 workmen. According to 
the census of that year, the plate glass estab- 
lishments of all America employed only 956 
hands and paid out in wages during ilze year 
only $292,253, with a total annual prod- 
uct of only 1,700,000 square feet, of which 
more than ten per cent was charged off as 
destroyed during manufacture. 

Contrasting these figures with the annual 
productive capacity of 48,000,000 square 
feet of high-quality plate glass now attained 
by the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, we 
have a graphic and impressive demonstra- 



tion of how, in these United States, in much 
less than the average lifetime, vast oppor- 
tunity has opened out before those with the 
vision and the energy to grasp it. 

Nor is it accidental that the comparison 
between the past and the present should 
have this Company for its central element: 
for it was the inception and development 
of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company that 
gave the impetus to native glass-making. 
Where forty years ago American manufac- 
turers could not make a single plate of glass 
in successful competition with foreign glass, 
today it is this American organization that 
stands as "the largest manufacturer of plate 
glass in the world." 






l-ZmmSUm 1 




f ' .m&J^ 




[32] 



BEGINNINGS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE PITTSBURGH 

PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



WHILE the struggling establish- 
ments in the United States, handi- 
capped by insufficient equipment, 
want of experienced labor, and inexpert 
technical management, still were making 
valiant but futile endeavor to produce plate 
glass in competition with the far more highly 
favored foreign manufacturer, an American 
prominent in Ohio River steam navigation, 
Captain John B. Ford, determined to enter 
the field. He had visited the existing 
American plants, had made study of Amer- 
ican methods, and had gathered detailed in- 
formation from such European workmen as 
he found employed in the United States. 

Fortified with all the knowledge avail- 
able, Mr. Ford induced a few men to join him 
and ordered from Europe the best machinery 
obtainable for grinding, smoothing, and 
polishing, those being the operations that 
had presented the greatest difficulties. 

Pending the arrival of this equipment, 
a factory was completed at New Albany, 
Indiana, and to that city belongs the dis- 
tinction of being the first in the United 
States where plate glass manufacture was 
carried on continuously and with any meas- 
ure of success. But this early and partial 
success was won only in face of many trials 
similar to those which had wrecked all 
previous undertakings. First of the calam- 
ities was a fire that completely destroyed the 
new works just as the imported machinery 
was beginning to arrive. Another factory 

[ 



was built at once, and the investors had the 
courage to erect it on a scale much larger 
than that of the first unlucky venture. Some 
success attended it; but, in the words of the 
Census Report of 1880, it "had to undergo 
the reverses that seem the fate of all plate 
glass houses in this country." 

Undiscouraged, Mr. Ford again gathered 
willing associates, foremost among whom 
was John Pitcairn, then an officer of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, and this group, 
under the name of the New York City Plate 
Glass Company, built a factory at Creighton, 
Pennsylvania. On this same site today 
stands "Works No. 1" of the Pittsburgh 
Plate Glass Company, to which style the 
New York City Plate Glass Company 
changed its corporate name in 1883. 

Difficulties were by no means at an end. 
Skilled glass-workers were so few that heroic 
efforts were required to increase the number 
to meet conditions of growth/ Delays in 
getting machinery were beyond all reason. 
Capital was almost unobtainable. But the 
leaders in the enterprise had grasped the 
fundamental principle that plate glass can- 
not be manufactured successfully on a small 
scale — that the very best technical knowl- 
edge available must have behind it the bold 
investment of large capital. 

Foreign competition continued to be seri- 
ous, and each solution of technical or busi- 
ness problems seemed to be followed by new 
ones more difficult; but by 1895 it appeared 
33] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



to Mr. Pitcairn and his associates that be- 
yond question plate glass manufacture as 
a native industry could be made to succeed. 
The old formidable problem of quality had 
been solved; American-made plate glass was 
equal to the imported article; and continu- 
ous improvement in process gave satisfactory 
assurance for the future. The problem of 
establishing the industry on a business basis 
equally secure had still to find its answer. 
The experience of the past, however, fore- 
shadowed the solution : economy of produc- 
tion was to be the secret of prosperity, and 
the only way to attain to this in the neces- 
sary degree was by that great fundamental 
economy which is involved in maximum 
quantity production. 

Here was a policy that once more called 
for large investment of capital. Factories 
at Ford City and Tarentum, Pennsylvania, 



already had been added to the original plant. 
The Company, by reorganizing and procur- 
ing an increase of capital stock to the total 
amount of $10,000,000, succeeded in ac- 
quiring additional plants at Charleroi, at 
Duquesne, and at Walton, Pennsylvania ; at 
Elwood and Kokomo, Indiana; and also at 
Crystal City, Missouri. 

With mastery of process secured, and 
highest standards of quality firmly grounded 
in its own native traditions; with every 
manufacturing cost reduced by quantity 
production to its lowest terms ; with a system 
of distribution approved by success and full 
of promise for steady growth in usefulness, 
the enterprise of making and marketing 
American plate glass, as exemplified in the 
development of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass 
Company, may be said to have reached its 
permanently successful period. 



[34] 




Ford City, Pennsylvania 

Stretching for a mile along the banks of the Allegheny River at Ford City, Pennsylvania, are the numerous buildings which constitute 

the largest plate glass plant in the world. 



THE PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY TODAY 



THE economies in the manufacture of plate 
glass introduced up to 1896 had so well 
proved their efficacy that it was logical to 
seek like economy in distributing the product. 
In that year, accordingly, the present great system 
of distribution had its beginning, with Ware- 
houses in seven cities: New York, Boston, 



Cincinnati, Detroit, St. Louis, Chicago, and 
Minneapolis. Today, forty-two Warehouses 
are maintained throughout the United States, 
in all of which expert service is available and 
large stocks are carried, for immediate delivery. 
These Warehouses have benefited both producer 
and consumer by assuring instant supply, and 




Crystal City, Missouri 
Another plant of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company devoted exclusively to the manufacture of plate gla 

[35] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Charleroi, Pennsylvania 
One of several plants of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company which make Carrara and heavy plate Black Glass. 



by eliminating long hauls have minimized break- 
age. They also have done much, by their wide 
representative activity, to educate the public to 
the almost infinite usefulness of glass. 

An almost unavoidable economic necessity, 
coincident with the institution of national dis- 
tributing centers, was an enlargement of the 
Company's field of glass production, which until 
then had been limited to polished plate glass. 

From time to time after this date, the Com- 
pany extended its scope, until today the glass 
products of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company 



comprise polished plate glass, bent glass, mir- 
rors, leaded glass, Carrara and Black Glass, and 
window glass. Other forms of glass, also, not 
manufactured by the Company, are handled by 
its Warehouses, giving them a complete line of 
glass, interior and exterior, for buildings. 

It became apparent at an early date that the 
building trade would gladly look to a unified 
source of supply for certain lines not related 
to glass as a manufacture, but, like glass, im- 
portant in building construction. Notable among 
these were paints, varnishes, and brushes, which 




Kokomo, Indiana 
This plate glass plant of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company is located not far from the center of population of the United States. 

[36] 



THE PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY TODAY 




Creighton, Pennsylvania 

Works No. 1 of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. Erected in 1883, the Creighton plant is the second plate glass plant 

established in the United States. 



for a long time had been sorely needed in stand- 
ardized, reliably uniform kinds and qualities. 
To insure steady, prompt supply, as well as 
dependable quality, the Company decided, in 
1900, to take over the business of the Patton 
Paint Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Shortly 
afterward it added the brush factory and busi- 
ness of Rennous, Kleinle & Company, Baltimore, 
Maryland. The welcome accorded these exten- 
sions of service necessitated rapid enlargement. 
A paint and varnish factory was established at 



Newark, New Jersey, to serve the Eastern United 
States and the export trade. Various other manu- 
facturing units were added, among them the Pit- 
cairn Varnish Company, Corona Chemical Com- 
pany, and the Red Wing Linseed Oil Company. 

These increases of business have compelled 
successive heavy increases in capital investment. 
In 1902, the capital stock was increased by cash 
subscription to $12,500,000. In 1906, cash was 
again obtained in a sum sufficient to brin^ the 
capitalization to $17,500,000. Four years later, 







Clarksburg. West Virginia 
One of the window glass plants of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. 

[37] 






PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Mount Vernon, Ohio 
Another plant of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company devoted exclusively to the manufacture of window glass. 



in 1910, the capital stock was increased, also 
by cash subscription, to $22,750,000, and, in 
1917, by stock dividend, to $25,000,000. 

On October 5, 1920, the stockholders unani- 
mously approved the Consolidation Agreement 
adopted by the Directors to bring under the one 
corporate name those companies theretofore sub- 
sidiary to, and now united with, the Pittsburgh 
Plate Glass Company. In this consolidation is 



included the Columbia Chemical Company, pro- 
ducing soda ash, caustic soda, calcium chloride, 
tanners' alkali, and lime fertilizer, some of which 
are used in glass-making. The plant is at Bar- 
berton, Ohio, and the limestone quarries near 
Zanesville, Ohio. This consolidation resulted 
in an increase of the Company's capital stock 
to $37,500,000, which later was increased to 
$50,000,000. 




Courcelles, Belgium 

This is the plant of an independent corporation, the capital stock of which is owned by 
the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. During the World War it suffered so severely 

that it has been rebuilt. 

[38] 



PLATE GLASS AND COMMON GLASS 



COMMON glass, by a strange inconsistency, 
usually is known by the trade term "win- 
dow glass." While common glass, as a 
matter of fact, is used in millions of windows, 
that is not its proper function. Common glass 
nevef should be employed, provided plate glass is 
obtainable, in any position where the glass is in- 
tended primarily for clear vision. 

Glass for windows, show cases, or similar use 
must be practically invisible in order that it may 
not interfere with the image that lies beyond; 
that is to say, it must be free from the bubbles, 
waves, and streaks generally found in common 
glass. Plate glass alone gives this freedom. 
The two kinds do not, in strict fact, compete one 
with the other. Just as there is a difference in 
price between steel and iron, and a sound eco- 
nomic reason for using steel for certain purposes 
and iron for others, irrespective of price, so 
there is an equally sound basis for choice be- 
tween plate. glass and common glass. 

Each of these two kinds of glass has its par- 
ticular usefulness for certain purposes. The 
buyer whose selection is influenced unduly by 
the matter of price, begins at the wrong end. 
Decision as to the kind of glass to be used must 
be made in the first instance according to its 
fitness for the purpose. 

There are many cases in which the use of com- 
mon glass is perfectly good economy; but it is 
not good economy to wrest it out of its broad 
and legitimate field by endeavoring to use it for 
a service which it cannot perform so well. 
Wherever the nature of a case indicates plate 
glass to be desirable, the buyer may feel, with 
full confidence, that it will be also the most 
economical. 

GLASS AND EYESIGHT 

Charles F. Prentice, President New York 
State Board of Examiners in Optometry 

A window-pane that is directed to the open and 
liable to be looked through should not contain stria- 
tions, bubbles, or other obstructions to the normal use 
of accommodation and its intimately associated, ever- 
shifting lines of binocular fixation. It is obvious that 
highly polished plate glass is the only glass possessing 
the essential properties to conserve vision. In short, 
that which most appeals to the eye is also best for it. 



George W. McFatrick, President Northern 
Illinois College of Ophthalmology 

A glass fulfilling this condition should be a clear, 
white glass having no striatums, bubbles, or strain in 
its make-up. It should have perfectly parallel sur- 
faces, and they must be ground and polished, per- 
fectly, so that each ray of light will pass through 
without being deflected from its proper course, exactly 
as if no glass were placed between eye and object. 

The cheaper flowed glass can in no way fulfill these 
conditions, as it is only by grinding and polishing its 
surfaces that this condition can be approached. Plate 
glass fulfills these conditions as no other glass can, 
and there is no question that the majority of people 
will demand its use when these facts are called to their 
attention, and they appreciate what a harmful effect 
imperfect glass will have upon their most precious 
possession, their eyes. 



I . J£ 



■ 



A Striking Contrast 

This wall show case, with common glass in the upper section 
and plate glass below, tells its own story. 



[39] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Dangerous Track or Common Glass? 

This view, as seen through the second window, appears to indicate a very dangerous condition of the tracks. However, the left- 
hand or plate glass window shows these same tracks lying smooth and even. It is evident, therefore, that a window of common glass 

is what causes the distorted image. 




Distorted Vision 

In this picture, the window marked "X" is open, but in the 
others common glass transmits a distorted image. 



True Outlines 

Here the same view is seen through plate glass. A little reflec- 
tion is noticeable, but no distortion of the view. 



[40] 



GLASS IN TYPICAL MODERN BUILDINGS 

Examples of The Unlimited Uses of Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company 

Products for Both Utility and Beauty as Illustrated by the 

Famous Woolworth and Equitable Buildings in New York 



TALLEST of the world's inhabited struc- 
tures, the Woolworth Building in New York 
City, lifting its cathedral beauty seven hun- 
dred and ninety-two feet in air, faces all the 
winds. Its observation gallery is a lone peak. 
No rampart, natural or artificial, is near enough 
or high enough to wall off the storms. At its base 
are the sea, mother of tempests, and the Hudson 
river valley, highway for northern gales. 

As one looks down the dizzy precipices of its 
sculptured sides they seem aerial in grace; but 
behind that dainty garb of marble, carved lime- 
stone, and moulded terra cotta, is a massive 
chording of steel beams, plates, struts, braces, 
flanges, and diagonals that defy the storms. 

"The huge height and the wind-load," says 
one of its builders, "developed enormous stresses 
and necessitated the use of huge columns and 
mighty girders." 

The Woolworth was indeed built for enormous 
"wind-loads." Yet the immense structure is 
pierced from base to summit with apertures that 
seem innumerable, where there is neither steel 
nor stone, but only a thin, transparent material. 
There are five thousand such apertures — five 
thousand great windows of plate glass, each 
with two panes, thus making ten thousand 
"lights" that must withstand the same winds that 
beat against the walls. 

A theorist (especially if familiar with the 
blasts that volley through New York's canyons) 
might logically imagine a stupendous annual 
breakage. He will acquire unexpected infor- 
mation if he seeks out the man who knows all 
about the complex edifice from its nethermost 
caisson, one hundred and ten feet underground, 
to its summit, which is exactly one inch higher 
than the figure already mentioned. This is 
what Edward A. Cochran, superintendent of the 
great pile, says about the annual breakage of 
exterior plate glass lights. 



"Our replacements do not amount, all told, to 
two dozen lights a year. The breakage is prac- 
tically all above the sixth floor. This figure is 
for all exterior lights, including our great ex- 
panse of store-front windows, most of which are 
of bent plate glass" 

Even in the old days of buildings that mod- 
estly hugged the earth, the architects of such 
cities as New York and Chicago had to give some 
consideration to wind-pressures; but they dealt 
with mere zephyrs compared with what men had 
to face when they began to rear their cities into 
the air instead of spreading them over the 
earth's surface. The architects of New York's 
mammoth structures figure on pressures that 
are titanic; they build against winds of eighty 
and one hundred miles an hour. Yet fully a 
quarter, and probably a third, of these precipi- 
tous surfaces is glass. And it serves. 

largest office building in the world 

Not far distant from the Woolworth, and loom- 
ing high among the skyscrapers which form 
the picturesque sky-line of lower Manhattan, 
is the great office structure of the Equitable 
Life Assurance Society of the United States. The 
largest office building in the world, noble in its 
mere bulk as in its architectural beauty, its forty 
stories contain one and one-quarter million 
square feet of rentable floor-space. 

Of the vast wall-area of the Equitable Build- 
ing, one-third is Pittsburgh plate glass. There are 
5700 windows, all polished plate glass, set and 
hung in balanced metal sashes. With such 
proportions of glass in modem buildings, it is 
easy to understand the importance of using the 
kind of glass that, besides its value for practical 
utility, is supreme in beauty, and thus plays per- 
fectly its part in combination with the costly 
marbles and terra cottas that enter so largely 
into these structures. 



[41] 









PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




A Tower of Light 

The Woolworth Building, the tallest inhabited structure in the world, rears its majestic height almost eight 
hundred feet above Broadway— a sight never more impressive than when at night the light shines from its 

myriad windows of Pittsburgh plate glass. 



[42] 



GLASS IN TYPICAL MODERN BUILDINGS 



Not to be content with the fullest admission of 
daylight through exterior windows, the builder 
of today knows that it is essential that every ray 
of this natural light deliver utmost service 
throughout the interior. Light is the one natural 
gift which, after being used and used again, still 
passes on, undiminished in value, to other uses. 
All that it requires is unimpeded passage. 

So the delightful in- 
teriors of such build- 
ings as the Woolworth 
and Equitable, no less 
than their outer win- 
dows, are supplied 
with glass in vast 
amount; and the beau- 
ties of pattern that 
glass permits give it 
genuine part in the 
decorative scheme. 

The entrance to the 
thousands of offices in 
the Equitable Building, 
for example, are prac- 
tically of solid glass. 
The 2500 high office 
doors are all of Pitts- 
burgh Plate Glass Com- 
pany chipped plate 
glass, each door con- 
sisting of only a steel 
frame with a great 
piece of this lustrous 
glass set in, unbroken 
by sash or other dis- 
turbing element. Per- 
fect for the transmis- 
sion of light to interior 
rooms and corridors, 
and still giving complete privacy, this beautiful 
plate glass serves as nothing else could. 

Without such glass, dark or dim corridors in 
the modern office building would impose a con- 
tinual expense for artificial illumination. This 
entirely obviated by the simple method of 



for transmission of light. Its superior qualities 
of hardness, light-reflection, lustre, and cleanli- 
ness give it unique serviceability as structural 
material pure and simple. Thus in the Wool- 
worth Building, on which was lavished every art 
that adorns, glass was a main reliance for bril- 
liancy in decoration. As Cass Gilbert, the 
architect, said on its completion: "The wise 

liberality of the owner 
provided that the struc- 
ture should be enriched 
and beautified so as 
to give pleasure to the 
millions of people who 
will see it." 

As in building the 
great ecclesiastical edi- 
fices of olden days, all 
the crafts were called 
in — mural painters, 
sculptors, modelers, 
carvers, gilders, work- 
ers in copper and iron. 
It is, indeed, a merited 
tribute to glass that in 
this unhampered quest 
of the beautiful, glass 
was not merely a ma- 
terial selected here and 
there or by chance, but 
that all the arts and 
crafts found it abso- 
lutely essential. The 
whole design of the fine 
Gothic entrance of the 
Woolworth on Broad- 
way rests on the use of 
glass. The glory of 
the dome ceiling in the 
arcade, so noble in color and design that it 
rivals the best mosaic work in Europe's famous 
churches, is due to glass — to two and one-half 
million separate "tesserae" or bits of stained 
glass, that make a radiance of color as if precious 
jewels thickly set were sparkling overhead. One 




The Equitable Building has 5700 Windows 



is entirely ooviatea ny tne simple memoa 01 jeweis iinc^iy sei wcic spending uvemcau. ^nc 
"borrowing" the daylight that streams through cannot go anywhere, from the basements to the 



the exterior windows, and by means of glass 
doors, glass partitions, and interior wall win- 
dows, letting it pass on to continue its service in 
the halls and corridors beyond. 

In all these architectural triumphs, glass is 
not restricted to locations where it serves simply 



sixtieth story, without finding glass in some 
form, charming the eye while it renders its use- 
ful service. 

Even in such utilitarian parts of the building 
as the lavatories, glass of various kinds enabled 
the builders and embellishers to maintain the 



[43] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



same high standard of dignity and elegance 
that distinguishes more pretentious features of 
the building. Here is employed a form of glass 
which, as purely a structural material, has come 
into wide use, in modern office buildings and 
other structures, as paneling for the walls of 
rooms and corridors — the Pittsburgh Plate Glass 
Company's famous product, Carrara Glass. 
Beauty, sanitation, permanence of surface finish, 
and economy of maintenance were the considera- 
tions that led to the selection of Carrara Glass 
for the lavatories of the Woolworth Building 
after an exhaustive study of all other materials. 

MODERN LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS 

Since it is out of the question, from consider- 
ations of privacy, to rely upon exterior lighting 
for lavatories and toilet rooms, modern archi- 
tectural design seeks first of all maximum bright- 
ness. All surfaces must be white, to reflect the 
light. In addition, the white surface must be 
impervious; it must not absorb moisture; and it 
should have a surface that will not be subject to 
accidental or deliberate defacement. Most pol- 
ished white mineral surfaces, such as marble, 
fall short in these particulars and require peri- 
odic refinishing. 

Carrara Glass alone meets all requirements. 
Hard, burnished, permanently white, bright, un- 
stainable, defying malicious injury with lead 
pencils or fluid, it has the richness of costly 
marble. The Woolworth Building management, 
in describing in a publication the spacious toilet 
rooms on practically every floor of the building, 
says: "The walls of these rooms are lined with 
white Carrara Glass, the sanitary and most at- 
tractive wall decoration known for this purpose." 
All the walls are lined to a height of eight feet 
with this material, which after years of service 
exhibits the same brilliant appearance as in the 
beginning, unmarred, undefaced, and unstained. 
There has been no slightest deterioration, and the 
ease with which it is kept clean has made Carrara 
Glass one of the great permanent economies. 

Carrara Glass is used for wainscoting and par- 
titions in one hundred and eighteen rooms in the 
Woolworth Building, as follows: ninety- five toi- 
let rooms, thirteen janitors' closets, the barber 
shop, and nine miscellaneous rooms. Approxi- 
mately 53,000 square feet of Carrara Glass was 
used in the building, of which 38,000 square feet 



was three-quarters-inch thickness, polished one 
side (for wainscoting), and 15,000 square feet 
one- inch stock, polished both sides (for parti- 
tions) . There are about 750,000 lineal inches of 
ground edges, 50,000 lineal inches of polished 
edges, and 10,000 drilled holes. Eighteen 
freight cars were required to transport the glass 
from the factory. 

The immense ground-floor corridors of such 
buildings as those under consideration are to 
all intents and purposes public thoroughfares. 
Equitable Building records show that more than 
125,000 people pass through its many entrances 
daily. The general practice in such buildings 
is to make these corridors bazaar streets. In the 
ground-floor passageways of many large build- 
ings the visitor finds himself in aisles of plate 
glass, which are the show windows of shops that 
thus front on an arcade instead of on the public 
street. On the street frontage, likewise, plate 
glass store fronts are the rule. The show win- 
dows which form the lower frontage of the Wool- 
worth Building are designed with plate glass bent 
to curves, giving an effect in strict harmony with 
the general architectural scheme. 

SOLID PANELS OF MIRRORS 

Within these shops, in like manner, recourse 
is had to plate glass, for brightness and cleanli- 
ness, and to show merchandise to best advantage. 
For counters and table tops, for show cases and 
display wardrobes, nothing but plate glass will 
serve, while plate glass mirrors set in handsome 
patterns as paneling along the walls complete the 
picture of elegance. 

In the great barber shop in the basement of 
the Equitable Building, the walls are predomi- 
nantly of mirrors, and the partitions, wholly com- 
posed of plate glass mirrors, mitered and bev- 
eled, contribute a strikingly ornamental effect. 
The various desks and tables have spotless white 
Carrara Glass tops. 

In the Woolworth Building barber shop a 
similar* solid paneling of mirrors forms the four 
hundred feet of walls. In the Turkish bath and 
swimming pool adjoining, plate glass encloses 
the hot-room and steam-room, so that they are in 
effect transparent cases, through which attendants 
may keep occupants under careful observation. 

Somewhere in the archives of the Equitable 
and Woolworth buildings are statistics as to the 



[44] 



GLASS IN TYPICAL MODERN BUILDINGS 



number of individual plate glass mirrors that are 
structural parts of the buildings — over wash- 
stands in offices, in lavatories, and in spots where 
they serve as decoration or for lighting effects 
multiplied by reflection. No one ever has taken 
time to compute just what area they would cover 
if all were put together; but one statistician has 
calculated that the beveled plate glass in the mail- 
chutes of the Equitable and Woolworth buildings, 
if the'panels were laid end to end, would extend 
much more than a mile; while another patient 
mathematician says the glass of all kinds in the 
Woolworth Building would make a generous can- 
opy over Madison Square, New York's famous 
open place that occupies more than four city 
blocks. Nor is that all: the tenants of the offices 
have added their quota of plate glass in desk tops, 
book cases, and the like; the various offices of the 
Equitable Life Assurance Society alone would 
furnish impressive figures; the great banking 
institution that occupies the lower floors of the 
Woolworth Building has writing-shelves, deal- 
plates, and other tablets of heavy plate glass 
wherever one turns; and in the rooms occupied 
by the administrative and executive staffs of the 



building, every office desk has its plate glass top. 
Throughout the remainder of the building no 
fewer than 3000 private desks are so equipped. 

GLASS ENDURES HARDEST WEAR 

A significant fact that develops in any study 
of great office buildings is this: that the parts 
subjected to the most incessant and indeed the 
hardest wear are wholly or mainly of glass. 
Thus, we find that sixty-three elevators in the 
Equitable Building and twenty-nine in the Wool- 
worth, operated on a headway calculated in 
seconds, have their doors glazed with polished 
wire glass. So with office partitions, which, with 
their constantly swinging doors, have to endure 
the hardest kind of usage: these nowadays are 
built in by the management of each building for 
its tenants, and in practically all modern struc- 
tures such partitions are of steel, with chipped, 
sandblasted, or other obscure or patterned glass 
set in to give privacy while conserving light. 

In both these buildings polished plate glass, 
as well as the chipped, is much used for this in- 
terior service. In the Equitable Building there 
are in all about 25,000 feet of partitions. 




For Private Offices 

Plate glass partitions are now widely used for dividing large spaces into individual offices. Thus 
privacy is assured in each office while natural light is carried to the interior rooms and halls. 

[45] 




The Beauty of a Plate Glass Window 
Plate glass has many beauties. Sometimes, because of its mirror-like surface, it brings the charm of a reflected landscape into 
the wall m which it is set; and always, as one looks out from within, it shows the landscape as a picture in a frame. The charmW 
photograph reproduced herewith is that of a library window in the Theology Building of Emorv University, Atlanta, Georgia 
By an interesting coincidence both the reflected and transmitted views are shown in the one picture and each is remarkably 
clear. Common glass used here would have distorted these images and disfigured a beautiful building 




The Private Conservatory 

For the purposes here shown there is no", satisfactory substitute for polished plate glass. < This illustration shows how bent plate 

glass may be used to give added beauty and distinction. 



ADVANTAGES OF PLATE GLASS IN BUILDING 



IN THE Woolworth and Equitable building 
examples just cited, the special structural 
values of plate glass — its beauty, clarity, 
durability, adaptability, resistance to wind, 
sanitary quality, and the variety of surface pat- 
terns available — are set forth. These qualities 
have led architects to specify plate glass more 
and more freely,, so that today it is employed 
frequently in place of such materials as wood, 
plaster and metals, with little expense for re- 
placement and practically none for upkeep. 

Beauty, in a structure large or small, is a 
very substantial consideration in the appraisal 
of value. Architects and builders very gener- 
ally recognize this, and for great industrial and 
office buildings are using plate glass to an 
extent undreamed-of a few years ago. Home- 
builders as a class, however, are far from real- 
izing as they should how much brighter, more 
comfortable, more sanitary, and more beautiful 
in outward appearance their dwellings may be 
made by judicious use of plate glass. 



The average man building a residence is quite 
certain to specify minutely the wood for floors 
and trim, the heating and lighting fixtures, and 
even the hardware for doors, windows, and cup- 
boards. But when it comes to the glass through 
which, twelve months in every year, he is to get 
his view out-of-doors, he takes that for granted. 
Yet the dwelling that is glazed with plate is im- 
mediately enhanced in value. It is better to live 
in and easier to sell. Not only are plate glass 
windows a comfort to the occupants, but for the 
very reason that they are a somewhat unusual 
refinement, they give character and tone to a 
residence, conveying the impression that all its 
appointments must be of like elegance. 

This superior value is attained with astonish- 
ingly small difference in cost, as between com- 
mon window glass and plate glass. In the case 
of dwellings ranging in cost complete from 
$2,500 to $10,000, the outlay for plate glass 
windows would represent only from $30 to $150 
more than for common window glass. Plate 



[47] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 







The Appropriateness of Plate Glass 

It is impossible to imagine the owner of such a residence as this permitting the use of anything but plate glass in its windows. 
disfigure its beauty with panes of common glass would be an offense against comfort and good taste. ' 



To 




Glass-Enclosed Porte-Cochere 

The canopy that protects from rain gains in beauty by the 

use of obscure glass, while the crystal clearness of the plate 

glass walls enclosing the entrance is one of the most attractive 

features of the house. 



glass is used almost exclusively in England, and 
as a matter of economy, in workingmen's cot- 
tages and in even the smallest homes. 

Thus the showing, even on the straight com- 
parison of mere cost, is altogether favorable 
to plate. But a further advantage makes the 
actual money difference still less. This is its 
durability. Plate glass windows are stronger. 
They withstand shocks, impacts, and sudden wind 
pressures that would shatter a weaker* glass. 
Another weighty advantage involved by the gen- 
eral use of plate glass in large buildings in our 
cities is the security of pedestrians. The risk 
of injury by falling glass has been largely 
eliminated. 

All glass, whether common window or plate, 
is of course non-inflammable and to that extent 
in many ways a safeguard against fire. But 
plate glass is more than simply non-inflammable: 
it is fire-resistant. Heavy plate, set in metal 
framing, has been found, by actual practical 



[48] 



ADVANTAGES OF PLATE GLASS IN BUILDING 




Daylight Illumination 

Plate gkg , clearj or obscure, solves many problems of interior lighting in large buildings. In this sectional view of the Union Arcade 

b& d °T V t% 0ffiC f, are almos V wh ° lly ° f P ]ate S Iass > P-ncipally of the chipped or sand 

blasted varieties, thus admitting daylight from the exterior but insuring complete privacy to the office tenants. 




The Sun Parlor 

In no room of the home is it more important that plate glass be used for glazing. Claritv, 
strength, and beauty are the essential qualities required in glass for such purposes. 

[49] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



% 




ijj 



o 




Serving a Double Purpose 

These pictures strikingly illustrate how an ingenious architect solved a difficult problem by the use of plate glass. The long corridors 

of the Missouri State Capitol building are lighted by means of artistic plate glass windows in the upper walls of the adjoining rooms. 

Thus the glass is made to serve the twofold function of beauty and utility. 

experience, to be far more of a fire-resistant than 
most persons would suppose. Thus from the 
viewpoint of fire-hazard alone the glass partition 
or wall has every advantage over wood. Besides 
being ornamental and conserving light, it will 
not burn. In competition with strictly fire-proof 
materials plate glass may well be used where 
the importance of light outweighs a minor fire- 
hazard. e 

Some form of plate glass will be found to 
adapt itself to any glazing purpose, interior or 
exterior, and in harmony with any scheme of 
trim. For partitions and other interior construc- 
tion where angles are undesirable, the Pittsburgh 
Plate Glass Company makes bent glass that 
lends itself to practically any conceivable- de- 
sign. It is made in many degrees of curvature 
and imparts an elegance that can hardly be 
obtained in any other material or with equal 
economy. 

So great is *he versatility of plate glass that 
architects and decorators are constantly working 
out new adaptations, some based upon the 

[50] 




ADVANTAGES OF PLATE GLASS IN BUILDING 




The Modern Bank 

Plate glass, leaded for decorative windows, polished and beveled for doors and tellers' windows, polished and rounded for tellers' 

deal-plates, wall-desks, and stationery partitions, falls naturally into place in the modern bank interior, where 

severe elegance is a requisite, and orderliness is the "first law." 

thought of decorative beauty and some upon it is desirable to break wall space in a decora- 

strictly structural or sanitary considerations. tive way, without hanging pictures. The ever- 

Windows which look out upon scenery are changing view through the window-panes in 

being called more and more into play where itself is a picture beyond the skill of any artist. 




Bank Partitions 

Many beautiful and artistic effects are secured in bank interiors through the combination 
of clear or obscure plate glass and ornamental metal work. 

[51] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




An All-Plate-Glass-Front Building: The Hallidie Building in San Francisco, California 

Any discussion of the importance of glazing with plate glass would be incomplete without mention of the triumph of an all-plate- 
glass-front building, which secures maximum interior illumination by eliminating, so far as possible, every obstruction to the free 
entrance of daylight. The illustration shows how the Hallidie Building, recently constructed in San Francisco, in its street elevation 
has practically a one hundred per cent glazed surface. 

The chief elements embodied in the design are the structural details and the architectural treatment of the elevation. The construc- 
tion, which was relatively simple, has been accomplished as shown in the plans below. The center lines of the columns and the 
spandrel girders are located 3 feet 3 inches inside the building line, and the skeleton of the structure is entirely free from the front 
wall. At the floors, the spandrel girders extend % feet 2 inches above the floor line. The connection between stories is cuUoff by a 
thin concrete slab which extends from the girders to the building line. In order to secure proper ventilation and permit washing of the 
glass, the sash of the all-metal framework is side-pivoted. The treatment of the fire-escape is novel, giving to the elevation the 
effect of flanking pavilions. 



_ 


III* "IIP *J^ 


• 






1 


.—4 ' 


, II 



Elevation 




3--S-- 



BUILDING tltiE - 




' 1 ■ W 



Section 



•NDOW L£DG£ 

GIQDCQ S~£T IN 

FfiOM BUILDING 

UNI 



MIRRORS 







The First "Moving Pictures" 

Long before the day of the cinema, millions of mirrors were showing the lifelike moving images of all that passed 
before them. The subject of this view without doubt is well aware that the mirror will hold a beautiful picture 

so long as she stands before it. 




A SHORT HISTORY OF THE MIRROR 



BEAUTY never has been without her mirror. 
Nature gave the first woman crystalline 
pools from which her reflection smiled at 
her. With man's first mastery of materials, a 
way was found to polish stones and metals 
sufficiently to produce a reflection. Long before 
the glass mirror was made, there were mirrors 
of burnished steel and silver. Never would the 
Queen of Sheba, Helen of Troy, or Cleopatra 
have been content to know only from the lips of 
their admirers how dazzling were their charms. 

The Greeks and Romans of the Middle Ages 
apparently knew the means by which glass might 
be made to reflect perfect images; but though 
Aristotle wrote that "while metal or stone must 
be polished to serve, glass or crystal must needs 
be lined with metal to cast back an image," they 
probably were content with their metal make- 
shifts, for we can find no record that they made 
any others. Early glass was not, in fact, suffi- 
ciently transparent for use in mirrors. 

Indeed it was not until about the Eleventh 
Century that glass mirrors were produced. The 
Venetians, naturally, figure prominently in this 
early manufacture, for they were leaders in the 
art of making all kinds of glass. But they were 
not the only possessors of the knowledge of mir- 
ror-making. The archives contain a petition by 
three Venetians, about 1300, seeking permission 
to sell certain materials which they had on hand 
because a German mirror-maker had broken his 
agreement with them. 

In 1507, Andrea and Domenico del Gallo ob- 
tained a twenty years 9 privilege as the sole 



makers of mirrors in Venice, asserting that they 
possessed a secret then known only in one Ger- 
man works. No specimen of their craft is 
known to exist but every collector dreams of 
finding one; for, strange as it may seem in the 
case of so fragile an object, some mirrors have 
survived through the centuries, and a few in al- 
most their full original beauty. Indeed, a good 
mirror, whether of the past or of today, is one 
of the very enduring articles. In this respect, 
America may properly be proud of its mirror- 
making prestige, for, barring accident, an Ameri- 
can plate glass mirror may remain unimpaired 
in beauty and usefulness for generations. 

About 1560, a guild of mirror-makers was 
formed in the city of Venice. So highly was the 
art esteemed, that its practitioners often were 
knighted, and many were carried into the higher 
nobility. From this it is seen that the mirror- 
maker was regarded not as a mere workman but 
as a creative artist of high rank. 

Venice practically monopolized the field until 
the latter years of the Sixteenth Century. From 
that time on, the literature and records of many 
countries show references to the widening indus- 
try. In 1664, Sir Robert Mansell, of London, 
wrote about making, grinding, and foiling. The 
last-named process, so pre-eminently important, 
had been greatly improved by that time. 

The original method had been that of apply- 
ing a thin sheet of tin amalgam to the glass. 
This marked an immediate and striking improve- 
ment upon the polished steel or silver mirror, 
but it was far from giving the wonderful reflec- 



[55] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



tion of our modern mirrors. Venetian workers 
originated a method of attaching reflecting foil 
to the glass by means of an amalgam of mercury. 
This gave the mirror a back practically inde- 
structible, but the method has been superseded 
by the present form of mirror, as mercury is 
far too expensive in this day of widespread de- 
mand for mirrors. 

The mirror as we know it is, as a matter of 
fact, a genuinely modern development. It was 
about 1865 when the chemical method of deposit- 
ing a coating of silver on glass was discovered. 
This remains the basic process for present-day 
mirror-making, but it has been progressively im- 
proved and it seems safe to predict that while fur- 
ther technical modifications may be made, they 
will be merely in the line of manufacturing meth- 
od; in so far as concerns the production of mirror 
quality, the process is eminently satisfactory. 



The French are entitled to the honor of hav- 
ing discovered this method, and for many years 
they had the unquestioned monopoly of fine mir- 
ror-making. A "French plate" mirror was the 
only kind that a person of any consequence 
would think of owning. Even after plate glass 
manufacture had struggled to the position of 
an assured American industry, France still re- 
mained pre-eminent in this field. But in recent 
years, as a direct result of the ascendancy of 
American plate glass, the United States has won 
supremacy in the mirror-making field also. To- 
day this country is acknowledged to be the pro- 
ducer of the finest mirrors in the world, as to 
the quality of both glass and silvering. 

It is a source of deep satisfaction to the Pitts- 
burgh Plate Glass Company that its long battle 
for the plate glass industry has included among 
the fruits of success this signal achievement. 



THE MAKING OF PLATE GLASS MIRRORS 



AN ARTICLE in another part of this volume, 
. describing the methods of grading plate 
glass, explains that all plate glass turned out by 
an efficient organization is manufactured by the 
same process and that the differences in grade 
are established by critical selection after the 
glass is finished in the works. 

The plate glass selected for mirror-making 
("silvering quality," in technical language) must 
be of the very highest grade in surface and 
structure, because the silvered back accentuates 
every defect almost as if it had magnifying 
power. 

Only very limited areas in any given sheet of 
glass are selected by the Pittsburgh Plate Glass 
Company experts as being of the quality de- 
manded by the mirror department. An uncom- 
promisingly high standard in this regard, and 
undeviating adherence to it, decide the quality 
of mirrors. It is true that such rigid selection 
makes necessary a considerable amount of wast- 
age through cutting out rejected portions; but 
the processes of mirror-making are elaborate, 
and it is sound economy to use, from the outset, 
only the finest material for the work. 

The first process in making the mirror is the 
beveling of the edges, if it is to be beveled. 



After beveling comes the process of silvering. 
This cannot be done until the glass has been 
put through a most radical process of cleaning, 
among other things passing under machines for 
the removal of dirt and scratches. 

The formula for the silvering solution is 
almost uniform throughout the world, but the 
application of the principle presents innumer- 
able details of technique, manufacturing system, 
and resource. Shop management, equipment, 
the experience and skill of the workers, and many 
other practical, everyday considerations deter- 
mine the quality of the mirrors that are turned 
out by any establishment. 

No glass can be silvered satisfactorily if it is 
dirty; but the definition of "dirt" may and. does 
vary as widely as the term can be stretched. 
While in many industries a washing with ordi- 
nary water might be considered an ample cleans- 
ing, plate glass that is to be prepared properly 
for silvering must be washed with distilled water. 
The Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company's definition 
of a clean glass surface is one that is chemically 
clean. The distinction is important, for the sil- 
vering process is a chemical process and not 
simply mechanical. The ingredients are sensi- 
tive and give good results under none but the 



[56] 



THE MAKING OF PLATE GLASS MIRRORS 




The Mirror Receives Its Silvering 

Someone has likened the pouring of the silver solution upon the 

sheet of plate glass destined for mirror-making to the pouring of 

pancake batter upon a griddle. 

most favorable circumstances. From the mo- 
ment of cleansing, the washed plate must be 
protected scrupulously from any fresh soiling — 
even so much as a little dust. The mirror-maker 
who intends to maintain uniformly his standard 
of excellence must provide a silvering room 
that is dust-free. The washed plate is brought 
into such a room and placed on a blanketed table 
equipped with devices for warming the plate to 
a uniform temperature of from 90 to 100 degrees 
Fahrenheit. 

When the workers have assured themselves 
that the plate is in every way ready, a solution of 
nitrate of silver is poured carefully over it. A 
reagent, added to the solution before pouring, 
begins to operate in a few minutes and precipi- 
tates the silver on the glass, leaving the liquid on 
top, where it serves to exclude air from the silver, 
thus preventing its oxidation. 

When the precipitation is complete, the plate 
is dried. A preservative coating of shellac is 
spread over the silver and over that is painted a 
weatherproof coat of mirror-back paint. This 
completes the processes involved in making a 
modern plate glass mirror t>f the highest grade, 
known to the trade by the standard name of 
"patent-back mirror." 

The purpose of the coats of shellac and paint 
is to protect the film of silver from moisture 
or abrasion, and extreme care must be taken to 
preserve intact these protective coats. When the 
mirror is set in place, provision must be made 



Drying the Newly Silvered Mirrors 

These mirrors have been silvered, as is shown in the preceding 

picture, and now are lying on the silvering table in order that the 

metallic silver may be precipitated. 

to prevent moisture from condensing on the 
painted back of the mirror. An air space be- 
tween the back of the mirror and the walls always 
should be provided, and this space should be 
such that some circulation of air can be assured. 
Mirrors never should be exposed to extremes of 
heat or cold. 

The silvering is assumed to be good for at 
least one year, but there is no reason why a 
mirror, which originally is made properly, 
should not remain in perfect condition for many 
years under the conditions found in the average 
home, if it is properly protected from moisture, 
and the protective backing is preserved from 
damage of any kind. 

If the mirror is not properly set, and is sub- 
ject to moist conditions, the moisture eventually 
will penetrate to the silver coating and cause oxi- 
dation of the silver, which shows on the surface 
of the mirror as minute black spots that grad- 
ually spread, as oxidation develops, until the 
mirror presents an unsightly appearance. This 
damage will appear and develop much more 
rapidly should the protective paint coating be 
damaged in any way. 

A mirror which has become oxidized, or 
"spoiled," can be made practically as good as 
new by removing the silver and treating the glass 
as in the original silvering process. This will 
restore only the silvering; any scratches or de- 
fects in the glass will remain. This point will 
be found more fully discussed on page 206. 



[57] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 





The Three-Panel Mirror 

The beauty of this form of treatment is obvious. It accords well 
with the architectural features of the room. 



The Large Mantel Mirror 

In the room above pictured the unusual size of the mirror area 
adds greatly to the apparent spaciousness of the room. 



THE MIRROR IN THE HOME 



TN THE cultured civilization of today the mirror 
A is far more than a mere looking-glass. It is 
one of the most beautiful objects produced in 
all the development of man's aesthetic faculties, 
and in our time it is coming into its rightful 
place. No longer is it restricted to places and 
occasions where we use it simply to see our own 
image. The gratifying increase in public under- 
standing of beauty and ornament has encouraged 
and enabled architects and interior decorators 
to place mirrors for other purposes. 



While every use of a mirror depends on its 
property of reflection, the kinds of reflection to 
be gained are innumerable. A mirror may be so 
hung in an interior as to reflect a bit of landscape 
outside. Thus used, it is a picture, and a picture 
within the reach of any purse. It may be hung 
to reflect a color, in order to make the "spot" so 
dear to the artist on a wall needing such a touch. 
It may be used to "catch" daylight and thus 
brighten a part of the room that otherwise would 
be lifeless; or it may serve to give brilliant 




The Horizontal-Panel Mirror 

A familiar use of the mantel mirror in which it has its highest 
value as a looking-glass as well as for wall decoration. 



Mirrors in a Mantel 

This shows a very attractive use of mirrors in a mantel. Tin 
unused grate area is made to reflect the room. 



[58] 



THE MIRROR IN THE HOME 




Types of Wall Mirrors 

Upon this page are shown three of the many types of wall mirrors in ornamental frames. Such mirrors are particularly effective as 
reflecting backgrounds for plants, statuettes, vases, and other ornaments. 



reduplication of artificial lights. A room that is 
"squat" can be relieved by cunning use of a 
single mirror, if one of the right shape be hung 
in exactly the right place. A room that seems 



too short or too narrow will gain in appearance 
of spaciousness if a mirror be placed at its end 
or opposite the entrance. A mirror of correct 
proportion hung between two windows at the end 




An Effective Dining-Room Mirror 

The glass here shown is contrived to form an integral part of the 
scheme of decoration. 



A Gold-Framed Mirror 

This superb frame and the glass it encloses are in perfect accord 
with chair, lamp, and console table. 



[59] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Mirrors in a Millinery Shop 

A millinery shop is made attractive by its mirrors no less than by its display of headgear, and the two are inseparable. Such inte- 
riors as the one here pictured present attractive vistas of reflecting surfaces and, still more to the purpose, enable the purchaser to 
try the effect ol the hats. It is probable that the mirror is the principal sales-person in such transactions 



of a narrow room will make an amazing change 
and will convert an uninteresting or even un- 
pleasing apartment into one that has the inde- 
finable charm of "style"; for style, as the artist 
knows it, is a matter of touches like this. 

There is no easier or simpler way to give dis- 
tinction to a hallway. This, the first place to be 



entered by guest or owner, too often is sombre 
or at least unattractive. Most halls are too small 
for pictures or for the effective use of other 
decoration, but no hall is too small, or too unpre- 
tentious, for a mirror. It is always appropriate, 
always an improvement; in a dark hall or on a 
dark stair, it is more than an ornament; it dispels 





Mirrors in Dressers and Wardrobe Doors 

A dresser must have a mirror, and if this be supplemented by a full-length glass in a near-bv door, as shown above, all toilet purposes 
are served. In some cases it adds to the architectural effect to have the door made of plate glass mirrors in small panes, set in a 

sash effect as shown in the smaller picture. 

[60] 



THE MIRROR AS A LOOKING-GLASS 



gloom. A statuette or similar object gains 
immeasurably when a mirror of appropriate size 
is placed immediately behind it. There is no 
more exquisite thing than flowers with a mirror 
for background. A corner too low for a picture, 
too small for any other use, instantly is lifted 
from its nothingness by such a bit of polished 
and silvered glass. 

A mirror is a thing to use deftly, with sensi- 
tive appreciation of fitness. A single mirror in 
one room may be just right, while two or more 
would "fight each other."- But another room 
may gain distinguished character by a number 



of mirrors so disposed as to send a play of beauty 
flashing around the walls. In the average dwell- 
ing there is not a room that cannot be improved 
by at least one mirror in the right place. 

Mirror frames may be of the utmost sim- 
plicity, or they may be in themselves a part of a 
scheme of lavish decoration. In many cases, as 
in tiled bathrooms or in paneled or otherwise 
fancifully decorated apartments, it may even be 
effective to use them with no frame at all. In- 
deed, the adaptability of the mirror for ornament 
is so unlimited that a volume might be written 
on this one theme of interior decoration. 



THE MIRROR AS A LOOKING-GLASS 



THE successful establishment of plate glass 
manufacture as an American industry, which 
has made plate glass, formerly a luxury, now 
a practical, common, everyday utility, has done 
more than that: it has brought into well-nigh uni- 
versal use the full-length plate glass mirror. 

Within the memory of the elder of the present 
generation was a time when a full-length "French 
mirror" was a precious thing indeed, and its pos- 
sessor envied — and also eagerly visited by callers 
who "just dropped in" for a moment to have a 
look at themselves. Those were the simple days. 
Today the most unpretentious home can afford 
even a pier glass, and it is not merely the woman 
of fashion who requires the facilities of self-in- 
spection: the well-groomed man thus serves his 
self-respect rather than his vanity, while the deft- 
fingered woman who has the knack of gowning 
herself finds the full-length mirror not only a 
convenience but a very practical home economy. 

Coincidently with its wide use, there have 
come many ingenious ways of placing these large 
mirrors. Whereas the old-fashioned mirror was 
either a so-called pier glass or else a glass hung 
on a large and cumbersome stand, the large mir- 
rors of today are set where they are neither in 
the way nor inconvenient. For example, a most 
economical and attractive method of our time is 
to set mirrors in the doors of wardrobe cupboards 
and similar closets in bedrooms, boudoirs, sit- 
ting and sewing rooms, and so on. Sometimes 
they are on the outside of the doors, if the 
scheme of decoration makes this arrangement 
suitable. At other times they are on the inside, 



a method much used where there are small chil- 
dren who in their play might scratch exposed 
mirrors. 

A strikingly beautiful way of using a full- 
length mirror for the combined purpose of look- 
ing-glass and decorative element, is to set it at 
the end of a long front room or of an upper hall. 
In a room with two doors that face each other 
directly or approximately so, a full-length re- 
flection in each door enables women to study 
their costumes from all angles. Such an ar- 
rangement, moreover, almost always increases 
the illumination. 

MIRRORS IN BATHROOMS 

In the bathroom the correct use of mirrors 
will make a permanent saving in the artificial 
lighting bills. Too often the attempt is made to 
make shift with a single mirror in this room. 
This almost always is a mistaken economy, for 
there are very few bathrooms where the same 
mirror will be equally serviceable for both natu- 
ral and artificial light. Therefore, whenever a 
single mirror is used, it necessarily is placed 
with reference to the artificial light, for other- 
wise it would be useless after dark. The conse- 
quence is that there are surprisingly many bath- 
rooms with plenty of natural light but with the 
mirror so placed that even in the brightest morn- 
ing it is necessary to use artificial light. 

There is hardly to be found a bathroom that 
will not benefit in comfort and economy from at 
least two mirrors, one for use with natural light 
and the other with artificial light. In a house 



[61] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 





Lavatory Mirrors 

Plate glass mirrors have prominent place in all well appointed lavatories. In some cases they are made adjustable 

as to position, a considerable convenience in shaving. 



( f 







J 





[62] 



THE MIRROR IN FURNITURE 






Mirrors in Bathroom Cabinets 

The obvious convenience of having a mirror inserted in the door of the cabinet which hangs before the 
wash-basin has made its employment almost universal. 



where there are several men, it is a convenience 
to have a shaving mirror in addition, either 
alongside a window or over the bowl, so that two 
men may use the room simultaneously. 

The bathroom walls, being either tiled or of 
special material, lend themselves well to mir- 
rors permanently set in. They may be used with 
or without frames according to circumstances. 

The reception room in every dwelling should 



have a mirror primarily for use as a looking- 
glass, since every woman desires to be sure 
that her costume is in perfect order before her 
hostess greets her. This little provision for the 
comfort of guests often saves the household from 
the fuss of taking visitors upstairs. It is also a 
decided convenience to the women of the house- 
hold by permitting them to get a last glimpse of 
their apparel before going out. 



THE MIRROR IN FURNITURE 



f I ^HE mirror in furniture serves two purposes — 
A for pure decoration or for use as a looking- 
glass. In the bedroom, dressing room, and bou- 
doir, its primary utility is that of a looking-glass, 
which suggests its use in wardrobe doors, also 
on dressing tables and bureaus, where, as a rule, 
the mirror is most serviceable when so arranged 
as to be adjustable in various positions. 

In the dining room, on the contrary, the mir- 
ror as a back for the sideboard and the china 
closet or glass cabinet is to be treated entirely 
as a part of the decorative scheme of the room. 
Its property of reflection in these cases should 
be studied with direct reference to the silver, 
porcelain, and glass. The reflection is for the 
purpose of enhancing the beauty of these objects 
by bringing out their full grace and lustre. The 



correctness of using mirrors in such furniture 
has been recognized in all periods of art. It is 
one of the distinguished modes of ornament. 

The same principle applies to the glass cabi- 
nets in drawing-rooms and reception rooms for 
the little objects of art that always have been a 
favorite and appropriate element in the furnish- 
ing of such apartments, where a general effect 
of formal elegance is quite correct and justified. 

If the bookcases in the library are glazed, as 
they should be to protect the volumes against 
dust and injury, mirrors may very well be sub- 
stituted for glass to hide shelves the effect of 
which is unsightly, either because they contain 
books with damaged or otherwise displeasing 
backs, or because they have to be used for pre- 
serving necessary but unattractive and untidy 



[63] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 

i! ■ it 




Dressing Tables 

A dressing table without mirrors is unthinkable and the value of setting the two wing-mirrors at an angle to the center glass is one 
that needs no argument with any woman. The designs here pictured are merely two of the infinite variety of 

mirror applications for this purpose. 



pamphlets and similar literary material. The 
remedying of such bad spots in the library often 
adds marked brilliancy if the arrangement of 
mirror doors is judicious and harmonious. 

The use of transparent plate glass tops for 
furniture has become one of the standard 
methods for preserving and beautifying and at 
the same time displaying costly furniture of high 
polish. The principle can be applied with 
equally good results for the purpose of conceal- 
ment, by using mirror tops. For example, if a 



certain piece of furniture happens to have an 
expanse of top out of keeping in color or finish 
with the rest of the apartment, the objection can 
be removed by covering it with plate glass in 
mirror form instead of transparent plate. 

Dining-room tables may have tops wholly of 
mirror glass, or there may be merely a mirror 
center-piece. The center-piece effect is appropri- 
ate on a table with its surface entirely uncovered, 
or on a table that is covered for protection with 
a transparent plate glass top. 




Vanity Cases 

Generous mirror surface is as important in connection with the 

vanity case as for the dressing table. In this picture a full-length 

view is easily obtainable and the mirror in itself is a decorative 

feature of the room. 



Buffet Mirror 

The purpose of a buffet mirror such as is pictured is largely that 

of architectural ornamentation. In this case it accords perfectly 

with the Chippendale furniture and other appointments of a 

handsome room. 



[64] 



THE MIRROR IN FURNITURE 





The mirror in modern house decoration serves in many useful ways. By reflecting an exterior or interior scene, 

a mirror makes a picture in all the exact lights and shades and colors of nature, or it may be used to produce a "spot" 

of color. or a pool of light wherever needed. Many a sombre, uninteresting wall is thus changed to something with 

character and charm — all by means of a mirror in the right place. 






[65] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



vrnMiunMummtmu ■ 





Here are a few designs in mirrors appropriate for hallways and other places. 





[66] 



THE MIRROR IN FURNITURE 







A mirror image can be enhanced by a beautiful frame as 
personal appearance is improved by handsome clothing. 




[67] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Wall and Column Mirrors 

Plate glass mirrors are coming more and more into use for decoration in the modern public dining room. Diners enjoy the added 

sense of companionship and interest thus produced. 

THE MIRROR IN PUBLIC PLACES 

IN HOTELS, restaurants, and other places of 
refreshment where there are many tables, the 
mirror has a highly practical value that literally 
can be counted in the dollars and cents of daily 




receipts. Very few people are ivilling to sit 
facing blank walls. A feeling of discomfort is 
common to most human beings when they sit thus 
turned away from companionship, but a certain 




An All-Mirror Room 

This is a room of such far-reaching vistas in every direction that the eye finds 
entertainment in following the oft-repeated reflections. 

[68] 



THE MIRROR IN PUBLIC PLACES 




Rear -Counter Mirrors 
How uninviting the soda fountain would be without its background of mirrors can well be imagined. 



proportion of the seats must be so placed. By 
the simple expedient of using an unbroken series 
of mirrors for the walls, all seats are made 
equally desirable. No matter where a guest is 



placed, others are visible. No one is compelled 
to face a blank wall, and thus every bit of space 
in the room can be utilized for profit. 

In addition, these mirrors give brilliancy 




The Modern Barber Shop 

Walls and columns are given over to mirrors in the up-to-date "tonsorial parlor." The column mirror on the right in this illustration 

shows miter-cut lines for decorative effect. 

[69] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 







Refrigerator Accessories 

In the picture here given the attractiveness of a handsomely appointed butcher shop is largely enhanced by the liberal use of mirrors 
in the fronts of the refrigerator. The variation of form has been ingeniously employed to make the room more interesting. 



both day and night and impart to the scene 
vivacity and cheer. This probably is the most 
economical form of decoration for places of 
such character, where tobacco smoke or incidents 
of catering soon discolor an ornamental surface. 
The wall of mirrors retains its beauty perma- 



nently and has the advantage over every other 
sort of decoration, that it always is exquisitely 
clean. Furthermore, alterations that inevitably 
destroy other ornament do not lessen the value 
of such mirrors, since they may be removed in- 
tact and reinstalled wherever desired. A value 






Column Mirrors 

One of the more recent applications of mirror surfaces is to enclose the bases of otherwise unsightly columns. Columns are necessary 
for support and usually obscure the view, but this disadvantage is practically obviated by making them reflect their surroundings. 

The use of mirrors for this purpose is extending rapidly. 

[70] 



SPECIAL USES OF MIRRORS 



that appeals to interior decorators is that mirrors 
may be made to serve diametrically opposite 
purposes. For example, a wall presenting too 
large an expanse can be so broken by mirrors 
that it is reduced to dimensions satisfactory to 
the eye. Or, on the contrary, wall-spaces that 
seem constrained or pinched are altered so radi- 
cally in appearance that it is as if some magic 
had expanded them. This is merely a matter of 
placing a few or many mirrors according to 
certain simple rules of optics. 

The usefulness of this form of glass for public 
places is not based by any means upon showiness. 
It is possible to panel an entire room, and even to 
give it a ceiling of mirrors, and still keep it in 
perfect artistic style and quiet elegance. One of 
the charms of mirror decoration that tempts the 
modern artist lies in the fact that it lends itself 
subtly and intimately to the most delicate and 
unobtrusive beauties of style. 

Some of the best effects in such locations as 



hotel and theatre lobbies are obtained by mirrors 
unnoticed by the public, because, though in plain 
sight, they are so adjusted that neither polished 
surfaces nor reflections are conspicuous. 

The service performed by mirrors in shops is, 
of course, too well understood to require elabo- 
ration. The reader will be surprised, however, 
if he will devote a half -hour to observing the 
number of shop mirrors and the variety of serv- 
ice they perform. As with transparent glass, we 
moderns have become too thoroughly accustomed 
to mirrors to realize how they fill our daily life. 
Such places as barber shops, drug and confec- 
tionery stores, and beverage shops would be 
quite inconceivable without them. Thousands 
of shops and stores would be disfigured with 
ugly corners, blank walls and columns, or ob- 
structive pillars, were it not for the ever-ready 
and ever-effective mirror that instantly trans- 
forms such incongruous spots into features of 
real attractiveness. 



y 



SPECIAL USES OF MIRRORS 



THE mirror, both of plate glass and of cylin- 
der or sheet glass, has long served in a vast 
variety of ways for industry, from fancy box 
tops and other minor ornamental purposes to the 
most important duties, as for locomotive head- 
lights, searchlights, and even telescopes. 

The giant searchlights are implements of daily 
work no less than instruments of war. They 
serve the miner, the engineer, the contractor, the 
manufacturer, the farmer. They serve trans- 
portation on land and sea, and do it all so well 
because of their high-grade glass mirror. 

Signaling in the daytime by heliograph (which 
is telegraphing with the sun's rays) is the origi- 
nal wireless. It was used long before the World 
War and served men efficiently for the works 
of peace. In new country, heliographing still 
remains a ready method for communication be- 
tween parties of explorers, surveyors, engineers, 
and other advance agents of civilization. It 
requires no heavy equipment and lays no tax 
on the slight transportation facilities of parties 
that have to force their way through wilderness. 
A few small mirrors will do the work. At any 
moment men far apart and out of sight and hear- 



ing of each other are thus able to communicate. 
An enumeration of all the industrial, commer- 
cial, and scientific uses of mirrors would involve 
a list of many modern enterprises. It is hardly 
necessary to refer to the fact that automobile 
lights, electric pocket flash-lights, and other 
articles of common use all need mirrors. The 
automobile driver, speeding along with his atten- 
tion fixed upon the road before him, has no need 
to turn his head to see whether he must allow 
for a swifter car coming up from the rear: he 
has a telltale mirror at his elbow. The road over 
which he has just passed unrolls continuously 
to his view and an extensive image is reflected 
from the small surface because its concave curve 
acts as a reducing glass. The interior of the car 
also, if it be a limousine, is likely to have its mir- 
ror in which the occupant on her way to ball or 
theatre party may take late note of her coiffure. 
Bits of looking-glass are very much the rule 
in the innumerable penny-in-the-slot vending 
machines. Experience has demonstrated that the 
mirror will attract possible customers — men as 
well as women — who then are apt to heed the 
suggestion of the waiting slot. 



f 



^ 



[71] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 





Distortion Mirrors 

The old-fashioned mirrors in which defective common glass was silvered must have suggested the humorous possibilities that lav in 

distortion mirrors. There now exists a regular demand from amusement places for looking-glasses in which the surface has been so 

skillfully waved and curved as to transform any beholder into a weird monstrosity. 





[72] 



SPECIAL USES OF MIRRORS 





Distortion Mirrors 

The man with the turtle neck, the man with the zigzag legs, the pair of human step-ladders, and the three-headed wonder, all 
are here. Such mirrors are always popular and are surrounded by groups of visitors, who seem to find a fascination in seeing 

to what extent their own familiar features can be caricatured. 





[73] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



The oculist, in making his examination, hangs 
a circular perforated mirror over one eye and 
thereby is able to reflect a strong beam of light 
upon the organ under scrutiny while he peers 
through the tiny hole in the center. The dentist 
uses a tiny mirror set at an angle on a slender 
handle and thus detects the significant discolora- 
tion, however hidden it may be. Without this 
glass his work would be seriously hampered. 

The world's entertainment utilizes mirrors ex- 
tensively. The spot-light, so beloved of actors 
and audience, is a creature of the mirror. The 
stage uses it for illusions, for its most gorgeous 
vari-colored lighting effects, for storm, and for 
moonlight. The "distortion mirror" in amuse- 
ment places makes all the world laugh at its own 
wry image. These weird masterpieces of crafts- 
manship are made with such scientific knowledge 
of visual angles that their complexities of surface 
produce the most startling effects. 

A still stranger use of mirrors is that long em- 
ployed by stage "magicians." Thaumaturgy has 



certain mysterious cabinets that when opened to 
the view of the audience are plainly seen to be 
empty. People placed in such cabinets are found 
when the door is re-opened to have disappeared 
apparently into empty air, but all because of the 
cunning arrangement of mirrors so disposed as to 
reflect the top and sides and thus create an illu- 
sion of emptiness over a concealed compartment. 
Perhaps the most inspiring use of mirrors is 
that connected with astronomy. Many of the 
world's greatest telescopes are of the reflector 
type, which is to say that the observer does not 
look directly up into the sky but down into a 
huge mirror of a special type. Upon this are 
reflected, in a marvelous panorama, planets, 
suns, comets, and nebulae, and as their rays find 
their way through the lenses of the instrument 
they may be studied and even photographed. In 
this there is a kind of appropriateness, since 
the moon and planets are themselves mirrors of 
a sort shining down upon us by means of the 
light which they, in turn, reflect from the sun. 



[74] 



PLATE GLASS 
AND THE AUTOMOBILE 




The Joy of Motoring 

There would be little pleasure in even so luxurious a car as the one here shown were it not for the constant 
panorama of changing views that passes in front of the windows. These windows must be of clear plate glass 

or vision will be strained and the outlook unsightly. 



PLATE GLASS AND THE AUTOMOBILE 



IN THAT vehicle of the Twentieth Century, 
the automobile, plate glass is the only 
practical, desirable, and really economical 
glass. For the indispensable windshield, for the 
doors, and for the windows, plate glass is the 
one satisfactory material, while the plate glass 
mirror reflects to the driver a perfect view of the 
road behind, with its possibilities of danger. 

Bent plate glass used for windows gives to 
the lines* of the car an elegance all its own, sub- 
stituting graceful curves for the ugly angles that 
strike so discordant a note in motor-car design. 
Altogether aside from the superior strength of 
plate glass and the security its use entails, its 
transparency is a compelling argument in its fa- 
vor as regards a vehicle the use of which is so 
largely for sight-seeing. 

The windshield is one of the modern triumphs 
of plate glass, exemplifying as it does the in- 
trinsic merits of this material — strength and 
endurance, transparency and brilliancy — all 
united for practical service of highest importance. 
An automobile can be used, to be sure, without 
this protection, but only at cost of discomfort 
and of many perils. It is a shield, not only 
against rain and snow and the wind-blast of 
swift motion, but against dust and flying frag- 
ments of road-metal, which, by momentarily 
blinding the driver, might cause accident. 

Every car-owner today may have a plate glass 
windshield that is perfect for its purpose. Not 
even the cheaper makes of automobile can afford 
to omit this refinement; for the difference in cost 
between the highest grade of glass and the poor- 
est is an exceedingly small percentage. The 
initial saving being negligible, and the "econ- 
omy" so mistaken, no manufacturer would give 
second thought to the substitution of common 
glass. In casq of repairs, however, the customer 
is wise who distinctly specifies plate glass. 

Window glass, which is made from blown 
cylinders rolled flat, although inevitably of wavy 
and uneven surface, is one of the immensely valu- 
able products of human skill. For countless 
uses it is eminently suitable, but when a material 
so rightfully possesses its own legitimate field, 
it is economic folly to try to force it to a service 



for which it is not at all intended, and which it 
cannot render as it should. 

Certain inexorable requirements there are 
which must be met by a windshield. Not only 
must it be strong enough to remain unaffected 
by continual and severe jarring and vibration, 
but it must have in reserve abundant strength to 
resist at any moment shocks of unusually pro- 
nounced violence. Besides being resistant to 
shock, it must have such uniform strength 
throughout its extent that it will withstand the 
heaviest wind-pressure. It must defy the abra- 
sive assaults of dust and flying bits of road- 
metal, as well as the impact of an occasional 
missile. It must be not only truly transparent, 
but perfectly free from all lines of waviness or 
optical distortion such as must of necessity ren- 
der the driver's view unreliable. 

Such are the requirements; and such, like- 
wise, are the perfections of plate glass, for which 
no other glass can properly be substituted in 
this wide application. 

Clear vision, entirely free from distortion, 
can be had only through glass with its surfaces 
parallel. Grinding and polishing constitute the 
only method thus far discovered for obtaining 
perfect surfaces of exact parallelism. While 
improved methods of making window glass 
greatly reduce the old-time distortion, this mate- 
rial still is unequal to the exacting requirements 
of automobile use. 

Emergencies are constantly arising where the 
motorist's margin of safety is only a matter of 
inches. Instantaneous decision must be based on 
clear vision. He must steer as he sees. If he 
sees straight, well and good ; but if through the 
interposition of glass that distorts by refraction 
he sees objects out of their actual position, ac- 
cident sooner or later is unavoidable. Polished 
plate glass in windshield and windows means see- 
ing things exactly where they are. Seeing things 
exactly where they are spells safety. 

Apart from this vital element of safety, com- 
mon glass does not compare with plate glass 
in shock-resisting or pressure-resisting strength. 
The gravity of many a collision has been min- 
imized by the solid strength of plate glass. 



[77] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 





Plate Glass versus Common Glass in Automobiles 

No manufacturer would think of using common glass for car windows, but occasionally substitution is made in replacements 

These pictures tell their own story. On the right, window glass, or " crystal sheet " as it is sometimes called, means eye-strain and 

general discomfort to the occupants, while in the other, all images seen through plate glass remain clear and true. 



The superior transparency of plate glass in 
windshield and windows is particularly notice- 
able in a vehicle moving swiftly because the eye 
has not the usual time to take note of objects by 
the wayside. In respect to this fact alone, plate 
glass amply repays its cost in the added pleas- 
ure of the passengers, and this is one of the con- 



siderations that move the makers of automobiles 
to use plate glass and nothing else. Even if the 
arguments of utility and safety were not so con- 
vincing, superior smartness would tip the scale 
in favor of plate glass. At a time when makers 
are vying one with another to embody in their 
newest models every conceivable appointment of 




Image Seen through Two Windows 

Here is a further illustration of the value of plate glass in automobiles. The left-hand picture shows the columns of a resi- 
dence as seen, without the slightest distortion, through two lights of plate glass, while in the other picture their outlines are 

seen distorted by common window glass. 

[78] 



PLATE GLASS AND THE AUTOMOBILE 




Windshield and Protectors 

No automobile driver who values his safety will sit behind a windshield of common glass, for his view of the road must be clear at all 
times. The wing-form side protectors now in general use are necessarily made of plate glass. 



elegance and luxury, it is not to be thought of 
that any should ignore the irresistible aesthetic 
appeal inherent in polished plate glass, crystal- 



clear and scintillating, to which his majesty the 
American citizen owes so much of the splendor 
of his chariot of state. 







Tonneau Windshield 

Glass windshields protect the occupants of the tonneau from wind and dust without slightest interference with the pleasure of the 
outlook so long as clear sheets of plate glass are used. The strength of plate glass and its resistance to road shocks and impact of 

flying pebbles are obvious advantages of the highest importance. 

[79] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Automobile Instrument Board 

The driver must get quick and accurate judgment of his indicators. 
This cannot be expected if flawed glass is employed. 



Individual Plate Glass Protector 

Through his windshield the driver must keep his eye upon the 
road ahead. Distorted vision is dangerous. 



PITTSBURGH SERVICE TO THE AUTOMOBILE MAKER 



PERFECTION" is a relative term; progress 
is the watchword of the present. With a 
view to the refinement of the plate glass to be 
used in the automobile, research and experi- 
mentation are being carried on constantly in 
the factories of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Com- 
pany. Maintaining a highly efficient corps of 
service engineers and experts in the handling 
and setting of all glass, the Company is in posi- 
tion to be of real service to the motor-car manu- 
facturer. Problems of thickness, quality, and 
size of glass best suited for any given require- 



ments should be submitted to the branch of this 
Company nearest to factory or assembly plant. 

Nearly all cities now require that mirrors be 
so placed that the driver may have a reflected 
view of traffic behind him. These mirrors never 
should be makeshift. Their importance merits 
the use of selected plate, so that distortion of 
the image will be quite impossible. 

Designers of coupe, town car, and limousine 
bodies will do well to investigate the possibil- 
ities of bent glass and the endless opportunities 
it offers for imparting the last touch of style. 





Automobile Bracket Lamp and Spotlight 
The maximum of clear and perfect illumination for such purposes can be given only by plate glass. 

[80] 



PLATE GLASS AND FURNITURE 




FURNITURE of certain sorts, such as cases 
and cabinets for porcelain, crystal, silver, 
curios, and various rare objects of art, 
would be comparatively useless without glass to 
protect at the same time that it displays the 
contents. In such pieces glass is a practically 
indispensable component. No matter how beauti- 
ful the wood may be or How costly its carving 
and finish, the dominant feature is the transpar- 
ent front. The quality of glass so used, there- 
fore, deserves the close attention of the maker 
and the user. 

Naturally plate is the only glass that can be 
considered. Futile indeed would it be to expend 
artistic effort, labor, and money on rich cabinet- 
work, only to destroy its quality at the last by 
glazing with inferior sheet. Such an error would 
mean to the furniture maker loss of prestige as 
well as of trade, and to the buyer permanent and 
altogether needless disappointment. 

In modern times glass always has been more 
or less inseparable from fine furniture. Its use 
has widened with each generation, and today 
the furniture manufacturer includes glass among 
the essential materials. All periods of modern 
art have so justified the addition of glass in 
ornamentation of certain pieces of furniture 
that they would be considered incomplete with- 
out it, while in others it is glass that gives the 
article its utility. In the latter class, bent plate 
glass, taking the place of side-walls, angles, and 
front, as in china cabinets, produces an effect of 
beauty that belongs strictly to the present period. 

In very recent years a new and most impor- 
tant field of usefulness has developed, which 
makes glass not a built-in component of fur- 
niture, but a separate accessory; namely, the use 
of plate glass as a permanent protective cover- 
ing. While preserving the finish from acci- 
dental defacement and extending indefinitely the 
life and usefulness of the article, this rich plate 
of polished glass adds a beauty of its own. 

Present-day art education in America has 
taught us the beauty of polished woods. Not so 
many years ago, the custom was to cover table- 
tops and dresser-tops with linen or other fab- 
rics wherever possible, but today furniture is 



left uncovered: the grain of the natural wood 
is valued and displayed. The furniture industry 
has been quick to respond to this change in popu- 
lar taste, and is producing, even for everyday 
use, furniture that compares favorably with the 
choice pieces of earlier art-periods. 

The change in style noted has not been without 
its drawbacks, however. Keeping polished fur- 
niture in perfect condition was none too easy in 
the old days before the problem of domestic help 
became so serious, and no doubt the former prac- 
tice of covering dining tables with snowy napery, 
and library tables, dresser-tops, bookcases, and 
the like with throws of various sorts had its 
origin partly, if not wholly, in the desire to keep 
the polished surfaces unmarred. Even where 
there is no danger of rough usage, there is dust; 
and dust has a steadily abrasive effect on lus- 
trous surfaces of this sort. 

In this modern emergency appears the pol- 
ished plate glass top as a defense against injury 
of every description, a sure shield from dust 
that nevertheless leaves unconcealed the beauty 
of the cabinet-maker's art. It is an unobtrusive 
armor for protection: what the eye can see of the 
plate glass top is only an added richness of lustre. 

The aged effect of many an ancient treasure of 
cabinet-work is merely the grime of centuries, 
fixed by successive refinishings. The grain of 
a once-beautiful wood is buried under layer 
after layer of dirt and varnish. Plate glass has 
changed all that. The antiquary of the future 
will admire Twentieth Century art for itself, 
rather than for the dinginess of its antiquity. 

The plate glass top, aside from its own simple 
beauty and the service it renders in exhibiting 
the beauty which it protects, greatly reduces 
housework. Dusting becomes a most simple 
operation, for dust, which clings to the most 
highly polished wood, merely settles on glass, 
but adheres not at all. Liquid stains that would 
destroy varnish mean nothing to plate glass, but 
vanish under a dampened cloth, while the labo- 
rious daily rubbing of polished wood becomes 
altogether a thing of the past. 

In using plate glass upon finely finished fur- 
niture tops, it is highly desirable to maintain at 



['81] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Plate Glass in Private Libraries 

Plate glass is an essential part of such an interior as the one here shown. It protects the books from dust without obscuring the beauty 
of the bindings and preserves the ornamental tables from injury. The fact that plate glass can be cut to conform with the outline of the 

table top increases the range of its beauty and service. 




Plate Glass on the Dining Table 

The growing custom of using doilies instead of table-cloth on the 
dining table makes a plate glass top a necessity whether in a 
modest home or in an establishment with liveried attendants. 
Women guests may be trusted to be considerate of a polished top, 
but men forget. Unhappy is the hostess who sees mahogany 
threatened with the hot ashes of cigar or cigarette. No such 
worries mar her pleasure if her table is protected by a polished 
plate glass top. 



all times a slight space between glass and var- 
nished surface. Thin disks of felt or similar 
material will accomplish this. Under certain 
conditions glass condenses moisture or "sweats," 
and the glass top, if laid directly upon the wood, 
is likely to draw the varnish. 

This field for the use of plate glass is only 
in the first phase of its development. It offers 
incalculable opportunities to furniture makers 
and dealers, and to dealers in glass as well; for 
the plate glass top may be applied not only to 
furniture in the making, but to choice pieces 
already installed in household and office. 

The furniture maker, in availing himself of 
this new utility, is confronted by no manufactur- 
ing problems whatsoever, because plate glass can 
be supplied in all desired shapes and sizes. By 
its aid he is enabled to use many rare woods 
and to apply delicate finishes which without such 
protection would be too liable to injury and 
therefore impracticable. 

The furniture dealer, likewise, finds in these 
plate glass coverings a new accessory merchan- 
dise that is readily salable by itself, and helps 
greatly in the selling of other goods. 



[82] 



PLATE GLASS AND FURNITURE 




Ornamental Furniture Pieces 

Tabourettes, pedestals, and other purely ornamental pieces of polished furniture have the duty of holding some equally ornamental 
object— a jardiniere, a vase of flowers, porcelains, bronzes, or statuettes. Most of these are heavy and their bases highly abrasive, 
yet they must be moved daily to prevent the gathering of dust. Varnish cannot survive such friction. Plate glass protects the 

furniture from injury yet does not hide the beauty of the wood. 




Glass-Topped Dressers and Tables 

A few years ago the use of glass for such a purpose was unknown. Today it would be a real 
hardship to return to plain wooden tops. 

[83] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




The Directors' Table 

The directors' room is essentially a room demanding dignified elegance. Infrequently used, it must not look as if it were a 
scene of daily work and bustle. Its most important furniture is the long and massive table that is inseparable from its pur- 
pose. This table must never show a sign of negligence, yet it is sometimes subjected to hard usage. Hard-backed ledgers 
and account books, letter files and writing pads, ink and cigars do not improve fine cabinet-work. The plate glass top insures 

the table against injury. 




Glass-Partitioned Work Tables 

In rooms where desk -workers must be placed close together in 

order to economize space, glass partitions have particular value, 

since they do not obstruct the light that falls upon each table and 

yet permit a semi-privacy for each worker. 



Plate Glass Ventilators 

Fresh air is requisite for efficiency, but drafts are dangerous. 

This problem of the open window has been solved by means of 

the plate glass ventilators which admit air without a draft. 

Such ventilators are coming into very general use. 



[84] 



THE MODERN STORE FRONT 




Then and Now 

Fifty years ago when the department store had its humble beginnings, its one show window of fragile common glass 

jnust be boarded up at night for safety. Today the great sheets of plate glass not only provide protection for the 

window contents, but serve as the merchant's most effective selling help. 







THE MODERN STORE FRONT 



THE use of plate glass for the modern store 
front is practically universal. No builder 
or shop-owner would think seriously of sug- 
gesting inferior glass for this purpose. As a 
matter of fact, it would be impossible for a 
shop with a common-glass front to compete in the 
same neighborhood with those having fronts of 
plate glassi Even in secondary business streets 
and among the very small scattered shops in out- 
lying districts, the superior durability of plate 
glass induces its use as an economy. 

If the modern plate glass store front is not 
quite so recent as the automobile, it still is very 
much a matter of our own generation. Persons 
scarcely past middle age can recall the days when 
American merchants were proud to advertise the 
fact that they had installed show windows of 
"French plate glass." 

Older inhabitants also can remember how in 
the old days merchants everywhere used to put 
up heavy wooden shutters over the shop fronts at 
night. One would have to seek far today to find 
a shop thus barred. Plate glass has become the 
universal safeguard against burglary at night. 
In addition to its strength and the noise made by 
smashing a pane of plate, its transparency, mak- 
ing interiors plainly visible to passers-by and to 
the police, makes plate glass the most effective 
burglar-proof device extant. 

Adequate display of merchandise is recog- 
nized as inseparable from modern salesmanship; 
but not all merchants apply the principle to best 



advantage. It is the successful merchant who 
willingly expends all the thought and money that 
bid fair in any way to increase the value of his 
show windows and show cases. He knows what 
they are worth to him. The ground area they 
occupy, he has proved, is the most productive 
floor space in his establishment, and not in a 
single square inch of the space so devoted can 
he afford to fall short of the most effective use 
of it. The shop front or show window is in fact 
an auxiliary store, selling without salesmen. It 
attracts men and women in the street, arouses 
their interest, sells what is exhibited, and by 
inviting people inside leads to further sales. 

In planning the shop front, its related but dis- 
tinct purposes should be kept in view. The first 
duty is to catch the eye of the passer-by and 
induce him to stop; this may be accomplished 
either through artistic beauty or by means of 
some striking feature. Having stopped the pros- 
pective buyer, the shop front's second function 
is so to hold his attention that he will study the 
display. Therefore the articles in the window 
must be easy to see; the glass front must be clear 
as air. 

The shop front or show window may be aided 
in performance of its functions by the exterior 
show case or "island," so made nowadays as to 
have no obtrusive framework, being merely a 
case with walls entirely of glass, put together with 
neat metal clamps, almost invisible. The con- 
tents thus may be viewed from all directions. 



[87] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




A Double-Story Show Front 

In this illustration two stories of show windows appear in one story of the store. In other words, the height of the ground floor makes 
possible an upper and lower series of show windows across the front with adequate room for each. 



METAL CONSTRUCTION FOR STORE FRONTS 



THE method of using plate glass for store 
front or show window today is to set it in 
metal. This gives a shop front practically 
all of glass. The metal parts are so few and 
so unobtrusively adjusted as to be almost unseen 
at a casual glance. The thick bars and sills that 
marked the old wooden construction have been 
eliminated. Everywhere glass joins glass and 
the beautiful atmospheric clearness of the pol- 
ished plates is unbroken throughout the entire 
area of display. 

Metal store-front construction may be de- 
scribed truly as an industrial triumph. Not 
only has it done away with unsightly clumsiness, 
but it gives a rigidity and strength impossible 
under the old-fashioned plan. 

Metal construction, furthermore, brings with 
it many permanent economies: The metal-set 
window, once installed, is installed for good and 
all; it needs no periodical renovation; there is 
no paint to peel and fade, no woodwork to be- 
come scarred and dingy; the saving in upkeep 
alone will, in brief term, more than cover the 
whole expense of metal-set construction. 

Fire underwriters, of course, always prefer 
metal to wood. Not infrequently the difference 
in hazard will effect a very notable reduction in 
insurance rates. There are several standard 



makes and systems of metal store-front con- 
struction. Experts of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass 
Company are prepared at all times to work out 
the details of any desired installation for archi- 
tects, contractors, or others. By observing cer- 
tain simple rules for setting store-front windows 
a perfect result is assured. 

Among the various systems is one distributed 
by the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company which is 
eminently satisfactory and successful. Made by 
men intimately acquainted with the properties 
of plate glass, and tested by many years of 
elaborate trial, it is believed that this system 
embodies all possible qualities of simplicity, 
strength, and durability. 

Not the least of the recommendations of this 
system is its beauty. Supplied in solid copper 
or bronze, and in a large variety of such finishes 
as statuary bronze, nickel, and gun metal, it is 
found highly effective in harmony with prevail- 
ing architectural styles. 

An invaluable feature of all forms of good 
metal construction is the fact that it makes the 
show window absolutely dust-proof. The char- 
acteristic strength of such a system is achieved 
by means of an outer construction and an inner 
reinforcement that draw the outer covering up 
to the glass plate under tension, thus providing a 



[88] 



METAL CONSTRUCTION FOR STORE FRONTS 




Securing Larger Window Area 

Because of the arrangement of the glass frontage in these windows it is impossible for a visitor to enter the door without obtaining a 

distinct, arresting impression of two diverse lines of goods. 



bearing that is permanent and unvaryingly uni- produced by what is known as "pinching." The 

form. The glass is gripped sufficiently far plate of glass rests on setting blocks so arranged 

from its edge to give absolute freedom from that at no point can the edge of the glass come 

any strains or fractures that might possibly be into contact with the metal. 




A Simple Store-Front Arrangement 



The windows here shown are pleasing by reason of their very simplicity, yet give a considerable amount 
of room in which a few garments may be displayed with an effect of spaciousness. The use of decora- 
tive glass in the upper panel adds attractiveness without diverting the eye. 

[89] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Windows of Plate Glass and Prism Glass 

In this arrangement the front of the store is greatly recessed and the windows have almost the effect of detached show cases. By means 

of the prism glass panels above the show windows, daylight is thrown over the rear cases into the store. This front is a striking 

example of the chastely decorative possibilities of the prism panel, along with its singular utility as an aid to illumination. 




Where the Entrance Door is at One Side 

This picture shows an effective arrangement — one show window suitable for large exhibits, supple 
mented by a side window that adds materially to the comparatively narrow front, 

[90] 



METAL CONSTRUCTION FOR STORE FRONTS 




Doubling the Exhibition Space 

Almost the effect of an arcade has been obtained in the store where the above picture was made. The visitor approaches the door 
between plate glass lights set in metal framework and attractively dressed with merchandise. In this case the pillars that occur with- 
in the windows are surrounded with panels of mirrors as shown on page 70. 




Display Windows for Narrow Store Fronts 
These simple but effective windows are in marked contrast and suited to different types of display. In the left-hand picture a con- 
siderable amount of space has been borrowed from the shop's interior and turned into window display, thereby making an appeal to 

the passer-by quite impossible with the old type of store. 

[91] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




[92] 



METAL CONSTRUCTION FOR STORE FRONTS 




Other Types of Narrow Store Fronts 

Here are still other devices for increasing the display area possible for shops of comparatively narrow frontage. The casual visitor who 
steps in far enough to examine the rearmost cases will find himself close to the door and is likely to enter. 




[93] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




3E 

CO 5 



fe S 









<o *- 



O .5: 



O, j 5 






«T3 

O 4> 

es ~ 



S £ 



r 



[94] 



METAL CONSTRUCTION FOR STORE FRONTS 




Shop Front of Decorative Design 
passage gam m effectiveness from this setting, and the marble-and- spindle bulkhead supplies an adequate base 




Ornamentation on a Larger Scale 



sneaks" fXlT PlTT^ "?*** ? dea ^ft*? T, ^ out much more elaborately and the effect 
speaks tor itself. Plate glass, prism glass, marble bulkheads, and metal settings have been combined 

with unusual beauty and effectiveness. 

[95] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Double Frontage 

This is a design of the plainest simplicity, in which no ornamentation is attempted, save that of the valance 
at the top of the window. Thus attention is directed to the goods alone. 





Two-Story Window 

In this case the lower windows are available for close inspec- 
tion while the goods shown above are such as will attract 
attention from across the street. 



Windows with Higher Bulkheads 

For the purpose of exhibiting small articles for close examina- 
tion, a somewhat higher bulkhead than that in the upper pic- 
ture becomes appropriate. 



[96] 



SUGGESTIONS IN STORE-FRONT DESIGN 

THE unobtrusiveness of metal store-front construction, which notwith- 
standing its great strength requires a comparatively small amount of 
material, permits the largest possible area of display space. It also 
permits an unlimited adaptation in size and form to the requirements of 
display, is remarkably attractive, and of the greatest endurance. 

In this section (pages 97-104) are presented many of the adaptations 
of plate glass show windows that are in use in various parts of the country, 
but these by no means exhaust the possible effects. The illustrations already 
given show metal store-front construction as it appears in actual use, while 
the following pages give in greater structural detail a few of the available 
designs. For example, on page 98 are shown the possibilities of a front 
approximating fifty feet in width and on page 104 one of twenty-five feet. 
In these plate glass and metal are the essential materials used in construc- 
tion; the bulkhead may be of copper, as shown on page 100, or of stone, 
marble, or brick, if one of these materials better accords with the style of 
the building. 

Among the essential requirements are the following: 

Simplicity of design, both for reasons of beauty and because of 
Us practical economy in the installation and maintenance of the 
window. 

Inner reinforcement as well as outer strength, with the outer 
covering of joints drawn up to the glass under a slight tension— 
thus insuring a bearing both uniform and permanent. 

Uniform tension against glass, the glass being gripped far 
enough from its edge to prevent breaking from "pinching." 

Scientific arrangement and use of the setting block on which 
the glass is to rest so that its edge shall nowhere come into contact 
with metal. 

Protection of the joints to preclude the entrance of dust. 
Ventilation and drainage. 

All other characteristics that will enhance the display, preserve 
its beauty, and insure its safety. 

Where an architect is not available, the numerous distributing Ware- 
houses and factories of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company may be called 
upon to give expert advice and assistance. At these points are available 
thoroughly trained men who have studied carefully all points of importance 
in metal store-front construction. Thus they are prepared to advise as to the 
most appropriate design and to give competent instruction and direction in 
the matter of its execution. 



[97] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 










^ 

c 













era 



o 
Q 






[98] 



SUGGESTIONS IN STORE-FRONT DESIGN 




Metal Store Front with Marble Bulkhead 




Metal Store Front ivith Carrara Glass Bulkhead 



[99] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 





Two Attractive Store Fronts Showing Copper Bulkheads 



[100] 



SUGGESTIONS IN STORE-FRONT DESIGN 





Upper — Marble Bulkhead. Lower — Built-Brick Bulkhead 



[101] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Other Designs Showing Marble Bulkhead 



[102] 



SUGGESTIONS IN STORE-FRONT DESIGN 




[103] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Store Front with Brick Bulkhead 



[104] 




INTERIOR SHOP DISPLAY 



THE display in the shop interior continues 
and reinforces the function of the exterior 
display in the store front or show window — 
that of selling without salesmen. It should be 
considered, therefore, always in its relation to 
the exterior display. 

The interior shop display has the additional 
function of permitting close examination of a 
considerable number of articles, showing them in 
a variety of ways to meet all possible personal 



preferences on the part of those who are drawn 
into the store by the window display. 

Incidentally the interior display makes cus- 
tomers ask to be shown specific things and thus 
gives sales-people their chance for personal 
work. Thus alone can be provided the facilities 
for close scrutiny which buyers demand; at the 
same time they are inoffensively prevented from 
yielding to the general, almost unconscious, habit 
of handling goods unnecessarily. 




No Distortion or Weird Reflections 

As this photograph lay on a salesman's desk, a friend picked it up 

and said, " There is no glass in that show case, is there? " This was 

an unconscious tribute to the clear, rimless sliding door of plate 

glass, invisible to the camera and to the eye. 



The Customer Makes Selection 

Countless drug stores have this type of show case, enabling the 

customer to select goods without handling and giving sales-people 

opportunity for personal work. The advantage of rimless plate 

glass sliding doors is plain. 



[105] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




A Sales Increase of One Hundred Per Cent 

A Philadelphia drug store removed its antique show cases of window glass and replaced them with a modern plate glass equipment. 

This change resulted in increasing the display space from 144 to 428 square feet, and in adding one hundred per cent to the sales in 

a single year, in spite of general business depression. The new equipment is here pictured and the old is shown below. 




The Old Equipment 

A few years ago such equipment as this caused a druggist's heart 

to glow with just pride. Now it merely shows by comparison 

how rapidly the science of show-case display has progressed. 



The customer selects his own goods from the 
display and sells himself more than a good 
salesman could persuade him to buy. Without 
plate glass this display would be impossible. 

The plate glass show case gives clear vision 
of the goods with protection from dust and 
handling. An equivalent display without a show 
case would cover the tops of six counters, filling 
eight times as much floor space. A plate glass 
show case multiplies sales. Actual experience 
proves it conclusively. 

For example, in the drug store shown on this 
page, it was found that during the period of the 
old equipment not two customers out of ten made 
any purchase in addition to that for which they 
came in. After the modern plate glass show 
cases were installed, however, it was found that 
more than seven customers out of ten made some 
purchase in addition to that originally intended. 
The net result was a fifty per cent increase dur- 
ing the first month, the increase continuing until 
within a year it had reached almost one hundred 



[106] 



INTERIOR SHOP DISPLAY 




Department Store Interior 

Delicate merchandise such as that here shown would soon be damaged by dust and handling were it exposed on open counters. 

Show cases with glass tops and sides preserve its fresh and attractive appearance. Without plate glass and mirrors, the large 

department store would have a gloomy interior. This picture also illustrates an effective use of bent glass. 



per cent, although the period was one of business 
depression. The store simply increased its aver- 
age sale per customer, and plate glass played a 
large part in producing the gain. 

The new method of using f rameless plate glass 
sliding doors in wall display cases increases the 
display capacity thirty per cent by doing away 
with cumbersome and unnecessary wooden 
frames. Plate glass is the only glass that can 
safely be made into frameless doors. The edges 
of the glass are rounded and polished. A finger- 
hold is ground into the glass. The door slides on 
ball-bearing rollers and fits into dust-protecting 
grooves at the ends. The breakage on frameless 
doors is negligible. One chain-store system using 
more than five hundred frameless doors reports 
its breakage as almost nothing. 

The ability of a merchant is shown in his use 
of space: store space in high-rental districts is 
too costly to be used for the storage of goods that 
are not "moving." There is no "under the coun- 
ter" or "up on the shelf" in stores like those 




Great Gain in Space Without Increase in Rents 

One six-foot unit show case of the type here pictured displays 

more merchandise in a much more attractive manner than the 

tops of six counters. 



[107] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Jewelry Store Interior Show Cases 

General as is the use of plate glass for exterior window display, vastly more is used in show cases inside the store. The clear, 
transparent plate glass, by reason of its brilliancy and beauty, is particularly appropriate for the display of gems and plate. 




End Display Case 

The use of plate glass bent to curves multiplies opportunities 
for displaying goods effectively in restricted spaces which other- 
wise might not be utilized. 



in- 



shown on these pages. Every wall is devoted to 
showing goods and there is space in the center 
to give customers abundant elbow room as they 
inspect the displays. 

When a store is equipped with plate glass dis- 
play cases prominence is given to merchandise 
instead of to elaborate cabinet work. 

"How can I increase my sales when I already 
have all the good customers in my community?" 
This question is on the tip of most retailers' 
tongues. The best answer— 
volves least risk and expense 
goods to the same customers. 
by personal salesmanship and by advertising. 
The effect of both is more than doubled by lin- 
ing the walls of the store with fine displays of 
goods now hidden under counters, on storage 
shelves, or in the depths of old-fashioned, deep 
show cases with window-glass fronts. 

With efficient plate glass display equipment, 
saving time and saving labor, sales can be in- 
creased substantially without the employment of 
additional sales-people. 



-the way that 

; — is to selh more 

This can be done 



[108] 



INTERIOR SHOP DISPLAY 







Column Show Cases 

Otherwise unsightly columns may be made an element of beauty by surrounding them with built-up cases having large display surface. 
The flanking cases here shown have glass tops, sides, and ends, and mirror backs. 



The managers of the five-and-ten-cent stores 
maintain that their profits come from extra sales 
of articles that the customers did not have in mind 
when they entered the stores. In other words, 
their profits are dependent on displays made in 
plate glass cases. Thus it is seen, curiously 
enough, that plate glass has had a large share in 
making possible the erection of the huge Wool- 
worth Building that makes such extensive use of 
this remarkable material. 

At the other extreme of merchandising, the 
great Wanamaker stores find that visibility is 
responsible for eighty-seven per cent of their 
sales. For this reason, all leading merchants use 
practically no glass except plate. 

In all stores there is a gaining or losing limit 
for each sale: the retailer loses money on cus- 
tomers who buy under a certain amount. If it 
costs, as it does in one chain-store system, six 
cents on the average to get a customer into the 
store, and if there is a gross profit of thirty per 
cent on the average sale, there will be a net 
profit of only six cents so long as the average sale 




Confectionery Refrigerator 

Certain goods in a confectioner's shop should be kept chilled, 
but with this form of refrigerator case, the temperature require- 
ments need not interfere with display. 



[109] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Glass-Covered Tables 
In places dedicated to the sale of light refreshments, particularly of liquid nature, glass table tops obviously are desirable. 



is forty cents. But if through selling more goods 
to the same person the average sale can be in- 
creased to sixty cents, the net profit will be in- 
creased to twelve cents, or an increase of one 



hundred per cent. This is a practical showing 
of the way in which plate glass show cases may 
mean to a merchant all the difference between 
success and failure. 




Glass-Top Display Tables 

This picture shows a clever development that is particularly applicable to drug stores. It 

combines the sanitary advantages of the glass-top table for soda and ice cream with the 

selling functions of a show case. The patron, while seated at the table, has candies or other 

goods constantly under his eyes. 

[no] 



INTERIOR SHOP DISPLAY 




Display Cases for Costly Merchandise 

There is something subtly suggestive in the way in which these dainty and valuable articles have been enshrined in individual cases, 
almost like jewel caskets. This use of glass within glass enhances the effect of value. 




Partition Cases 




Exterior Display 



This shallow case forms part of the partition between two rooms. Weatherproof plate glass cases afford ample protection for the 
Its contents may be viewed from either side. contents and increase display space. 

[in] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Modem Grocery Display 

Compare this attractive interior with the groceries of your childhood days. The idea that grocery stores can be made beautiful 

and sanitary is a comparatively new one, but is spreading rapidly. The partly covered show case on the left makes it possible easily 

to take goods from the interior while preventing promiscuous handling by purchasers. 




Cafeteria Displays 

New as is the cafeteria idea, already it has passed through several stages of development. This form, having glass front and glass- 
top cases with open backs, is the most modern and obviously has come to stay. 

[112] 



INTERIOR SHOP DISPLAY 




Butcher s Refrigerators with Glass Fronts 

Refrigeration is not allowed to interfere with display. The meats seen in actual cold storage behind the plate glass are for that i 

all the more attractive to the eyes of the visitor. 




The 



Florist's Display Refrigerator 

here shown attract the attention of the passer-by through clear sheets of plate 
while still preserved from wilting. 

[113] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Through Three Thicknesses of Plate Glass 

The perfect vision possible through plate glass is strikingly demonstrated in this illustration. The goods in the windows are protected 
by plate glass front and rear, while the merchandise on the inner shelves may be seen behind a third thickness of plate glass. 




Taking Advantage of Small Spaces 

Two small plates of glass, their edges fastened with metal clamps, so small as almost to escape notice, 

make possible a genuine display in incredibly small space. 

[114] 




Plate Glass in Theatre Fronts 



All modern playhouses, and particularly moving picture theatres, find many uses for plate glass. In this view we see plate glass in 

the ticket se er ^ hr^th ^n the wtr.».,i K^.^^c ,!,«,., „:„„„ ] j: — l ___ i • .1 1 „ ., K a*" 



e ticket seller's booth, on the street boards, show signs, and display cases, and in the panels of the entrance door. 



MISCELLANEOUS USES OF PLATE GLASS 



MEN of the present are so accustomed to 
glass that they take it for granted. It 
is such an inseparable and familiar part 
of their daily lives that they no longer realize 
how utterly all their modern activities depend 
on it. Civilized men literally live surrounded 
by glass. Most of the world's daily work is 
done by grace of glass. At work or at play, 
awake or asleep, man is assisted by glass and 
protected by it. 

Yet, astonishing as are the multitudinous uses 
of glass, to every man who pauses a moment to 
think, there is a fact that is far more astonish- 
ing, namely: that mankind in truth has barely 
made a beginning of appropriating to his own 
benefit the usefulness of this material. Though 
glass has been known since time out of mind, it 
is only in our own era that it is becoming recog- 
nized as one of the chief factors in every in- 



dustrial activity. It is perfectly correct to say 
that the use of glass in the past (and even in the 
immediate present) is as nothing compared with 
the vastly larger use that may be expected for 
this material in the future. 

Glass iii the past provided us with countless 
conveniences, beautiful as well as useful, but it 
remained an accessory material. This was nota- 
bly true in building; the building was always 
thought of in terms of stone or wood, and later 
of iron and steel. Windows were planned in 
subordination to these materials and to prevail- 
ing modes of construction. Today a business 
building of any kind is planned first and fore- 
most with reference to light. It is window-space 
that is the leading concern of the investor; and 
this refers not simply to the openings in the ex- 
terior walls, but also to the advantageous ar- 
rangement of interior space. 



[115] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 







Office Directory Cases 

Both interior and exterior office directories are protected by panes 
of plate glass; also the photographer's display case. 



Plate Glass Door Shields 

Sheets of plate glass set in frames are often used to protect an 
interior from drafts without loss of light or transparency. 



Wherever natural light can be had, it in- 
volves a permanent economy for the building, 
for every space that requires artificial light 
means continual expense. Thus, by an irresist- 
ible economic force, glass has become a building 
material of commanding rank. It has advanced 
far beyond the point where its use is important 
merely for windows and skylights. It is consid- 
ered today as eminently a building material for 
interior walls, partitions, even for paneling and 
floors. Its manufacture has kept abreast with 
the extension of its uses. 



In plate glass the growth of recognition has 
been particularly marked. It is not many dec- 
ades since plate glass was used nowhere except 
for mirrors; in fact, its invention was due mainly 
to the search for mirror glass of better reflecting 
surface than anything to be found in ordinary 
sheet or cylinder glass. 

For generations after its invention and suc- 
cessful production, the cost of plate glass re- 
mained so high that the very name ws^s almost a 
synonym for extravagance. Even after its use 
extended beyond mirrors, it remained a luxury. 




Hanging Window Signs 

There is no more attractive form of window sign than that which 

is painted or etched upon glass. It is incomparably more 

elegant than the sign made from metal. 




Store Front Signs 

The United Cigar Stores Company has studied efficient mer- 
chandising in every branch. It is one of many great concerns 
that have learned the superiority of glass signs. 



[116] 



MISCELLANEOUS USES OF PLATE GLASS 





Uffl'.fl H 







Plate Glass on Shipboard 

A ship is built to stand heavy weather and common glass would be worthless in face of wind and waves. Extra heavy plate glass is 
universally employed for portholes, bridge windows, and other similar purposes. Thus equipped, the ship-builder does not consider 

his windows as points of structural weakness. 



However, so manifest was its wonderful utility, 
that men never ceased striving to make it avail- 
able for ordinary use. But their success was 
very gradual, and it is only in our time that plate 
glass has become one of the everyday neces- 
sities of civilization. 

The following pages will suggest additional 
values of plate glass as it is yearly coming into 
wider and wider employment in countless diverse 
applications. In what we may call the "service 
rooms" of a house, such as bathrooms, kitchen, 
and pantry, glass doors and shelves save endless 
trouble. Toilet accessories in the bathroom and 



the household medicine supply, kept on glass 
shelves and behind glass doors, are always sani- 
tary and quickly to be found. 

Plate glass has been adopted so generally for 
every possible bathroom purpose, that artistic 
unity and attractiveness call for its use in the 
smaller appliances as well as the large. Among 
these, delightfully cleanly and agreeable to the 
eye, are towel rods of glass. They far and away 
outlast enameled woods and plated metals. 

In kitchen and pantry, glass doors, sliding 
or swinging according to convenience, save the 
busy housewife much time and many steps in 







*% 




Portholes 




Bridge Windows 



[117] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Plate Glass Dining-Car Windows 

The tranquillity of a comfortable meal in a dining car would be distinctly disturbed if the views of the landscape were blurred and 
distorted. A dining car without plate glass windows is almost unthinkable. 



search for the countless articles that she needs 
from hour to hour. There is indeed a basic 
economy in installing glass in the kitchen, for 
painted work grows dingy unless frequently re- 
newed. Even glass in oven and refrigerator 
doors is a refinement rapidly growing in favor. 



Practically all theatre owners make extensive 
use of color reproductions of dramatic scenes 
for outside displays, where the tempting dis- 
closures of fascinating bits of the play will in- 
vite passers-by into the theatre. The ideal cov- 
ering for these displays is plate glass. It keeps 




Telephone Booth 

At least one pane of plate glass is required in every telephone 
booth; sometimes the booth is entirely glass-enclosed. 



Exhibition Booth 

In such a booth, plate glass is employed in a variety of ways to 
enhance the attractiveness of the exhibition. 



[118] 



MISCELLANEOUS USES OF PLATE GLASS 





Familiar Uses of Plate Glass 

Upon this page are shown four familiar uses of plate glass which are suggestive of many others. In all of them the requirements of 

protection and clear vision are combined. 



the advertising material free from dust, protects 
it from rain and snow, and affords a clear view 
of the illustrations. For the moving picture 
theatre, plate glass serves admirably as an ef- 
fective background against which white letters 
announcing the title of the movie and the star 
actors stand out prominently. 

The modern operating room may be dreaded 



by most of us because of its significance, but 
there is nothing dreadful about its appearance. 
The first impression that it gives the beholder is 
that it is made all of glass. That is not exactly so, 
but glass certainly predominates, and surgeons 
would be quite unable to conceive of aseptic con- 
ditions for operation except by aid of a material 
so easily cleansed and kept clean. Glass is the 





[119] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Plate Glass Covers Convert Radiators into Sightly Window Seats 

Low radiators in window corners are coming increasingly into vogue. A most attractive way to finish and utilize such an arrange- 
ment is by means of an extra heavy plate glass cover-shelf such as that shown in the illustration. 



one and only material that meets all their re- 
quirements. The powerful antiseptic liquids 
and washes are for the most part highly corro- 
sive. Metal, even when enameled, nickeled, or 
silvered, is at best only to a degree resistant. 
Glass is not merely resistant, it is immune. Un- 
der the microscope the most highly polished 
metal surface shows pits and other roughnesses 



that are lurking-places for disease germs. Glass, 
because normally its surface is so smooth, can 
be made clean not only in the housekeeper's 
meaning but in the bacteriological sense. 

In the commercial and industrial building, 
the use of glass push-plates for doors has be- 
come obligatory wherever attention is paid to 
appearance and wherever it is recognized that 




Making Blackboards out of Glass 

Whether employed for stock quotations in brokers' offices, train announcements in railroad stations, or use in schoolrooms, glass 
for blackboards has proved beyond question its superiority over slate, wood, or other materials. 

[120] 



MISCELLANEOUS USES OF PLATE GLASS 




Museum Exhibition Cases 



A modern —earn without P^^- would be a sorry affair. Exhibits must be proteeted from dust, excessive moisture, and par- 
ticularly trom handling by visitors. On the other hand, they must be made easy of inspection. 



grime is "poor business" and expensive. There 
are many doors in the home that should not be 
without this unobtrusive, inexpensive, undam- 
ageable, ever-clean little shield. Rear entrance, 
kitchen, pantry, and nursery doors suggest them- 
selves as obvious places for its use. 

There are occasions when glass is to be used 
in a part of the building where a uniform color 



scheme is desired. In such circumstances it is 
necessary merely to paint the back of the sheets 
of plate glass to match the other material. The 
effect of such color showing through the lustrous 
surface is peculiarly rich and distinguished. 

Few indeed there are who realize how steady 
is the process of abrasion. A case in point is the 
famous Egyptian obelisk in Central Park, New 





Seeing Things in Action 

Beteh ^TAz^^tz^^^ 

[121] 



1 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




A Diving Tank of Heavy Glass 

The submarine lady in the illustration must remain in full sight of the audience while giving her exhibition. 

of plate glass is required for such tanks. 



An extra-heavy type 




Light in Libraries 

Rough plate glass is now widely used in public libraries for foot- 
ways and ceilings between the tiers of book shelves, thus taking 
fullest possible advantage of natural light. 



York, which is being so worn away by flying 
dust and the ordinary effects of "weathering" 
that students fear its hieroglyphic inscriptions 
will become quite indecipherable. All the build- 
ing stones known to mankind, and even structural 
iron and steel, are prey to the slow but relent- 
lessly destructive processes of nature. Glass is 
the one material that is practically resistant. It 
does not oxidize, peel, chip, or weather. 

Plate glass for paneling has the advantages 
of never needing paint or other refinishing, 
defying scratches and similar injury, and add- 
ing impressive richness. The surface behind it 
may be painted in any color, or the glass itself, 
stained, opal, black or otherwise ornamental, 
may give the finish. . 

In the cold months the great majority of sub- 
urban and country houses waste their verandas 
utterly. This means that in the greater part of 
our north temperate zone the veranda is in use 
only about one-half the year. Yet for many pur- 
poses and in many circumstances the veranda 
often is the most desirable spot in the entire 
habitation, when a simple system of removable 
sash with plate glass windows has converted it 



[122] 






MISCELLANEOUS USES OF PLATE GLASS 




Shower-Balh Protection 

Plate glass is rapidly displacing the old-fashioned insanitary waterproof cnrtain. Besides being one hnndred per cent efficient, the glass 
protector saves labor and gives striking character to the appearance of the bathroom. 

into a bright, warm, spacious sun parlor. Glaz- in place that the glass sun parlor may have any 

ing it thus is a notable economy, also, for such an form and dimensions. It may take in the whole 

air space insulates the house and cuts down fuel- roomy veranda, or it may be no more than a tiny, 

bills. Sectional sash are so easily made and put cozy, sun-catching den. 




Glass Water Tanks for Indoor Decoration 

Tanks made of plates of glass in some such forms as here shown and supplied with plants 
and goldnsh make a particularly attractive decorative feature, 

[123] 



M 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 





Glass Panes for Lighthouses 

Thousands of lives depend on the unfailing transmission of warn- 
ing signals. Heavy plate glass in lighthouses answers every 
requirement. 



Aeroplane Signals 

This is a new use for plate glass. Beams of light must be thrown 

far and clear in order to guide the courageous bird-men when 

they fly in the darkness. 



It would be an almost endless task to enu- 
merate all the possible uses for the various 
types of plate glass, but many of the more ob- 
vious applications described or pictured in this 



volume will serve to show how in the space of 
less than half a century plate glass has developed 
from a costly luxury to one of the everyday 
necessities of civilized life. 




Diver's Helmet 

The diver's life depends on his helmet remaining watertight 

under great pressure, yet he must be able to see his work. Heavy 

plate glass gives safety with visibility. 









, ^ ■*> 



An Unusual Table 



Anyone would agree that this glass-centered table, with potted 

plants below the opening, is unique. It suggests views through 

the glass-bottomed boats at Santa Catalina Island. 



[124] 




Chipped Plate Glass Windows 

Frequently it is desirable to obscure vision without obstructing the light. One of the popular means to this end is the employment 

of that beautiful and varied surface known as "chipped glass." 



GLASS WITH PATTERN SURFACES 

Grinding or Sandblasting, Chipping, Enameling, Embossing, Etching 



GLASS with patterns of various kinds on 
its surface is needed for many places 
where light is desired without permitting 
vision, as in partitions for private offices, doors 
leading into private rooms, corridors in build- 
ings, and windows that face other windows, as 
well as for other uses of a purely ornamental 
character. The modern glass-maker has at his 
command a great number of simple processes 
which enable him to produce, economically and 
quickly, results that are highly attractive, and 
which in the earlier days of the industry would 
have required much labor, besides calling for 
the most expert craftsmanship. 

GRINDING OR SANDBLASTING 

By means of compressed air fine sand is 
driven against a sheet of glass. The process at- 
tacks the surface, producing a fine effect obtain- 
able in no other manner, a milky finish that has 
the appearance of being frosted. 



chipping 

This process employs the natural stresses and 
strains of the glass to produce a pattern that is 
beautifully varied, no two areas being exactly 
alike in detail. Glass that has been ground or 
sandblasted is coated with glue, and then sub- 
jected to gradual heating. The contraction of 
the glue as it dries causes it to shrink and shrivel 
off in flakes, and each flake tears off with it a 
thin sliver of the glass, leaving a delicate tracery 
pattern in the clear glass. 

No two flakes of glue will peel off exactly 
alike, and this makes the haphazard pattern en- 
tirely different from work done by more labori- 
ous mechanical means. The varied forms are 
what the artist calls "interesting," by which he 
means that they present a multiplicity of detail 
on which the eye can rest with unceasing pleas- 
ure. There can be no monotony in the deli- 
cate designs produced, altogether by chance, in 
chipped glass. 



[125] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Chipped Glass Used Ornamentally 

The illustrations give a suggestion of the decorative possibilities of chipped glass in interior use. The door-plates in the picture on the 
left show an ornamental effect produced by a marginal line of clear glass. 



DOUBLE-PROCESS CHIPPING 

A sheet that has been chipped, often is sub- 
jected to the process a second time. This method 
removes the sandblast lines entirely and makes 
a wonderfully rich pattern of intricate detail. 



MARGIN, LETTERING, OR DESIGN 

If ornamental marginal designs are wanted 
on chipped plates it is possible to produce clear 
margins, clear lines, sandblast margins, sand- 
blast or clear border designs, or any desired 




Sandblast Line 
This illustration and the one on the left above offer a comparison between the clear line and 

sandblast on chipped glass plates. ( 

[126] 



GLASS WITH PATTERN SURFACES 




Ground Glass Windows 
Ground glass is too familiar to need description and is very largely employed where obscure or semi-transparent glazing is desired. 



combination of the two effects. When the mar- 
gin, lettering, or design is to be in clear glass, 
the required pattern is protected from the sand- 
blast or from the glue coating and its chip- 
ping effect. The processes described then affect 
only the surface that is exposed and when the 
work is finished the clear glass design stands out 
handsomely. 

An interesting combination of clear and sand- 
blast glass is illustrated in the photograph at 
the bottom of this page. The lower three-quar- 
ters of the plate is made obscure by sandblast to 
prevent vision into the office from the corridor, 
while the upper section of the plate remains 
transparent, with the exception of the ornamental 
sandblast border lines. This arrangement gives 
an effect of spaciousness that is not obtained 
when a solid sandblast light is used. 

EMBOSSING AND ETCHING 

Very often a soft white light is desired with- 
out any conspicuous decorations or patterns, and 
for this requirement there is a glass known as 
Embossed Plate which is translucent without 




Combination Plate 

In this illustration the lower section is sandblast finish and the 
upper portion clear. 



[127] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Rolled Figured Glass 

Various ornamental patterns may be rolled into the surface of the glass during manufacture. These frequently are employed in office 

doors and partitions, as here pictured. 



being transparent, and pleases with its delicate 
satin-like finish. 

Embossed plate glass is produced by treating 
the surface with an acid, hydrofluoric, which at- 
tacks glass. It is permitted to eat into the an- 
nealed surface till a subdued, delicate effect, 
semi-obscure or wholly obscure, is obtained. 




For the Photographer's Studio 

A combination of ground and clear glass windows enables the 
artist to secure needed variations in his lighting effects. 



ROLLED FIGURED GLASS 

This is a cast glass product, the molten glass 
being poured and rolled into sheets. Instead of 
being ground and polished, however, it is im- 
pressed on one side with a more or less elaborate 
ornamental pattern. This result is obtained by 
means of a pattern on the roller or sometimes on 
the rolling table. 

The primary object is to obtain a translucent 
but not transparent glazing material, to serve 
in the many cases where light is needed but visi- 
bility is not desired. 

The figures rolled into the surface give parti- 
tions made of rolled figured glass a highly orna- 
mental character, but light-admission with pri- 
vacy and ornamental appearance are not the only 
practical values of this material. The patterns 
are so devised that they are essentially prismatic 
— that is, they serve as prisms to admit, diffuse, 
and distribute all the light that can possibly be 
brought in. 

The designs are of a wide variety, some being 
most fanciful. They range from arabesque to 
geometric forms, and include also rippled, cob- 
webbed, straight ribbed, hammered, and many 
other effects. 



[128] 



GLASS WITH PATTERN SURFACES 




Rolled Glass for Factory Installations 

The modern factory consists largely of windows; in fact, its walls are little more than huge window frames, since daylight is cheaper 
and better than artificial light. Varieties of glass largely employed for this use are rolled, rough, and ribbed. 



ETCHED GLASS 

By the use of dilute hydrofluoric acid the 
glass is treated superficially without being eaten 
into deeply enough to make a perceptible de- 
pression on the surface. The appearance is sim- 
ilar to sandblast or ground glass of fine texture. 
The result of this treatment is a snow-white ob- 
scure glass. An endless variety of fanciful sten- 
cil designs may be obtained by use of patterns 
that resist the acid. 



ENAMELED GLASS 

The feature of this glass is a pattern over the 
whole surface, usually in some geometric figure. 
It is used exclusively in the ordinary cylinder 
or window glass. 

If the pattern itself is sandblasted, while the 
background of the glass is left clear, the glass is 
known as Clear Enamel. If the pattern is sand- 
blasted on a glass that has been ground, it is 
known as Obscure Enamel. 




[ 129 ] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Walls of Windows 

In the picture the side of the building is what might be called a wall of daylight, having no mason-work above the ground floor 
while the end wall contains but little. This form of installation gives adequate strength and a wonderfully bright interior. 



SANDBLAST PATTERNS 

As in the enamel glass, there are many pat- 
terns of sandblast glass. They are most usually 
applied to such purposes as transoms, doors, 
deck-lights on ships, and similar uses. The proc- 



ess is in favor because designs in stencil may 
be made to suit any purpose or any taste and 
in great detail, even to the extent of imitating 
lace designs. Chipped and sandblasted patterns 
can be made up in infinite variety. 







imtMB 








































-'III 











Factrolite 



■—-"""- 






um 



' i in 







Pentecor 



Ribbed 



Other Types of Rolled Figured Glass 



The Factrolite, Pentecor, and Ribbed patterns here shown, being essentially prismatic, serve to diffuse light and brighten illumi- 
nation, while obscuring vision. This practical utility, coupled with the ornamental character of rolled figured glass sufficiently 

accounts for its popularity. 

[130] 



GLASS WITH PATTERN SURFACES 




Etched Glass Sign 

One of the principal applications of etched glass is in sign-work. Signs of this character permit a large degree of ornamentation and 
may be designed with reference to the arrangement of doors and windows. 












■»»* 



W 



rmms^ 14 



m 



■* 



Mi 






rvv 

:•: *jt 
' V y 



\ V 






V.V1 
vv 






• » * 




£**&*>tt** 



N t/*\t/ *t?^ t ^ + ? T.iJTjiT k- •:•:• -> 



i7»\i7«\i7»\ 
•\t7»\i/'\i7 




Patterns in Etched Glass 
All these patterns for etched glass panels can be supplied to suit the taste of the purchaser. 

[131] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 






Ground 





Double-Chipped 



Ground, Chipped, and Double-Chipped Surfaces 




Florentine 



Romanesque 



Syenite 



Maze 




On do y ant 
Patterns in Rolled Figured Glass 

[132] 



Rippled 





Prism Glass for Store Fronts 

The efficacy of sheet prism and prism plate glass as conveyors of light has been demonstrated through their use in thousands of stores 
and buildings throughout the country. The refractive qualities of the prism ribs serve to direct light to the farthest corners of a room, 

which would not be the case if clear glass were used. 



PRISM GLASS 



PRISM GLASS is a commercial high quality 
glass for exterior and interior windows, 
with its face patterned in rows of prisms 
that direct light to places where it is wanted. 
Thus the same principle of optics that makes 
possible the modern binocular field glass and 
range-finder is turned to the broadest prac- 
tical account in the daylighting of factories, 
offices, and homes. Exactly 
how the principle applies 
is explained on page 137. 

Prism glass does not pro- 
duce light, for it can gather 
and direct only what light 
there is. But its practical 
effect is almost the same as 
if it actually did produce 
light, since it does increase 
to an astonishing extent the 
available light in the inte- 
rior of buildings. 

Thus, in rooms on a deep 
court or well, or on a nar- 
row street bordered by tall 
buildings, all the light that 
strikes the prism sheet is 
concentrated where desired. 
The saving in artificial 
lighting effected by prism 




glass is so well recognized that formulas for 
all purposes and situations have become highly 
exact. Knowing the relative height of obstruct- 
ing buildings and their horizontal distance from 
a given window, a simple calculation tells exactly 
the kind of prism required. 

All the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company's 
Warehouses are in position to give expert advice 
and to deliver the particu- 
lar pattern best adapted to 
any use, on large scale or 
small. Prism glass is one of 
the important structural ma- 
terials of the industrial 
world, for it renders many 
an interior, otherwise too 
dark for any good use, prof- 
itably serviceable. 



M 



/ 



Sheet Prism Glass 
[133] 



PRESSED PRISM TILES 

Pressed Prism Tiles are 
made in squares either four 
or five inches square. Tile 
prism work is set in hard 
metal, all lights being rein- 
forced with steel bars to 
make them solid and rigid. 
Geometric designs made 
from sheet prism glass set 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Pressed Prism Tiles for Store Fronts 

Beauty and utility are attained through the use of prism tiles in store-front construction. The tiles are set in hard metal, either zinc 
nnisn or copper-plated, with ornamental tiles to enrich the decorative effect if desired and sufficiently reinforced with steel bars to 
make them solid and rigid. Pivot ventilators can be inserted in the prism tile construction. These ventilators (as shown in the 
illustration below) are mounted in steel standards, and may be equipped with screens for protection when open. Two examples of 

ornamental border tiles also are shown below. 



in metal, plain or copper-plated, may be obtained 
and used with very artistic and satisfactory re- 
sults. Prism glass may be set also in solid 
copper • bars if desired. Pivot ventilators are 
mounted in steel standards and may be equipped 
with screens. Fancy border tiles used with this 
form of glazing make it highly decorative, in a 
style dignified and quiet and one that presents a 
distinctly, artistic appearance. 

PRISM GLASS FOR SIDEWALK LIGHTS 

Sidewalk Slabs, which carry glass set in rein- 
forced concrete panels, are the established means 



for lighting vaults, cellars, and dark basements 
in cities. The glass is either square or circular, 
and is imbedded in concrete reinforced with steel 
bars. The construction has been improved by 
long years of study of what has best endured 
traffic in the busiest places in the world. The 
panels can be made to any desired dimensions. 

GLASS LENSES 

To meet various conditions, Sidewalk Glass 
Lenses are made in a number of different forms 
which have been found best suited to their par- 
ticular purposes. They may be had in flat 



f ->, 








j 


v**,. \%* y 







Border Tile 




Prism Tile Construction 
[134] 



Border Tile 



PRISM GLASS 




Sidewalk Vault Lights Lighting the Basement 

Sidewalk slabs with glass in reinforced concrete panels are widely used for the lighting of dark basements and make it possible to 
utilize valuable space under sidewalks. Various forms of glass lenses are used for different conditions, either flat pressed units, or 
drop lenses of a single prism, or multiple-prism lenses, according to the effect desired. 



pressed units, or in drop lenses, and these types 
again are supplied either in single prism or in 
multiple prism. 

INSTALLATION 

A detailed drawing or a blueprint must show 
accurately the sizes of openings. The order 
should be accompanied also by a good descrip- 
tion of the space that is to be illuminated, so 
that the factory experts may select the best prism 
lenses for the work. 

The slab is made up complete, glazed and 
finished in any desired size to fit the opening. 



Where more than one slab is required the neces- 
sary T bars are cut to proper length and shipped 
with the slabs. 

These slabs can be installed by any workman 
who will but follow the directions that accom- 
pany shipment. The slabs as they come from the 
factory will be found of perfect fit, ready for 
the calking of the joints. 

In ordering, sizes of openings must be given 
either by detailed drawings or by blueprint, and 
the conditions of the space to be daylighted 
should be described fully in order to secure the 
proper prism lenses for the best results. 



/ 




Sidewalk Glass Slab 




Sidewalk Glass Lenses 



[135] 









PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 





Prism Plate Glass 




mmm 



Apex Glass 



mmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 

**************** 

f******NNRRPlffKnp 

saaaaaaaaaaaaaa* 

**************** ^=3;;;P=a|" 

**************** 

fBBBBSm PPHW* 

**************** 

M333S38S3333S3S EBIiqi K!J.| 

s*************** wf* 

******** ********* 

Style O — I. Imperial Style — 2. Imperial 



V, - V V N< S/ N 

"''■'^'J**** 
'/▼***** 

***** 

\****/ 





w**i 

***l 
****( 

***** 
****** 



Style O — 3. Imperial 



Style O — 4. Imperial 
Ornamental Polished Plate Prismatic Glass 

[136] 



Style O — 5, Imperial 



PRISM GLASS 



■sa 




Fig. 2 



SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATION OF THE PRISM 



"W^HEN transom sash are set with 3-Way Luxfer 
" Pressed Prism Tiles, the entire room is daylighted. 
Plain glass, on the other hand, permits the lighting of 
only the part adjacent to the window. The effect of 
the prisms is to bend up the light rays and project them 
to the farthest corners. 

This use of the prism is made possible by a funda- 
mental law of optics. Light rays always travel in 
straight lines unless reflected or refracted. Accord- 
ing to one law of refraction, when light rays pass 
obliquely from one medium into another of different 
density, they are deflected, but upon passing through, 
and re-entering the original medium, they are restored 
to their original direction, provided the planes of 
approach and of exit are parallel. 

When light rays pass through a sheet of plain glass 
(figure 3) , they are refracted toward the perpendicular 
to the surface as they enter the glass, and away from 
the perpendicular as they leave it; the angles of de- 
flection being determined by the angles at which the 
rays strike the two surfaces of the glass. But, as 
these surfaces are parallel, the resultant direction at 
exit is the same as that of approach. 



In figure 5 the rays approach the prism surface at 
the same angle as the angle of approach in figure 3, 
but, because the second surface of the prism is not 
parallel, but at an angle, to the first, they still further 
change their direction as they leave, different-angled 
prisms giving different resultant directions. 

The commercial prism is a series of small prisms 
moulded into the face of the tiles. These prisms, in 
the 3-Way Luxfer Tiles, are of different angles, so 
as to bend the light in different directions. 

Figure 1 shows how light passes directly through 
an ordinary pane and is reflected by the walls. 

Figure 2 shows how light passing through a plain 
glass window with a 3-Way Luxfer Transom above is 
bent up by refraction in new directions, searches out 
and daylights every part of the room, and is reflected 
from every wall. Figure 4 shows this in another way. 

3-Way Luxfer Pressed Prism Tiles are made in two 
types: Luxfer, or Flat Back, for average installations, 
and 3-Way, or Lens Back, for locations where daylight 
must be gathered from sides as well as from above. 

Only experts should be consulted, in order that 
prisms of proper angle be selected, as is essential. 




Fig. 3 



Fig- 4 
[137] 



Fig. 5 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 








Wire Glass Saw-Tooth Lights 

The modern saw-tooth lights, that give a northern exposure and thus obviate the unpleasant effects of direct sunlight, frequently are 
set with wire glass. The lower picture shows the degree of daylight illumination thus secured. 



WIRE GLASS 



WIRE GLASS is a very modern utility. It 
was hardly known until the late 'eighties, 
but its surpassing value as a structural 
material has brought it into such general use that 
today the volume of production is amazing. 

Wire glass is used in various types of build- 
ings, ranging from factory construction, where 



the rough and ribbed patterns are serviceable, to 
structures of highest class, in which polished wire 
glass is employed for windows, elevator doors, 
and the like. Usually it is set in metal frames, 
rather than in ordinary wood sash. Where light 
is a factor, wire glass sometimes takes the place 
of wood or other opaque materials for partitions, 




[138] 



WIRE GLASS 




H 



Ribbed Wire Glass Daylights this Immense Pier 



In the three divisions — Head Section, Freight Section, and Outer Section — of Chicago's great Municipal Pier, which extends 3000 
feet into Lake Michigan, upwards of 100,000 lights of Ribbed Wire Glass admit and diffuse the sunlight. 



as the figured or pattern-surface wire glass is 
translucent without transparency. As all the 
decorative forms of pattern and figured glass 
can be supplied in wire glass, its use aids ma- 
terially in brightening forms of factory construc- 
tion that without it would be most unattractive. 
Wire glass is quite obviously the material to 
be used for safety, because its wired construction 



gives it great strength. For this reason it should 
be specified for skylights and similar glass cov- 
erings, as also for elevator shafts, stair walls, 
factory roofs, and similar purposes. 

HOW WIRE GLASS IS MADE 

Wire glass is cast and rolled into sheets like 
plate glass, and the wire is made a component 




Wire Glass in Doors and Transoms 

Garage and factory doors and transoms must withstand violent impacts without shattering; wire glass installation 

prevents personal injury, and property loss. 

[139] 



J 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Figured and Polished Wire Glass 

In hospitals the strength of wire glass, as well as the simplicity and beauty of the polished and figured styles, makes it singularly 
available for use in elevator doors and other passageway doors and partitions. 



part of it by introducing the mesh while the hot 
glass still is plastic. There are three methods for 
imbedding the wire mesh, as follows: 

I. SHUMAN PROCESS 

After the molten glass is poured on the cast- 
ing-table and rolled out, the wire mesh is spread 
out upon the plastic sheet and pressed deeply 
into it by a method which at the same time 
smooths the surface. 

II. APPERT OR SCHMERTZ PROCESS 

A sheet of glass is rolled to half the desired 
total thickness. The wire mesh is laid on it, and 
a second sheet of the same thickness as the first 
is poured and rolled on it, thus producing a 
solid sheet with the wire mesh in the middle. 

III. CONTINUOUS OR SOLID PROCESS 

The wire mesh is stretched and held firmly 
on the casting-table, so adjusted that it is sus- 
pended at a desired height above the table sur- 



face. The molten glass is poured and rolled 
over it, thus producing a solid plate with the 
wire mesh firmly imbedded inside. 

ORNAMENTAL WIRE GLASS 

All the rolled figured glasses can be cast and 
rolled with wire mesh, and this is a favorite 
form in the case of buildings that make any 
pretensions to beauty. 

Prism glass also can be furnished with w T ire, 
and various forms of plain transparent wire 
glass are rolled in such patterns as plain •corru- 
gated and other designs that have the prismatic 
property of diffusing or redirecting light. 

Wire glass construction may be wholly trans- 
parent, semi-obscure, rough on one side or on 
both, or polished. Thus its value ranges from 
usefulness for walls and saw-tooth roof construc- 
tion in factories, where utilitarian service is the 
end in view, to highly decorative glazing for the 
interior of the most elaborate buildings, where 
strength is required but where beauty also is a 
consideration of first moment. 



[140] 



WIRE GLASS 




Maze 



Syenite 




v 



* 



V 






V 



Romanesque 



i [| |BI!!i!i- !! 
{{ III 



mum 

limine 




MURANESE 



Pentecor 



Factrolite 



Various Styles of Wire Glass 

itterns, th 
shown cai 

[141] 



Wire glass as well as plain glass may be finished in various patterns, thus giving all desired variety in decorative effects. All the 

patterns here shown can be supplied. 







Leaded Glass Curtain Designs 

In this illustration is shown an effective set of leaded glass curtain designs, composed of clear glass with delicately-tinted and iridescent 
color blocks. These windows have become extremely popular; dispensing altogether with lace curtains, the glass is carried out in 
colors to harmonize with the draperies and the general color scheme of the room. In the middle foreground may be seen two leaded 

glass lanterns in keeping with the window designs. 




LEADED GLASS 

Clear, Stained, and Colored 



X E 



EADED GLASS" is a term referring to a 
method of treatment, rather than to any- 
particular kind of glass, or indeed, to any 
particular metal as a setting for it. Inasmuch 
as the purpose of this treatment is almost exclu- 
sively ornamental, it is natural that only the finer 
kinds of glass, or in other words, plate glass 
quality, can consistently be employed. 

In the popular idea, the term leaded glass no 
doubt generally suggests the rich stained-glass 
compositions that illuminate the windows of 
libraries, churches, and the like, in the design- 
ing of which art is unfettered by financial con- 
siderations. It is a fact, however, that leaded 
glass is available also for many modest forms of 
decoration, interior and exterior; that it requires 
neither stained nor colored glass, but is adapted 
admirably to interpreting the forms of art that 
find their expression in simplicity. 

Any plain transparent plate glass can be used 
with excellent results in leaded form, as like- 
wise all the various kinds of semi-obscure and 
figured glass. The term "leaded" does not sig- 
nify, furthermore, that lead is of necessity the 
metal employed; harder metals, such as zinc and 
copper, also are used to a considerable extent. 

Leaded glass, owing to the fact that it must be 
cut into pieces of irregular shape, each of which 
must have its own framing of metal, falls within 
the manufacturing department of the glass plant, 
and many special, conventional designs in 
leaded glass have become staple products. Thus 
every architect, interior decorator, cabinet- 



maker, and furniture manufacturer has almost 
indefinite latitude, as to the variety of designs 
available, in the economical employment of 
leaded glass decoration. 

In any glass-work built up of metal-joined 
pieces, the leading itself is a real element in the 
beauty of the composition. Whether the glass be 
colored or clear, and no matter what design the 
whole may represent, the lines of the leading 
never should be considered as an interference 
with the treatment of the subject, but, rather, as 
giving additional values. In some cases, for 
example, lines of unusual weight may add dis- 
tinction and impressiveness. 

So well recognized was this principle by the 
makers of medieval church windows that many 
of the most famous designs in stained glass were 
based wholly upon the lines of the leading. In 
succeeding periods, as the art declined, the 
workers manifestly began to treat the leading as 
a defect, or at least an obstacle. More and more 
they tried to make the leaded stained glass look 
like a painting. 

In yielding to this cardinal error, the vital 
spirit of leaded glass art was lost. This art, 
whether colored or clear glass be its medium, is 
a decorative system that belongs exclusively to 
glass, and should imitate no other system. 

Thus clear glass may be used for decorative 
eif ects almost unlimited in variety and produced 
entirely by the leading. The lines of metal may 
form an intricate pattern, or one beautifully 
simple. They may be fantastic, or they may 



[143] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




s pi r; t n SV,-: 


1 


n.^_v^ n « 



^5 



Clear Leaded Glass Grill Design 
This illustration presents an excellent example of a clear leaded glass grill design widely used in Colonial houses. 




Curtain Design 

An example of curtain design using clear or semi-obscure glass 
in delicate tints, to harmonize with the draperies. 



employ some simple geometric form indefinitely 
reduplicated — one of the earliest revealed prin- 
ciples in art, and one never superseded. 

Clear glass in a great variety of such leaded 
designs is produced by the Pittsburgh Plate Glass 
Company. From clear polished plate to the same 
brilliant glass with beveled ornamentation is only 
a step, but it is one that opens up a wide, new 
field in the development of leaded glass designs, 
a field singularly rich and diversified. 

Proceeding a step further, we come to the clear 
leaded glass with colored decorations, and then to 
the leaded all-color colored glasses, the leaded 
mosaic opalescent glass, the leaded opalescent 
painted glass, and so on to opalescent and cathe- 
dral glass. These latter belong to the discussion 
of stained and colored glass that follows. 

There remains, however, another use for lead- 
ing, growing year by year in favor as the eco- 
nomic value of scientific lighting compels recog- 
nition: this is in connection with the prism 
glasses. Prism glass, cut in elegant patterns and 
set in hard metal bars, constitutes an adaptation 
and a combination that links true art with the 
very highest degree of utility. 



[144] 



LEADED GLASS 




An Artistic Office 

This illustration shows an artistic use of polished plate glass set in leaded panels. The view from the inside is not seriously obstructed, 
while from the outside and especially from a distance objects on the inside cannot well be observed. 



STAINED AND COLORED GLASS 



BY THE use of the terms "glass painting" and 
"painted glass," specialists no doubt have 
contributed considerably to the current misap- 
prehension as to the precise character of colored 
glass. The two terms have been used loosely to 
denote two things entirely different. Literally, 
one would imagine that "painted glass" was the 
art of painting a picture or a color scheme on a 
piece of glass, whereas most artists in using the 
expression have reference to pictures or designs 
built up with colored glasses that have been 
stained during manufacture. 

Glass that is to be leaded frequently is in 
fact painted, but the paint used is of like sub- 
stance with the glass itself, and in the process of 
firing actually becomes a part of the glass. This 
painted work is quite unlike that employed in 
commercial sign and decorative glass painting. 

The art of painting with brush and pigment 
on glass is one widely practiced, especially for 
the commercial purpose of advertising signs, 
decorative panels, and similar modern products. 



But this is a field that does not really concern 
the glass-maker. It is simply the same kind of 
painting that is done on canvas, although glass 
lends itself remarkably well to striking effects. 
Such painting can be done on any kind of glass, 
and a measurably high, specialized technique 
has been developed. 

The masters of painting on glass recognize as 
fundamental the fact that they are working on 
an opposite principle to that underlying the pic- 
ture made of stained glass. The painter on 
glass lays a rich, obscuring medium on the glass. 
No matter how delicate and luminous his colors 
may be, or how dainty his treatment, he must 
superimpose another surface on the surface of 
the glass itself. This may enrich the glass, ob- 
scuring it but little to the ordinary eye; but 
actually there has been interposed to the light 
a material foreign to the glass itself. 

Stained glass, on the contrary, is inseparable 
from its color. The color is part and parcel of 
its substance. Instead of presenting a foreign 






[145] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




French Windows 

In this attractive room the French windows are glazed with polished plate glass in leaded panels. In a room of this character shades 
only are used, the artistic treatment of the windows obviating the need for curtains or other draperies. 



material to the light, it presses the sunlight into 
service as painter. In truth, a very exact name 
for stained glass would be color-lighted glass. 
Its color has been diffused throughout its molten 
substance. It is truly a child of flame, for it 
seems to hold forever some of the fierce, splendid 
fire that gave it birth. 

The coloring of stained glass being produced 
in the furnace, it is not possible to apply the 
colors known to the artist who works with the 
brush. Every color is a chemical compound, 
and in the intense heat of glass-making all com- 
monly known colors would disappear or change 
into undesired hues. 

Therefore the glass-maker who wishes to pro- 
duce a red, for example, has no such simple 
resource as that of mixing red pigment into the 
batch. The coloring materials required for his 
use are substances that look quite unlike any 
color that he hopes finally to get; they are chem- 
icals which under fierce heat will break up, 
rearrange themselves in new combinations, and 
thus develop into color. 

This makes the task highly difficult, for even 
when the theory of producing a given color is 



well understood, there are a thousand and one 
difficulties to be overcome. The chemical com- 
binations are complex and produce strangely 
unexpected effects. But the successful result is 
an achievement as great as are the difficulties — 
the "fire color" is the most splendid color known 
to man; the magic of chemistry and heat has put 
into it the light of the sun itself. 

The color-materials of the glass-maker are 
chiefly metallic oxides. In their natural state 
they would not suggest to the layman what glo- 
ries of tint lie hidden in them, to be brought forth 
by the heat of the melt. 

Of the oxides, the oxide of iron, or plain*, com- 
mon iron rust, is a veritable mother of colors. 
The colored canyons of the West are largely 
painted by nature's iron rust and we get browns, 
greens, blues, yellows, reds, all from the ^self- 
same oxide, either by itself or in combinations. 

It is this same oxide of iron that has produced 
much of the glory of the great cathedrals whose 
arched and rose windows bring something of 
Heaven's sublimity near to man. 

The glass-maker produces his wonderful reds 
by mixing with the batch in the melting-pot a 



[146] 



LEADED GLASS 







Church Windows 
The windows shown here are of modified antique design appropriate for the modern Gothic edifice. The pictorial subjects are taken 

from the life of Christ. 



combination of oxide of iron, sub-oxide of cop- 
per, a little gold, and silicate of sodium, all in 
varying proportions. 

For blues, he introduces an addition of cobalt, 
zaff re, and copper. 

His greens are won by using various oxides of 
iron, peroxide of copper, and chromium oxide. 

By adding oxide of manganese, oxide of 
uranium, and perhaps some antimony and sil- 
ver, he makes the chemistry of heat give him 
glowing violet. And with oxide of iron, anti- 
mony, and a few other chemicals he produces the 
tints of orange, ranging through all the sunset 
hues of that gorgeous color. 

The glass trade deals in many colors and tints 
of glass, known by such trade terms as Opal 
Glass, Cathedral Glass, and Opalescent Glass. 
All these are used for countless purposes, some- 
times on a large scale but extensively in small 
form, as for lamp shades and ornaments. 



CATHEDRAL GLASS 

This is a cast and rolled glass, and is furnished 
in smooth surface or in an ornamental "ham- 
mered" effect produced by rolling a pattern into 
it while it is still plastic. It is cast in sheets 
approximately one-eighth inch thick, measuring 
about thirty by ninety inches, 

OPALESCENT GLASS 

Opalescent glass is made in smooth surface 
finish or granite surface, and is cast in sheets 
about twenty-six inches wide and forty to fifty 
inches long. 

COLORED FIGURED GLASS 
The patterns obtainable in plain figured rolled 
glass (described elsewhere in this book) can be 
furnished in all standard colors and shades. 
There are also colored glasses, known as "pot 
colors," made from cylinder glass (window 
glass). They are described on page 184. 



I 



[147] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Chancel Window 
This design depicts Raphael's Sistine Madonna, beautifully worked out in painted antique glass. 

[148] 



LEADED GLASS 




Soldiers' Memorial Window 
Designed for Knox Presbyterian Church, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. No fewer than 9982 pieces of antique glass were used. 

[149] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




— ■ ■ ■■II i. . .1.1.. I J i m , . m i mm n i im i n I .■■■■ i I — I. L ...I 



XXXX 



xxxx 



\xy>64 






For Residence or Public Building 
Leaded glass window, Colonial type. Clear glass usually is used in windows of this class, although color schemes also are effective. 

[150] 



LEADED GLASS 







Jp 






hg>jr 






'V 


\x 




sf 






X 






Jr 



















1 




1 


! 






1 


\ 

■ 




1 




I 


1 
























1 






^^ 






n 


X 

1 


X 


X 
1 
















/ 






















\ 






\ 






















% 









E._;:.::.^-^..Xa£;:.:..^ -,■ -. XjiT 



Leaded Beveled Plate 
This type of art glass usually is glazed in hard metal, copper plated, instead of in lead. 

[151] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 






^ ' » 




— 


h 

.■■'■"■ 


t 


f\ 


t 


1 


f 





















i 


h- 




:■■. i 


r "■■ 


?" ! J " 1 




















! 
















-T 







Colonial Clear Glass Designs 
, Many interesting and artistic designs can be produced for window treatment in homes and public buildings. 

[152] 



LEADED GLASS 




























































































\ /L^ <* IT" 




































































































; 




Appropriate Transom Designs 
These designs illustrate harmonious and effective uses of leaded opalescent and prism glass. 

[153] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 








V 


ISfc 1 


A\7> 




\rJS 




M 1 




1 

1 \ 


<> 


n *■ 

It 1 




1 A 










) 








^ 


f\ 


?— * 




1 "^ 


r 


















? 




T— ■ -T 





^4r^ Nouveau Panels 
Some attractive panel designs in leaded clear and colored glass for stair-landing windows, dining rooms, and living rooms. 

[154] 



LEADED GLASS 



~7 7 


I lOfl 


V- 


* 















Transoms and Special Windows 
Several interesting designs in leaded opalescent glass, for transoms, dining-room, living-room, library, den, and stair-landing windows. 

[155] 






PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 






X,, r z 





Church Windoivs 
Many ornamental and interesting effects are obtainable through the use of opalescent and cathedral glass in combination. 

[156] 



LEADED GLASS 





Church Windows 
In these illustrations is shown effective use of opalescent, mosaic, and painted glass. 

[157] 




An Attractive Fountain 

The swift service necessary at most soda fountains calls for a surface that can be cleaned easily and quickly. Polished Carrara Glass 
is ideal. The paneling of Carrara with Black Glass base and trim gives a strikingly brilliant effect. 



CARRARA AND BLACK GLASS 

Beautiful Structural Materials Available for Important Uses 



k MONG the highly important products of the 
/% Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company are the 
J- _m- famous Carrara Glass, a beautiful white, 
opaque structural material, and Black Glass, 
which is exactly the same as Carrara, but has the 
appearance of polished jet. The nature and 
purity of the substances used to create these 
unique glasses are such as to achieve absolute 
permanence of color, for the white of the Car- 
rara and the black of the Black Glass are inher- 
ent characters of these two products. 

Carrara Glass is produced exclusively by the 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. It is used 
generally in building construction and wherever 
marble is applicable, except where mouldings 
and decorative features are required. Both 
Carrara and Black Glass are widely used for 
table tops and counter tops in restaurants, drug 
stores, butcher shops, markets, and other places 



where food products and beverages are dis- 
pensed and where cleanliness, economy, and per- 
manent beauty are important considerations. 
They have innumerable other important uses, 
many of which are enumerated or shown in illus- 
tration in this volume. 

Carrara and Black Glass are made from secret 
batches, which in a general way are the same 
as for plate glass, but with the addition of spe- 
cial chemicals to produce the colors and also 
to impart to the products their characteristic 
molecular structure. 

While the batches are somewhat similar to 
the plate glass batch, the fusing and annealing 
are entirely different. The Carrara and Black 
Glass batches are subjected to melting conditions 
considerably longer than is the rule for plate 
glass, and the annealing covers from three to 
seven days, depending upon the thickness of 






[159] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Scrupulous Cleanliness Wins Favor 

Any grade of restaurant finds in Carrara Glass a material perfectly suited to its needs. The polished surface, non-porous and impervious 
to stain, is cleaned instantly by simply wiping with a damp cloth. Each diner is served on a spotless surface. 



the material. These two factors — the different 
materials in the batches and the scientific anneal- 
ing — give Carrara and Black Glass those special 
structural qualities which make them available 
for various uses in buildings, such as wainscoting 
and partitions, for example, for which plate 






glass of similar thickness would not be practi- 
cable or appropriate. 

Both Carrara and Black Glass are made in 
three surface finishes: honed, satin, and polished, 
in thicknesses ranging from one-half to one and 
one-quarter inches, in multiples of one-quarter. 




Carrara Glass Wainscoting 

In addition to its use for table tops and serving counters as shown, this picture gives an 
example of the use of Carrara Glass in a wainscoting. 

[160] 



CARRARA AND BLACK GLASS 




An Air of Richness 
The use of polished Black Glass for table tops gives the ice cream parlor an air of distinction. The Black Glass, giving depth and 

contrast to the color scheme, provides a rich decorative element. P 



A distinguishing and invaluable feature common 
to both these glasses is their absolutely true 
and even surfaces — made possible by a process 
of grinding which produces an exactitude of 
surface impossible by any other method with 
any other material. The honed finish gives the 



glass a smooth finish without lustre. The satin 
finish produces the rich, soft, distinguished effect 
implied by its name. The polished finish results 
in a bright glassy surface. 

A supreme merit of Carrara and Black Glass 
that they are impervious to stain, will not 



is 




Minimum of Labor 

2£H5Su» indu ^ T riaI * nin ? hall speaks for itself as to the practicability of Carrara Glass for 
the table top. Cleanliness is fundamental, yet it is also imperative that cleanliness be assured 
with a minimum of expense for labor. The rich, white surface of polished Carrara Glass 
is pleasing at all times and the care of it is simplicity itself. 

[161] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Practical Elegance in the Cafeteria 

Characteristic of American enterprise in meeting popular demand are the cafeteria and the quick lunch counter. The cafeteria 

pictured here has made extensive use of Carrara and Black Glass. The rich, dark table tops supply an element of style lacking in the 

average lunch room. The use of Carrara Glass for the steam tables is sanitary in appearance and in fact. 



absorb moisture in the slightest degree, and be- 
cause of the homogeneous structure of the 
material the different finishes are practically 
indestructible. Unlike marble, there is no deteri- 
oration of the highly polished surface of these 
glasses. Marble quickly stains because of its 



porous nature, the voids soon become filled with 
foreign substances, and the polish rapidly dis- 
appears. Polished Carrara, on the other hand, 
because of its non-porous, non-absorbent qual- 
ities, will not retain odors and is the ideal ma- 
terial even for urinals and like uses. 





Carrara Glass and Marble 

Under the magnifying glass the polished face of the Carrara Glass dis- 
closes its smooth, non-porous surface, while the marble reveals rough- 
ness and permeability to moisture and dirt. 

[162] 



■■ 



CARRARA AND BLACK GLASS 




Impermeable to Dampness 

The possibilities of Carrara Glass and Black Glass are well represented in this illustration of a store front. The base of the window, 
upon which the frame rests, is of Carrara with a strip of Black Glass at the bottom. Marble often is used for a similar purpose, but 
Carrara has been found greatly superior. Construction of this sort has to be cleaned frequently — as a rule every morning — and it is 

essential that the material be impermeable to dampness. 




Temptingly Clean 

This spotless little rdtisserie, with its Carrara grill and its table tops and trim of gleaming Black Glass, 

presents a most tempting invitation. 

[163] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Black Glass Counter and Table Tops 

Here is shown an extensive use of Black Glass in a modern quick-service restaurant. The highly-polished surface is easily cleaned 
and the black tops offer a pleasing contrast to the white bases, stools, columns, and walls. 



Carrara Glass is worked and shaped by 
methods very similar to those employed in the 
working of marble, and although, as has been 
said, it is not available for mouldings or curved 
surfaces, it is thoroughly adapted to all flat work 
for which marble would be found practical. 

Carrara is useful for the wainscoting of cor- 
ridors on many accounts besides the important 
one of its non-staining and non-defaeeable sur- 
face. Compared with marble the cost of main- 
tenance for Carrara is practically nothing; no 
expense is involved for bleaching and refinish- 
ing as is the case with marble. Carrara gives 
the corridors a permanent clearness and bright- 
ness of appearance, at the same time attractive 
and cheerful. For effective lighting in corri- 
dors, architects are coming more and more to 
rely upon Carrara, because its white, perfect 
surface reflects artificial light in a prismatic 
manner that greatly increases the illumination. 



The cost of providing artificial light in such cor- 
ridors is therefore reduced materially. 

The honed finish is desirable for many special 
uses, such as the walls of hospital operating 
rooms, where it is of highest importance that 
light shall be ample but at the same time without 
glare or eye-distracting reflections. The surgeon, 
in performing the most delicate and critical ma- 
nipulations known, must be assured of inviolate 
conditions. Walls of Carrara Glass in honed 
finish leave nothing to be desired in this regard, 
for its diffusion of light is perfect, while positive 
reflection is at the minimum. 

The use of Carrara Glass or the Black Glass 
for table tops has spread rapidly in recent years. 
In many types of restaurants and in such estab- 
lishments as welfare dining rooms, these mate- 
rials have almost entirely taken the place of 
linen. The Carrara Glass department of the 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company has obtained 



[ 164 ] 



CARRARA AND BLACK GLASS 







Carrara Glass Switchboards 

Even where decorative considerations play no part Carrara Glass has important industrial values, as for example, in the switch- 

board of the engine room of a large industrial plant. 



from certain public restaurants figures that show 
the annual expense of laundering linen covers 
for a table thirty by forty-eight inches to be 
double the cost of a Garrara or Black Glass top, 
to say nothing of the initial cost of the linen 
and of replacements. The same advantages and 
economies apply in varying proportions to coun- 
ter tops in restaurants, packing and sorting tables 
in stores and factories, and innumerable other 
uses. The polished Carrara Glass owes much of 
its popularity also to the fact that it is practically 
impossible to mar or deface it. 

It is not possible to enumerate all possible 
uses for. Carrara or Black Glass, but the follow- 
ing obvious uses will suggest others: 

Base and border for hotel corridors. 

Wainscoting in buildings, stores, barber shops, 
bathrooms, toilet rooms, and operating rooms. 



Table tops in restaurants, confectioneries, 
kitchens, and hospitals. 

Interior walls, paneling, and ceilings for res- 
taurants, food markets, and similar establish- 
ments where strict cleanliness is requisite. 

Tops and fronts for counters and shelving. 

Bases and tops for soda fountains. 

Rubbing tables and other equipment for Turk- 
ish baths. 

Partitions and stalls in toilet rooms and 
showers. 

Deal-plates for banks and cashier windows. 

Trim and other parts for show cases and for 
buffet tops. 

Packing and sorting tables in factories. 

Scale platforms, drawing tables, coin plates 
for cash registers, signs and outside covering for 
metal store fronts. 



[165] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Wainscoting in Office Buildings 

An important use for Carrara Glass is as wainscoting in office buildings. Its gleaming surface and enduring structural properties 
are particularly desirable in a building not well supplied with windows, for the brilliant white expanse catches all available light and 

diffuses it without glare through the corridors or rooms. 




Aseptic Walls for the Operating Room 

The operating room here illustrated is an admirable example of the use of Carrara Glass with honed-finish surface. This imparts to 

walls and ceiling the same element of cleanliness that obtains in the surgeon's implements and apparatus. The honed finish provides 

a surface which is rich in appearance, will not reflect light, and is restful to the eyes. 

[166] 



CARRARA AND BLACK GLASS 




1 



t, i M 



> i 





, ■ . .: . : 




. •■ ■:■ '. ' 






I 




* 


i ■ 


X 


• : 


i 


^! I 




!» 




WH 





Hygiene and Sanitation 

Carrara Glass is unexcelled for purposes requiring the utmost in hygiene and sanitation, as instanced by this public toilet room in an 
up-to-date hotel. Unlike marble or other porous materials Carrara Glass is non-absorbent of moisture or odors. 



CARRARA AND BLACK GLASS SPECIFICATIONS 



Wainscoting is made in '%-inch thickness, pol- 
ished on one side and rough on one side; also 
honed on one side and rough on one side. For 
header pieces requiring exposed edges, plates 
are furnished with the back surface ground and 
properly gauged to thickness. 



Partitions are made in %-inch and 1% -inch 
thicknesses with both surfaces in any finish. 

Trim for windows and doors and cap of wain- 
scoting is made in %-inch, 1-inch, and 1/4 -inch 
thicknesses, in all finishes. 

Table Tops are made in any desired thickness. 




Public Comfort Stations 

No product known is so serviceable for the purpose here pictured as is polished Carrara Glass. 

Its smooth, hard, non-porous surface prevents defacement, absorption of moisture, and 

consequent retention of objectionable odors; it is easily cleaned, practically indestructible, and 

therefore widely used in public buildings, schools, hotels; and other large structures. 

[167] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




[168] 



CARRARA AND BLACK GLASS 





Baking in Full View 
The modern method of baking in full view of the public is made possible by using ovens with plate glass fronts and Carrara fif**« 
for every surfaee that comes into contact with the bread itself. The walls and ceiling of Carrara" Glass combine to produce the 

necessary effect of sanitation. 




Carrara and Black Glass Signs 

This illustration shows an interesting and effective use of these two glasses for store front decoration and advertising. The pattern 

of the lettering is sandblasted on the highly polished black or white surface and paint or stain is then applied. 

[169] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



from V2 to 1M inches, with top surface in all 
finishes and the under surface ground true to 
provide an even bearing. Table tops are not 
gauged to exact thickness. 

Soda Fountains and Counters. Tops for soda 
fountains and counters are made in V^-inch, 
%-inch, 1-inch, and lVi-inch thicknesses, with 
the top surface polished and the under surface 
ground and gauged to an even thickness. 

Frieze and Pilasters are made in Ms-inch, 
%-inch, and 1-inch thicknesses, with one side 
polished and one side ground. 

Die Plates are made in %-inch, %-inch, and 
1-inch thicknesses, with one side polished and 
one ground. In cases where the construction of 
the counter admits of adjustment for variation 
in thickness and where none of the edges of the 
die plates is exposed, it is permissible to specify 
polished one side, rough one side, for the %-inch 
and %-inch thicknesses only. Honed or satin 



finish instead of polished also may be specified 
when desired. 

Store Fronts and Signs. Materials for the 
covering of bulkheads and piers and exposed 
portions of store fronts may be S A or 1 inch thick. 
The areas to be covered do not, as a rule, per- 
mit adjustment of the glass and it is usually 
necessary for the back surface to be ground true 
and the glass gauged for exact thickness. 

Deal-Plates for cashier windows and counters 
are made in %-inch, 1-inch, and l^i-inch thick- 
nesses. The honed finish is the most practical 
for this use. 

Rubbing Tables for Turkish baths are made 
in lyi-inch thickness, in all finishes, and ground 
on under side. 

Shelving material is furnished in %-inch, 
3 /i-inch, 1-inch, and IVt-inch thicknesses, with 
the top surface honed, satin-finished, or polished 
as desired, the reverse side ground. 



[170] 



^ 



THE MANUFACTURE OF 
WINDOW GLASS 




Like Cathedral Columns 

Some manufacturing processes are grimy but here is one that is undeniably beautiful. As the blowing mechanism 

is drawn slowly upward from the white-hot molten glass, huge cylinders are formed by the pressure of the air 

blown into them. Later these will be split, flattened out, and cut into" panes. 




THE MANUFACTURE OF WINDOW GLASS 



THE difference between plate glass and the 
sheet known by the trade term "window 
glass" lies in the manner of making. Plate 
glass is cast (poured) in molten mass and then 
rolled into flat form, while window glass is 
"blown" — that is, a portion of the melted glass 
is picked up at the end of a pipe and blown into 
the form of a hollow cylinder, which then by a 
succession of operations is flattened into sheets. 
The latter is an economical method of glass- 
making and for that reason has a most important 
place in the industry, although, for the reasons 
already made clear, it does not produce so excel- 
lent a product as does the plate glass method. 

There are many ways to attain the best pos- 
sible results in this method of glass-making, and 
the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company has suc- 
ceeded in improving the product greatly by utili- 
zing to the full all advanced formulas for purity 
and correct admixture of the raw materials, and 
by introducing scientific equipment, such as im- 
proved furnaces and other appliances. 

Glass-blowing is an old art. Through many 
ages it remained wholly a manual art, or, to be 
precise, a man-art, since the glass-blower used 
not only his hands but more especially his lungs. 
It is a skilled trade of high order, calling for 
rare dexterity and nice judgment. Even until our 
own time, it was exclusively such a man-art, for 
the technical difficulties in the way of mechanical 
glass-blowing were not easily overcome. 

Today, however, while a considerable amount 
of window glass is still made by hand, most of 
America's product is blown mechanically. 



As the principle is alike in both cases, a de- 
scription of the manual method will give the 
reader the clearest understanding. 

When the mass in the glass-kiln has reached 
the correct stage of fluidity, a worker known as 
the "gatherer" dips into it with his "blower's 
pipe/' an iron tool about five feet long which has 
a mouthpiece at one end and a bell-shaped aper- 
ture at the other. A solid ball of melted glass 
adheres to the bell-shaped end and when enough 
has been gathered the pipe is passed to a work- 
man known as the "blower." The floor in front 
of him is cut away to form a space called the 
swing-hole. He first raises the pipe, blowing 
gently till he produces a pear-shaped bubble, the 
upper part of which gradually assumes the diam- 
eter of the cylinder desired, while the bottom is 
thicker and rapidly cools and stiffens. 

The partly blown "gather" then is re-heated to 
soften it, and the blower swings it downward into 
the swing-hole, where its weight causes it to elon- 
gate into an approximately cylindrical form. 
Meanwhile he continues to blow into it, to form it 
as he desires, until finally there is produced a 
shape of sufficient length. 

The next operation is to open the lower end of 
this hollow cylinder. The blower fills it with air 
from his lungs and stops the pipe with his thumb. 
The glass then is submitted quickly to the heat of 
the furnace, with the result that the imprisoned 
air expands and bursts through the softened end. 

The blower again lowers the cylinder into the 
swing-hole, whirling it swiftly on its axis by 
spinning the pipe between his hands. This 



[ 173 ] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Preparing the "Gather" 
In "manual" glass-making, skilled workers prepare the "gather" of molten glass for the blower. 



brings centrifugal force to bear, and the glass 
assumes a true cylindrical form, with sides prac- 
tically parallel and a fairly uniform thickness 
throughout its entire length. 

The product how has become a smooth, shin- 



ing, transparent, hollow thing of glass, but its 
surface is round. How is it to be transformed 
into a flat sheet? Simply enough, although to 
the uninformed spectator the steps of the succeed- 
ing operations do not seem to tend that way. 




Shaping the "Gather" 

In the "hand-made" process the molten glass is "gathered" on 

the bell-shaped end of a blower's pipe. By skillful manipulation 

the blower is able to accumulate a quantity of material which, 

when blown, will make cylinders of proper size. 




Blowing 

The blower swings the molten glass on the end of his blowpipe to 

and fro in a pit or opening in the floor, blowing into the pipe as he 

swings and reheating the glass at frequent intervals during the 

process until a full-sized cylinder is formed. 



[174] 



THE MANUFACTURE OF WINDOW GLASS 




Skimming the Molten Glass 

Impurities which come to the top in the process of melting must 
be removed before blowing. 

First the workers must get rid of the neck, or 
cap that marks the place where the glass was 
held by the blower's pipe. They dip up a bit of 
molten glass and with a deft motion draw it like 
a thin hot string around the cylinder top. The 
neck cracks off, and one part of the task is ac- 
complished. Sometimes the same result is ob- 
tained by drawing a red-hot iron around the 




The "Bait" 

The big blowpipes are dipped into the molten mass as here 

pictured and then raised gradually, meanwhile blowing steadily 

into the glass which adheres to their ends. This is the first step 

in the "machine-made" process. 




Forming the Cylinders 

In this picture the shining cylinders of blown glass have partly 
emerged from the tanks of fluid batch. When they have reached 
a length of approximately forty feet the racks shown in the 
foreground wiH be raised to receive and lower them as illustrated 
in the picture on the next page. 

glass and quickly applying a touch of cold water 
to the suddenly heated place. The result in 
either case is the same — a perfect cylinder, hol- 
low and open at both ends. 

In the same way the cylinder is divided into 
sections, or shawls. Then a worker draws a 
brightly heated iron along the inside, from end 
to end, producing a straight line of heat. With 
a small cold iron rod the outside is tapped 
following the inner line of heat and the tensions 



[175] 



A 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Lowering the Cylinders 
This is the process of lowering the fragile cylinders of glass after blowing. 



of the mass cause it to split clean along the entire 
length of the cylinder. 

The cylinder then is conveyed to a flattening 
oven, heated until soft and pliable, and laid on 
a flattening stone, with the split side uppermost. 
Under continuing heat the glass softens still more 
and begins slowly, gracefully, to "wilt" or open 
out. A workman called the "flattener" deli- 
cately assists with an implement that gradually 
spreads the pliable glass into a flat sheet. 

Following this, the sheet is taken from the heat 
of the flattening compartment and allowed to cool 
and harden slowly, after which it goes through 
the successive stages of scientific cooling in the 
lehr or annealing kiln. After being properly 
tempered, it is dipped in acid to cleanse it and 
finally is passed to the warehouse to be cut into 
the sizes required by the trade. 



Up to this point the modern individual glass- 
blower goes through processes that are not un- 
like those pictured in the wall-paintings of the 
ancient Egyptian tombs. Indeed, it is probable 
that if an old workman who lived and produced 
along the banks of the Nile in the time of 
Pharaoh Rameses II were to find himself in a 
modern factory using the process just described 
he would feel strangely at home. However, 
human ambition never is content to stop short of 
mechanical efficiency, and if our ancient^ Egyp- 
tian were next to step into a plant where machine- 
blowing was in practice he would doubtless be 
overwhelmed with terrified wonder. 

He would see a spectacle as amazing and 
beautiful as, perhaps, any other in the entire 
field of industry — one that thrills the most sophis- 
ticated modern observer who happens upon it 



[176] 



_ 



THE MANUFACTURE OF WINDOW GLASS 




The Shawls 

Here we see a quantity of shawls, which is the technical name for the sections of glass cylinders after they have been divided into lengths 

and split lengthwise. These sections, or shawls, are now ready for reheating and flattening. 



for the first time. Some hint of its spectacu- 
lar impressiveness may be gained from the 
full-page picture facing page 173, but anyone 
who has an opportunity to see for himself should 
by no means neglect to do so. 

The evolution of machine-blowing came only 
as the result of laborious invention and costly 



experiment. As has been remarked, the prin- 
ciple is simple, but the technical and mechanical 
difficulties long were baffling. The glass-blower 
always has been recognized as one of the highly 
skilled craftsmen, and for a long time it was im- 
possible to devise machinery to match his intel- 
ligent judgment. The glass-blowing plant of the 




Dividing the Cylinders 

By means of red-hot metal applied to the glass, the cylinder is 

divided into sections of various lengths as a preliminary to the 

processes of shawling and flattening. 




Shaivling 

After the cylinder is cut in lengths these sections are split length- 
wise preparatory to reheating and flattening them into sheets. 
This operation is known as shawling. 



[177] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




The Heating Oven 

Here the split section or shawl is reheated and softened until it 

loses its cylindrical shape and becomes flat. Facilities for the 

application of intense heat are essential. 




Turning the Cylinder 

While in the heating oven the shawl is gradually turned so as to 

permit it to flatten out as the glass softens or wilts under the 

heat. It is then removed to a flattening oven. 



present, however, is a marvel of smooth, unhur- 
ried industrial operation. All the puzzling and 
constantly changing problems of air pressure, 
varying supply of molten material, and manipu- 
lation according to circumstances and conditions 
are met by a machine controlled by the judgment 
of one man, who with no apparent effort achieves 
prodigies of result. 

Invention is largely a means for multiplying 
human powers. Our telephone ears are able to 
hear for thousands of miles and our telescope 
eyes can explore the stars. We leap thousands 



of feet into the air with airplanes and with can- 
non we strike blows miles away. In almost any 
modern factory the workmen have become in ef- 
fect giants, by virtue of the forces they control 
with a finger-touch. 

In the process under discussion human lungs 
are displaced by compressed air apparatus 
that is able to blow strongly and without 
stopping, until the lump of melted glass swells 
to towering proportions. Meanwhile, the lift- 
ing power of human arms gives way to a pulley 
hoist that raises the great cylinders to a point 




Flattening Oven 

When the glass is sufficiently flattened out it is lifted from the iron 

carriage in the heating oven, transferred to a flattening stone of 

fire clay, and then ironed into a flat sheet. 




Lifting to Lehr 

From the flattening compartment the sheet of glass is moved to a 

cooler one and then to the lehr, or annealing oven, where it is 

allowed to cool and temper by degrees. 



[178] 



THE MANUFACTURE OF WINDOW GLASS 




Cutting Room 

Here the window glass is cut into various sizes and 
shapes ready for use. 

many times the height of a man. All is done 
swiftly and yet with such delicacy that the 
fragile glass remains uncracked. The machine 
does almost exactly what the human glass- 
worker did, only upon a colossal scale. It dips 
its big blowpipes into the molten batch and 
then slowly withdraws them, all the while blow- 
ing steadily into the great masses of glass. Then 




Packing Room 

Where expert packers daily prepare thousands of 
"lights" for shipment. 

suddenly there rise before the spectator beautiful 
tall phantoms of transparency, mighty glowing 
columns that stand like pillars in a ghostly cathe- 
dral. As against the man-made cylinder, which 
obviously was limited to the weight and dimen- 
sions a man's strength and stature permitted, ma- 
chine-blown cylinders can be made almost forty 
feet long and more than two feet in diameter. 




Ready for Shipment 
[179] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




The Modern Factory 

Sunlight is of vital importance in the modern industrial plant. Where an essential requirement is to admit light, considerations of clear 
vision and beauty being unimportant, window glass is as serviceable as plate glass and costs less. 




The Summer Dancing Pavilion 

For the purpose here illustrated, window glass serves every requirement. The walls of glass are usually a series of windows that « 
be flung wide, so that the building may be easily converted into an open-air pavilion. 

[180] 



MANIFOLD VALUES OF WINDOW GLASS 




The Summer Kitchen 
Here is another example of an ideal use for window glass-where it is used principally to admit light and not to look through. 



MANIFOLD VALUES OF WINDOW GLASS 



TO USE common glass where plate glass 
should be employed is a short-sighted sav- 
ing of pennies at the cost of dollars, but it 
is excellent economy to use window glass in its 
proper place, and so wide is its field that this 
form of glass serves a most important purpose. 

The usefulness of window glass extends away 
beyond domestic purposes, to almost every indus- 
try, large and small. It is window glass that 
provides thousands of acres of vegetable farms 
with the very means for their existence, in the 
form of glazing for the hotbeds and coldframes 
which enable the grower to anticipate the seasons. 
It furnishes photographic art with its indispen- 
sable plates. Cellar windows, storm doors and 
windows, kitchen additions, attic windows, and 
other little-noticed parts of the dwelling will be 
entirely serviceable when glazed with common 
glass, while the rest of the house makes use of the 
more desirable and handsome plate. 

Merely as an indication of the almost bound- 
less field for common glass may be mentioned the 



following few uses that confront one everywhere 
in daily life: 

Skylights, where fire protection, security, and 
beauty are not essential. 

Fronts for gas and electric meters, for fire 
alarm boxes, and for the cases on ships and rail- 
roads that contain life preservers, axes, and other 
implements for use in accident. 

Conservatories, hothouses, greenhouses, and 
sash for outdoor plantations. 
Tops for fancy boxes. 
Glazing for photographs and pictures. 
Cheap mirrors, either for reflecting the person 
or for backs to fancy receptacles. 

Fronts or tops for receptacles containing foods. 
On machinery, either to protect delicate work- 
ing parts, prevent accident, or permit control by 
making the necessary parts visible. 

Coin boxes, automatic devices of all kinds, and 
ticket chopping boxes. 

Glazing for stables, barns, and other out- 
buildings. 



f 181 ] 



J 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



t 




How Glass Aids the Plant-Groiver 

Greenhouses and coldframes as pictured on this page require merely the transmission of sunlight and protection from cold. 

purpose window glass is perfectly adapted and is largely employed. 



this 



GRADES, WEIGHTS, AND SIZES OF WINDOW GLASS 



Window glass usually is supplied in Single 
Strength or Double Strength. In double strength 
it is made as large as 30 x 90, 38 x 86, or 60 x 70 
inches. Such extreme sizes contain up to twenty- 
five square feet, but it is not advisable to use 
glass so large, because of breakage and other 
disadvantages. The same is true of the single 



strength, which can be made up to 24 x 60, 
30 x 54, or 36 x 50 inches, in sizes contain- 
ing ten to twelve and one-half square feet. 

THICKNESS AND WEIGHT 

Single Strength measures twelve lights to the 
inch, approximately, but a small variation either 




Coldframes 



Protected by Glass 



[ 182 ] 



mmmm 



MANIFOLD VALUES OF WINDOW GLASS 




Glass for Pictures 

In the novelty section of the big department store there may be found thousands of articles in which common or cylinder glass is used. 
Such glass can be cut to any size or shape for unique and novel picture frames. 



way is permitted. The weight per square foot is 
approximately eighteen ounces. 

Double Strength measures approximately nine 
lights to the inch. The weight approximates 
twenty-four ounces to the square foot. 

There is also a heavy blown or drawn glass, 
heavier than the so-called Double Strength, made 
]>y the same process as ordinary window glass 
and subject to the same inherent defects. This 
glass is graded in first, second, and third quali- 
ties by the same rules as are observed in the 
grading of common window glass and is made 
in different weights and thicknesses as follows: 
twenty-six ounces to the square foot, about eight 
lights to the inch; twenty-nine ounces to the square 
foot, about seven lights to the inch; thirty-four 
ounces to the square foot, about six lights to the 
inch; and thirty-nine ounces to the square foot, 
which is three-sixteenths of an inch thick, or about 
five lights to the inch. 



QUALITIES OR GRADES 

Qualities run AA, A, and B. 

"AA" or first quality is clear glass, free from 
any perceptible quantity of air bubbles or blis- 
ters, burnt specks or burns, cords, and strings. 

[183] 



It has good gloss, even surface, and is well flat- 
tened. Tiny blisters that are not perceptible on 
the cutter's table, but can be detected only by 
placing the sheet directly toward the light, are 
not considered objectionable. Reliable manufac- 
turers always will make conscientious and close 
selection for this grade. 

"A" quality is the normal selection of glass 
when no special selection is desired. It permits 




Window Glass in Steel Sash 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Tea Wagon 

small defects such as small strings or lines or 
small blisters not too close together or located 
in the center of the sheet. It is well flattened, of 
even surface, and devoid of noticeable scratches 
or other prominent imperfections. 

"B" quality has a wider scope than AA or A. 
It permits many of the defects incident to manu- 
facture — waves, strings, lines, blisters, scratches, 
burns, and like defects. This quality embraces 
everything below A quality, not stony or full of 




Studio Skylight 

blisters or other large defects objectionable for 
any common purpose, such as heavy scratches, 
heavy blisters, cords, and sulphur stains. 

FACTORY PACKAGES 

Window glass is packed in regular sizes ap- 
proximately fifty square feet to the box up to 
the united 100-inch bracket (adding width and 
length) ; and 100 square feet to the box in sizes 
over 100 united inches. 



COLORED CYLINDER GLASS 



Pot Colors. This colored glass, produced 
by mixing the necessary color-making chemicals 
in the pot with the molten batch, is extremely 
useful for signal lights, danger signals, colored 
lanterns, show-window displays, dials, railroad 
switch lights, and countless commercial and in- 



dustrial purposes where both translucency and 
color are desired. The color, being an insoluble 
part of the glass, defies time and weather. 

Double Strength and Single Strength ruby, 
green, blue, orange, violet, yellow, and white are 
produced, in sizes as large as 37 x 59 inches. 




Game Exhibition Case 





o GUgggq 



For Small Package Goods 



[184] 



MANIFOLD VALUES OF WINDOW GLASS 




Other Miscellaneous Uses 

In the various cases indicated on this page the expense of 

using plate glass hardly would be warranted, while common 

glass meets every essential requirement. 



Flashed Colors. These colors are, like the 
pot colors, a component part of the mass of 
the glass, but they are produced by a different 
method. A thin film of colored glass is blown 
over the surface of a blown clear glass, the two 
adhering and becoming one as they harden. It 
is a convenient and effective way to make color 
designs, such as embossed lettering in signs. 
It is made in Double Strength and Single 
Strength and comes in the same sizes and colors 
as the Pot Colors. 

SHIPPING WEIGHTS 

Single Strength in factory packages weighs 
from sixty-five to seventy-five pounds to the box 
(shipping weight). Double Strength in factory 



packages weighs from eighty-five to one hundred 
and ten pounds to the box, 50-foot boxes (ship- 
ping weight). 

Double Strength in 100-foot cases weighs 
approximately two hundred and twenty-five 
pounds (shipping weight). 

PRICES 

Full information regarding list prices of .all 
qualities and sizes of window glass in both single 
and double strength, in factory box lot, or by the 
light, may be found in the current "Jobbers' 
Window Glass List," which may be obtained 
from any of our Warehouses or distributors. The 
list also designates the number of lights per box 
in each size. 





[185] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 








ULVER 




Miscellaneous Uses of Common Glass 

This page shows a number of uses in which common 

glass is entirely adequate, and much more economical 

for the purpose than plate glass would be. 






[ 186] 



THE PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY SYSTEM OF 
DISTRIBUTION, EDUCATION, AND SERVICE 



WHEN the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Com- 
pany had succeeded in establishing plate 
glass manufacture as a sound Ameri- 
can industry, able to meet all competition both 
in quality and in cost, there remained a grave 
business problem in the matter of distribution. 
Glass, one of the most difficult materials to 
transport and handle, is needed in such a large 
variety of kinds, sizes, and shapes, and must be 
supplied so promptly in order to meet the press- 
ing necessities of the builder and contractor, that 
it was necessary to furnish all dealers with a 
means for performing the service with the utmost 
economy of time, money, and effort. 

There could be but one solution — the estab- 
lishment of a nation-wide method of distribution 
through a complete warehousing system which 
should be equipped to carry full stocks and to 
deliver them promptly, wherever needed and in 
any desired quantity. 

Today this system is the most complete of its 
kind in the world. The Warehouses are not sim- 
ply stock rooms or selling agencies; they are 
local institutions equipped to serve in all ways 
the territories in which they are established. 
Their managers are men long trained in the 
methods and principles of the Company, thor- 
oughly informed by personal experience on all 
points of glass manufacture and glass science, 
and competent to give full information and in- 
struction on matters the most technical. 

EDUCATIONAL SERVICE 

The sales force in each territory is similarly 
equipped with exact knowledge. In addition the 
staff includes specialists in various branches, 
particularly the structural sciences, and work- 
men who are skilled in handling and setting 
glass. Educational service is given freely 
wherever it may be of benefit to the community, 
to dealers or even to individual users. National 
advertising is continuous, and its governing prin- 
ciple is that of helping the dealer, the architect, 
and the contractor — in a word, everyone in the 
trades who uses glass as a large or small part of 



his business. Further, the Company's advertising 
benefits the public by teaching the genuine ad- 
vantages to be obtained by using glass. 

Terms like "welfare work" have been so much 
used in recent years, that the Pittsburgh Plate 
Glass Company would prefer not to touch in this 
book on the subject of its attitude toward its em- 
ployees save that the consumer of any manufac- 
tured material has a direct business interest in 
the conditions under which it is produced. The 
assurance of steady and prompt supply, and 
more important still, of the quality of the prod- 
uct, depends in a very real sense on the spirit of 
the workers responsible for it. 

THE COMPANY'S EMPLOYEES 

No degree of genius in administration, no 
system or equipment, can alone attain and main- 
tain quality. It is essential that the men direct- 
ly engaged in every part of a manufacturing 
process shall be interested in their work and shall 
take personal pride in the best results that can 
be produced. From this point of view it will be 
of interest to customers to know that a great 
many of the Company's trained workers have 
been with it during the whole working period of 
their lives and that the labor "turn-over" is per- 
haps smaller than that of any other great manu- 
facturing business in the United States. 

The significance of this may be seen when it 
is understood that in Ford City, Pennsylvania 
(the site of the parent plant of the Pittsburgh 
Plate Glass Company), practically the entire 
working population of the town is employed in 
the plant. Two things are commonly said about 
Ford City: that it holds the largest and most 
completely equipped factory for making plate 
glass in the world, and that it is one of the most 
attractive manufacturing communities in the 
United States. The Company's expenditures for 
housing facilities amount to many millions. 
Life, health, and accident insurance, a pension 
system, provisions for recreation, hospital facil- 
ities, and other care for health and hygiene, all 
play their part in making the place what it is. 



[187] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



A SYSTEMATIC ORGANIZATION FOR GENUINE SERVICE 



6 QERVICE," as understood by the Pittsburgh 
O Plate Glass Company, has the following 
comprehensive significance: 

Systematic and harmoniously directed activ- 
ities of manufacturing, distributing, and ware- 
housing and selling organizations, all controlled 
by the ruling principle that customers of the 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company are to receive 
something more than what is ordinarily meant 
by "service." 

Raw materials economically produced, mostly 
from Company-owned properties, and economi- 
cally delivered to wisely located plants, making 
possible a basic saving that benefits both the 
dealer and the consumer of the glass product. 

Direct and constant contact of manufacturing 
organizations with the market through the dis- 
tributing Warehouses and sales offices, producing 
quick adjustment of production to meet condi- 
tions at all times and under all circumstances. 

The organization and equipment of each Ware- 
house to be not simply a distributing and selling 
station, but a commercial member of the region 
it serves, an institution of use to the community, 
and a co-operative force for all in the business. 

Note: It is a recognized and important part of Warehouse 
service to supply technical and trade information to architects, 
contractors, and dealers, and to help the latter to take the 
best advantage of the Company's national advertising, trade- 
mark advertising, and other educational publicity, and to di- 
rect its usefulness to earning the fullest possible profit for the 
entire trade. 

SERVICE TO DEALERS 

Complete stocks, at all times and under all 
conditions, in each Warehouse, thus ensuring 
prompt and economical delivery. 

Readiness to fill any order, whether of great 
magnitude or for a single light of glass. 

Distributing facilities that cut down all non- 
productive expenditures to the minimum, mak- 
ing it feasible to deliver a maximum of quality 
at a minimum of price. 

An organization of trained men who study the 
promotion of business for the dealer and visit 
him regularly to assist him in problems and sup- 
ply information tending to his profit. 

An energetic national and local campaign to 
educate the public to an increased use of glass on 
the sound and legitimate basis of facts that show 
its value for all purposes. 



A long-established manufacturing policy that 
recognizes quality as a supreme factor in hold- 
ing and creating business, thus enabling the 
dealer to earn prestige among his own trade. 

Systematic study of possibilities for the 
future, and measures taken in advance to meet 
them, thus giving the dealer the assurance that 
behind him stands a permanently attentive pro- 
ducing and delivering organization. 

SERVICE TO ARCHITECTS 

Experienced men in each Warehouse organiza- 
tion who can furnish information about glass to 
cover every problem that is likely to arise in the 
application of glass to buildings. 

Unprejudiced and absolutely reliable advice 
regarding glass specifications necessary to get 
desired results. 

Estimates of cost for all different kinds of 
glass, with a view to enabling the architect to 
save money, while equipping his building with 
the best glass for each specific purpose and place. 

Expert attention to the specifications and pro- 
duction of the quality called for, thus relieving 
architects of anxiety and trouble after contracts 
are awarded. 

Maintenance of distribution facilities between 
factories and Warehouses, and maintenance of 
sufficient stocks in Warehouses to make quick 
delivery certain. 

Manufacturing resources that are equal to 
any requirements. 

Equipment and organization adequate to meet 
all demands and to cope promptly with unusual 
and sudden problems or emergencies. 

Alert and interested attention to all under- 
takings, whether small or large. 

SERVICE TO CONTRACTORS 

An organization in each Warehouse that fully 
understands the unexpected and harassing diffi- 
culties that confront contractors, and is ready to 
assist at all times. 

Full stocks of complete variety, covering every 
kind of glass for every possible purpose. 

Thorough efficiency both in manufacture and 
grading, thus providing responsible delivery to 
meet specifications in all cases. 



[188] 



DISTRIBUTION, EDUCATION, AND SERVICE 




S*:^a:^';M 




Service on a Large Scale 

Here is a solid train of 23 cars of plate glass valued at $400,000 as it left the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company's factory at Crystal 

City, Missouri, at a time of great freight congestion on the railroads. Small shippers could not give service under these conditions 

but this Company was able to accumulate entire trainloads of orders which could be shipped as a unit to one destination. 



Delivery facilities at each Warehouse to meet 
a "rush" summons at almost any time. 

Co-operation by all the factory staffs and the 
technical departments in efforts to give customers 
what they want, when they want it, and as they 
should have it for their best profit and success. 

ADVANCE INFORMATION 

If architects or contractors will call for this 
expert advice early in their work, they fre- 
quently will save themselves much unnecessary 
delay, for the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company 
men will be able to show how many contingencies 
can be anticipated. They may be able, as they 
often are, to suggest important economies. 

There are so many kinds of glass, known by so 
many trade names, that sometimes a builder who 
knows quite well what kind of glass he wants is 
not sure as to its precise trade name. It happens 
continually that architects and contractors are 
indefinite in their use of such terms as "rolled 



figured glass," "figured glass," "obscure glass. 
It is hoped that this book will facilitate their 



efforts, but in addition, the service staffs are pre- 
pared at any time to suggest the particular kind 
of glass suitable for any desired purpose. 

OTHER SERVICE FEATURES 

Estimating Department is maintained at each 
Warehouse to give detailed and accurate cost 
estimates for any use of glass. 

Expert Advice. Staff mechanicians and spe- 
cialists are available at the various branches and 
factories and are prepared to give expert assist- 
ance to manufacturers, architects, dealers, and 
others in all problems involving the use of glass. 

Installation of Store Fronts. The Warehouses 
are prepared to install large store fronts, and 
furnish trained workers. Motor trucks and 
teams are provided for the purpose and either 
long-distance or short-distance hauls will be 
undertaken. 



PAINTS AND VARNISHES AS PART OF PITTSBURGH SERVICE 

IT IS not out of place here to say a word as to group of manufactured and sales products as 

the Warehouse stocks of paints and varnishes, part of the system of "Pittsburgh Service." 

since these accessories of the building trade were The architect or contractor thus can get from 

added to the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company's the same trained organization that provides his 

[189] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



glass specifications and information, the best 
technical information and specifications as to 
useful paints and varnishes. 

The paint dealer especially, knowing how vital 
it is for him to be assured of unbroken main- 
tenance of supply and of constantly uniform and 
reliable quality and grade, has been benefited 
by the fact that such a permanent organization 
as the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company serves 
him. Too many dealers throughout the United 



States have been obliged, again and again, to 
change brands at heavy loss of prestige and 
profit, because their manufacturing source has 
failed, either by going out of business, by alter- 
ing product, or by selling out to some concern 
that gave exclusive rights to some competitor in 
the neighborhood. 

It is difficult to conceive of any product in 
which the element of sustained quality is of 
more importance than it is in paint. 



THE GRADING OF PLATE GLASS 



THE various uses of plate glass require a 
careful grading of the finished product into 
different qualities. The highest possible quality 
is known as "first silvering"; "second silvering" 
is a high-grade quality only less perfect than 
the first-named. Both of these grades are 
used for mirrors and are produced by select- 
ing limited areas of superior quality and finish 
from the larger sheets that are delivered to the 
wareroom from the factory. A third grade of 
reasonably good quality and finish, known as 
"mirror glazing," is selected for the manufac- 
ture of "commercial quality" mirrors. Much 
greater in volume of sales is the next, or "glaz- 
ing" quality. This grade generally is used for 
store windows, residences, windshields, enclosed 
automobile bodies, and other places where com- 
paratively small and inconspicuous defects are 
not objectionable. 

It is the impression among many people that 
the better qualities of glass are manufactured by 
a special process and that by some slight change 
in the method of operation these better qualities 
may be increased or decreased at will. This is 
not the case. It is impractical to attempt to man- 
ufacture the higher grades exclusively, and it is 
the experience of manufacturers that the best 
results are obtained by making every effort to 
secure the highest possible standard of quality 
in the entire product. 

PRINCIPLES OF GRADING 

Unfortunately, however, all glass is defective 
to a greater or less extent, a perfect light of any 
appreciable area never having been produced. 
The better grades, therefore, are merely the re- 
sult of selection and are definitely limited by the 
success or failure of the general operations of the 



plant. The volume of the higher grades never 
exceeds twenty per cent of the total production 
and the normal production of these grades is 
generally from five per cent to ten per cent. 

Frequently, difficulties in some one of the 
many operations in the plant prevent the produc- 
tion of any quality better than "glazing." It 
will be understood, therefore, that the higher 
prices asked for "first" and "second" silvering 
qualities represent not so much the extra cost of 
production as the cost of selection after the glass 
is made. This cost includes the loss in value of 
the residual small glass of lower value, which is 
necessarily left after the areas of the higher 
grades are cut from the original large plates. 

It is not practical to set forth specifically the 
standards by which any of the grades are judged 
or selected. No two plates in any standard are 
absolutely identical in every respect and the se- 
lection is based upon the number, size, location, 
and importance of any or all its major defects. 
As the entire product is defective to some degree, 
the selection even of the higher grades consists in 
choosing those areas of glass which are clear of 
major defects and in which the minor defects are 
small and well scattered. No set rule can be 
made for this selection; it is entirely a question 
of judgment and of experience. 

For this reason it is impracticable to attempt 
to meet any arbitrary specifications of quality or 
grade demanded by a customer. He must, after 
inspection of standard grades, determine which 
will best suit his requirements, leaving to the 
factory the faithful maintenance of the standard. 



CONDITIONS THAT GOVERN 

Inasmuch as the entire product is, by its 
nature, defective, and as the better grades are 



[190] 



THE PACKING OF PLATE GLASS 



merely the result of selection, it should be noted 
that the size of the required plate has a large 
bearing upon the standard. Defects which would 
cause a small plate of five square feet area to be 
graded as "glazing" quality would be permissible 
in a selected "silvering" quality plate of say 
twenty-five square feet area. In all plates of 
selected quality major defects are eliminated, 
but the larger plates will contain more numerous 
and more prominent defects than smaller plates 
of equal grade. 

The most common defects found in plate glass 
are "seed," "boil," and - "bubbles" ; "striae," 
"ream," or "string"; and fine scratches resulting 
from the grinding and polishing operations. 
"Seed," "boil," and "bubbles" are all alike in 
character but different in size. "Seed" are ex- 
tremely small air or gas vesicles, while "boil" are 
somewhat larger, being best illustrated by the 
general factory name "pin-head boil." "Bub- 
bles" are air pockets still larger than "boil," gen- 
erally running about three-sixteenths of an inch 
in diameter. "Bubbles" are generally the result 
of defective casting, but both "seed" and "boil" 
are produced in the furnace during the melting 
process. 

As indicated elsewhere, about thirty per cent 
of the batch is volatilized, and this volatilization 
continues as long as the batch is held under 
melting temperatures. During this period the 
whole body of glass contains innumerable gas 
bubbles, but the greater part of them, especially 
the larger ones, rise to the surface and escape. 
Some, however, are left in the glass. The very 
nature of the process, therefore, makes it im- 
possible to produce plate glass that does not 
contain some evidence of volatilization in the 
form of "seed" or "boil." 



"Striae," "ream," or "string," as variously 
known, generally may be found in some degree. 
This defect is the result of incomplete fusion of 
the constituent parts of the batch. It is not 
noticeably objectionable except when heavy or 
coarse, and then only in the selected grades. 

A scratch on the surface is one of the most 
common defects found in plate glass. It may 
be caused by coarse grains of sand or emery 
becoming mixed with the finer grades, by small 
pieces of glass chipped from the edges during 
the grinding and polishing, or by a little careless- 
ness in handling. Long and deep scratches are 
eliminated even in glazing quality, but shorter 
and less conspicuous scratches are permissible 
defects. During the polishing process it is im- 
possible to avoid making what are known as 
"hair-line sleeks," or very fine scratches which 
can be seen only under very favorable light 
conditions. These are superficial and are per- 
missible even in the higher grades. 

The basic idea in selecting any grade of glass 
is to eliminate those defects which would make it 
objectionable for the destined purpose. It should 
be remembered that glass differs from all other 
merchandise in the respect that we look through 
it and not at it. The eyes are invariably focused 
on the object beyond and do not detect even those 
defects that are conspicuous when the plate is 
examined critically. Thus, in a grade that is not 
to be silvered, noticeable defects are permissible 
when they do not offend or obstruct the vision 
through the glass to the object. Similarly even 
in the higher grades which are used for mirrors, 
defects that might readily be detected by critical 
examination would pass the inspection if they 
are not such as would be noticed when one looks 
at an object in the mirror. 



THE PACKING OF PLATE GLASS 



WHEN the finished glass is shipped it must 
be packed with the utmost care in order 
to prevent breakage and other damage in transit. 
The Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company maintains 
a distinctive system of packing and an organiza- 
tion especially trained and competent from long 
experience. The guiding principle is that even 
though the Company is not responsible for care- 
lessness by transportation lines and others who 
handle the glass after it leaves its jurisdiction 
every effort shall be made in packing and ship- 



ment to provide safeguards that shall insure good 
delivery to the customer. 

First, a stout wooden box or case is provided. 
It is about seven inches larger in width and 
length than the width and length of the largest 
plate it is to contain, and of the necessary depth 
to hold about 600 square feet of glass. The case 
is laid flat and a thick bed of straw is first laid 
on the bottom. This in turn is covered with a 
sheet of heavy paper, on which is laid the first 
plate of glass. That is covered with a sheet of 



[191] 







Warehouse System of the 

This presentation of the unequaled system for distribution and service shows ^ 
thousands of dealers for use in hundreds of thousands of buildings. 1 




Uisburgh Plate Glass Company 

p] ically the extent of the organization required to supply this Company's products to 
1( /cation and addresses of the various Warehouses will be found on page 208. 



r ^rm 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



clean paper, on which the next plate is placed. 
The packing is continued thus, a plate of glass 
and a sheet of paper alternating, until the case is 
full within about an inch and a half of the top. 

The pile of glass plates, being smaller than the 
case, leaves a clear space of about one and one- 
half inches between the edges and the case, ex- 
tending around all four sides and the full depth 
of the case. This space is stuffed with straw 
forced in to the utmost, forming a compact but 
resilient cushion all round the glass. A thick 
bed of straw is then laid over the entire surface 
of the glass; this is compressed tightly when the 
lid of the case is nailed into place, thus making 
a tightly compressed cushion of straw enclosing 
the glass on all sides. The case is then turned 
up on edge and loaded with other cases on the 
railroad car for transportation to destination. 

The glass rides on its edges; and as the many 
plates in a case are packed and held together 
like a solid block, they present remarkable 
strength to withstand the blows and shocks un- 
avoidably sustained during transit. 

The actual amount of breakage is extremely 
small as compared with the total amount shipped. 
According to records covering the shipment of 
2300 carloads of plate glass, the claims filed for 
loss in transit amounted to less than $2,000, or 
an average of less than one dollar per carload. 

EXPORT SHIPMENT 

During and since the World War, owing to the 
cessation of plate glass manufacture in European 
countries, there has arisen a heavy demand for 
plate glass in this country for export to meet the 
world's requirements. Before this, the exports 
of glass from America had been negligible, and 
generally limited to such neighboring countries 
as Canada and Mexico. But since 1915-16 large 
quantities have gone from America all over the 
world, and naturally, as to the largest manu- 
facturer, the bulk of this business has come to the 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. 

Export shipments require extremely strong 
packing cases, specially constructed to withstand 
the frequent handling and the hazards of trans- 
portation by rail and by ocean steamship. To 
meet these requirements, the Company devised 
and built an ideal packing case for export ship- 
ments, of extremely strong construction, braced 
with steel plates on the corners and bolted to- 



gether with specially devised steel bolts, instead 
of nails. Many cases contain up to 1000 square 
feet of glass and weigh considerably over two 
tons each when packed. These have traveled 
to almost every civilized country on the globe, 
and their excellence has brought many letters of 
commendation. 

HANDLING PLATE GLASS 

The surface of polished plate glass can be 
damaged or scratched by careless or unintelli- 
gent handling. In this respect, it resembles the 
surface of a fine lens, and should be as carefully 
treated. The sheets of paper used by the manu- 
facturer in packing to protect the surfaces should 
be kept in place when the glass is unpacked and 
should not be removed until the glass is finally 
set in place or -used. 

Plate glass never should be piled up on the 
flat surfaces, but should be piled on the edges 
with a sheet of paper between each two plates, 
as when received. 

No dust or grit should be allowed at any time 
to settle or accumulate upon piles of glass, as 
it will work down between the plates and damage 
the surfaces. 

When plates are removed from piles of glass, 
handle one at a time and, in doing so, lift the 
plate clear away from the other glass; never drag 
or slide a plate over the glass remaining in the 
pile. 

Glass should not be laid flat upon a table or 
box that is not covered with clean cloth or other 
clean, soft material. - 

When cases of glass are received, it is best to 
unpack them as soon as possible, especially if 
the glass is to be stored for some time before 
being used. If it is necessary to store the glass, 
place it on edge in piles with paper between each 
two lights, and do not pile it in a damp place, or 
where the air is moist. If the glass has becfome 
wet in transit it should be thoroughly cleaned and 
dried. Put the piles upon pegs to provide for a 
free circulation of air on all sides. All this is, 
necessary to prevent what is known as "stain," 
which is one of the most troublesome and annoy- 
ing conditions to be found in handling glass. 

CARE OF PLATE GLASS 

The characteristic appearance of stain is either 
a faint whitish scum seen in patches on the sur- 
face or a slight dimming, which, when held in 



[194] 



PACKING AND HANDLING PLATE GLASS 



reflected light, produces iridescence. The most 
serious case of stain has the appearance of deep 
etching, similar to the effect that is produced 
when glass is splashed with etching-acid and al- 
lowed to dry. The surface of the glass is dam- 
aged by corrosion as steel is damaged by rust, 
and the extent of this corrosion produces all the 
varieties of stain, from something almost im- 
perceptible to a heavy scum. The liability of 
plate glass to stain depends on its composition, 
on the treatment it has received in storage and 
in transit, and on the climatic conditions to which 
it has been subjected. 

If the glass is subjected to a warm, humid, or 
putrid atmosphere in which ammonia is usually 
present, it is very liable to stain, and especially 
when two surfaces are left in contact. 

Polished glass cannot withstand the action of 
alkalies. The surface is attacked and although 
it is not immediately stained it later on stains 
very readily. On the other hand, it has been 
found that acid solutions have less corrosive 
action on glass than even water alone. 

HOW TO AVOID STAIN 

Plate glass is composed of a mixture of sodi- 
um and calcium silicates. The sodium silicate 
is the more soluble constituent. Water con- 
denses on the surface and immediately begins 
to dissolve minute quantities of sodium silicate. 
The calcium silicate is hydrolized and sets free 
hydrate of lime and hydrated silica. When these 
compounds dry out on the glass the surface 
becomes slightly dim. If the staining has not 
been allowed to go too far, it may be removed by 
the usual method of cleaning without seriously 
affecting the surface of the glass. If it has 
gone too far, the surface is destroyed, becoming 
covered with minute scales or crystals of silica 
which cannot be removed without repolishing. 

If moisture is left between two or more plates 
of glass or gets there by condensation, and does 
not dry out quickly, a concentrated solution of 
silicate of soda will finally be produced and 
then, if by chance the plates become dried out, 
they will be found cemented together. 

Glass made by the Pittsburgh Plate Glass 
Company is composed of the best possible pro- 
portions of soda, lime, and sand, with the special 
object in view of producing the most practical 
resistant plate glass, and one which, therefore, 
has the least tendency to stain. 



CUTTING PLATE GLASS 

Plate glass cannot be cut commercially by any 
machine operation. If only a small number of 
plates are required, they may possibly be cut by 
one man and be closely uniform in size, but 
where the number is large, they must necessarily 
be cut by many different cutters, and the personal 
element entering into the accuracy of the work 
will cause some variation in the sizes. For this 
reason, an allowance of at least one-sixteenth of 
an inch over and under the specified size is gen- 
erally required. Provision for this slight varia- 
tion in size can be made easily in designing the 
sash or frame in which the glass is to be used. 

THICKNESS OF PLATE GLASS 

Plate glass is manufactured in all thicknesses 
from %2 inch to VA inch. The standard thick- 
nesses run from %2 inch to %o inch. For 
glass above or below these limits an extra 
price is charged. Glass cannot be furnished to 
an exact thickness, and for thicknesses known as 
Vs, %e and /4 inch, a tolerance of %l> inch over 
and under the specified thickness is required. 
For glass over %o inch thick, an allowance of 
Via inch over and under the specified thickness 
is required. This does not mean that all the 
plates will show the extremes in thickness. If 
glass is ordered 9i.« inch thick, the thinnest 
plates probably will be %2 inch thick, and the 
thickest plates %2 inch thick, but the general 
run of the glass will be close to the specified 
% o inch thickness. If a large number of plates 
are required the usual allowance of %% inch 
over and under thickness should be increased if 
prompt shipment is required, and a liberal inter- 
pretation of specifications must be given if such 
business is to be either profitable or desirable to 
any manufacturer. 

SIZES OF PLATE GLASS 

Plate glass can readily be made in extreme 
sizes up to 250 square feet, and in such measure- 
ments as 10 x 21 feet (120 x 252 inches), con- 
taining 210 square feet; or 12 x 20 feet (144 x 
240 inches), containing 240 square feet; or 
13 x 19 feet (156 x 228 inches), containing 247 
square feet. 

Plates have been made containing as high as 
300 square feet, but such extreme sizes are not 
to be recommended; they are difficult to make, 



[195] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 
VARIOUS EDGES AND BEVELS ILLUSTRATED 


1 


1 Rpv l/( PJp^n P.nt FHo-p 


-.. /z ^.-«„ ^«. ~~D~ 


1 ) 


1 Rpv IX" Flat PnlkhpH Frlo-P 


/^ — "O 


? \ 


J Rpv 1/^ Cfmmfprprl PrJi'cVipd Frlo-P 


" /A -- - — - «— ^..w*. — v~^w 


3 C 


J Rpv IX Round PnliQnpd Fdo*P 


*" " ■ " / 4 ■"' " - " "" - O * 


4 C 


"^\ Pr^cfipd Mitor^rl FrUo 


- _ — ~- — ~©~ 


5 L 


Flat Pnlknpd Frlo-P 


- „ ^ 


6 


) Rnnnrl Pnlishpd FrW 




7 ; 


A Half Round Pnlkhpd FrW 




« 


J rViamfprprl Pnlkhpd Fdo-p 




9 f 


Ton Cl-mmfprpd Pnli^hpH Fdcrp 




in 


^~~~1 3X RpvpI 


/ 4- 


n f 


^^1 1" Rpv^I 




12 ) 


^^ 1 H/"Rovol 


* / ** "*" ' w * 


13 L_ 


i } 14 " B eye i 






14 1 


1 1 % " Bevel 


i 

15 


Zl 9 " Rrvrl 




— . 1 ^ DLVL1 

[196] 



BEVELING, EDGEWORK, AND HOLES 



expensive to handle, and undesirable as regards 
maintenance. They must be made to order and 
therefore cannot be replaced promptly if broken. 



Special flat-car shipment, special facilities for 
unloading and hauling, and unusual care in set- 
ting, all add to their cost. 



BEVELING, EDGEWORK, AND HOLES 



PLATES with beveled edges are used for 
ornamental purposes, as in door lights, 
mirrors, and leaded glass, and for practical 
purposes, as, for instance, in the top of show 
cases where a thick plate fits into a shallow rab- 
bet. This work is done jn a special department 
and requires experienced men trained in the 
various processes. 

In actual result, the bevel is a simple enough 
thing. But in practice it is one of the highly 
specialized operations of the glass manufactur- 
ing plant. It entails many manipulations of 
minute accuracy, for in this brilliant material 
the slightest irregularity of measurement would 
be glaringly evident to the human eye. A large 
section of glass must be ground away, and this 
means abrasive work on one of the hardest 
materials made; yet the finished bevel must pre- 
sent a smooth and highly burnished surface. 

THE BEVELING PROCESS 

For these reasons the work of beveling compels 
the passage of plate glass through five divisions 
of workmen: roughers, emeriers, smoothers, 
white-wheelers, and buffers or polishers. 

The roughing wheel is a cast-iron disk about 
twenty-eight inches in diameter, which revolves 
in a horizontal plane. Rough sand or carborun- 
dum is fed on to the revolving disk from a hopper 
suspended above the mill. The rougher places 
the edge of the glass upon the rapidly revolving 
wheel and the cutting and grinding of the bevel 
is done by the friction of the abrasive between 
the face of the glass and the wheel. The angle 
of the bevel is determined by the angle at which 
the rougher holds the plate of glass in relation to 
the plane of the disk. When the work of the 
roughing is completed, the bevel has an ex- 
tremely rough ground surface which must be 
smoothed and fined before it can be polished. 
The remaining four steps in the beveling process 
are all performed to give the final polish to the 
rough edge left by the first process. 

An operation similar to the roughing is per- 
formed on the emery mill, which is identical 



with the roughing mill except that emery is used 
as an abrasive instead of sand or coarse car- 
borundum. This process converts the rough 
sand-lashed surface that was left by the rough- 
ing process into a comparatively smooth surface. 

From the emery wheel the plate goes to the 
smoother, who uses a sandstone disk of fine tex- 
ture without any abrasive. This operation pro- 
duces an extremely fine surface ready for pol- 
ishing, but a surface that is white and obscure. 

The plate is next applied to a "white-wheel," 
which is an upright wheel made of poplar, re- 
volving in a vertical plane, on which is fed 
powdered pumice and water. This operation 
gives the bevel a semi-polished, semi-transparent 
surface, which is converted into the high gloss of 
the finished product by the final process on the 
buffing wheel. 

These four steps in refinishing the rough edge 
left by the roughing process give the finished 
bevel a surface not greatly different from the 
original surface of the polished plate. 

Pattern" plates can be beveled as well as 
squares, although plates with sharp in-curves are 
difficult and are likely to break in the process. 

The width of bevel most commonly used for 
the larger door plates is 1% inch, for the larger 
size furniture plates 1% inch, and for the smaller 
size in furniture and door plates one inch. Show- 
case plates usually receive a half-inch bevel. 
Bevels wider than two inches are impracticable. 
The width of the bevel desired should always be 
specified when ordering. 

POLISHED EDGEWORK 

A large amount of glass is used today with 
polished edges for such purposes as show-case 
tops, plates to cover tops of furniture, and wind- 
shields, wing-guards, drop windows, and other 
adjustable glass plates used in automobiles. The 
edges of these plates are produced on the same 
machines as the beveled plate by exactly the 
same operations, the only difference being in the 
manner in which the glass plates are presented 
to the various machines. 



[197] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




"Grinding On" or "Roughing On' the Bevel 

The glass is held against a horizontal disk revolving in the 
trough and sand or carborundum is fed from the hopper. 




Smoothing the Bevel 

From the grinder the glass goes to the smoother, who uses a 
grindstone without any abrasive. 



For the usual flat polished edge, the glass 
is held at right angles to the machine and the 
lower edge of the plate roughed, smoothed, and 
polished. 

To produce a round polished or penciled edge 
the plate is similarly held but, as the operation 
proceeds, the plate is also rocked from side to 
side, thus causing the roughing and subsequent 
operations to form a rounded instead of a flat 
edge. As may be noted in the drawing on page 
196, sixteen different types of finished edges and 
bevels may be obtained from the Pittsburgh Plate 
Glass Company. 



In the use of plate glass with special bevels or 
edges it frequently is necessary to have holes 
drilled in the glass for the accommodation of 
special attachments. These holes may be drilled 
in reasonable number and size without much risk 
of breakage. 

Plates may be cut to simple patterns and the 
edges beveled or polished, or both. Should the 
required shape of plates involve in-curves or 
out-curves, the manufacturer should be con- 
sulted, for it is for him to determine whether or 
not the required plate can be produced without 
undue risk of breakage. 




Using the "Buffing Wheel" 

The bevel is now polished by means of the "buffing wheel.' 
Felt and rouge are the polishing agents. 



Finishing the Edges of the Bevel 

Polished edges are produced in much the same manner as 
beveled edges. 



[198] 



BENT GLASS 



BY bent glass is meant glass curved in 
various degrees and at various angles to 
produce handsomely shaped all-glass ef- 
fects in places where otherwise there would have 
to be ordinary corners formed by joints, usually 
of opaque material. 

Iirclosures for cashiers and bookkeepers and 
other glass office partitions gain immensely from 
such curved corners. The whole scheme of a 
room or a building is lifted to a degree of dis- 
tinctiojn whenever bent glass is made a definite 
part of the plan throughout. 

Bent glass is essentially a structural glass, 
playing its important part in the composition of 
a building, interior and exterior. In addition, 
however, it lends itself to other forms of service, 
such as furniture, show cases, safety guards for 
machinery and electric installations, and other 
miscellaneous uses. 

Bent polished plate glass has brought a final 
and unique beauty to the automobile, by provid- 
ing the one means for making windows that will 
conform to the lines of the body and impart to 
the machine as a whole, distinction and graceful 
shapeliness. 

For the owner and passenger the bent plate 
glass window obviously adds to the pleasure of 
every journey — a pleasure intensified by the sat- 
isfaction of knowing that the exterior appearance 
of the motor car is equally admirable. 

Bent plate glass offers many opportunities to 
the designers of handsome railroad and street 
cars. Big and little problems of angles and 
corners frequently can be solved by introduc- 
ing this excellent structural material instead of 
attempting to build up with joints. Thus are 
obtained improved appearance and increased 
comfort for passengers along with marked econ- 
omy in construction. 

The ship-builder and small-boat designer will 
find the same practical reasons hold good in 
their field. The glass-cabin motor boat, for exam- 
ple, gains immeasurably both in style and in use- 
fulness from having bent glass corners forward 
and aft. On large vessels, as the naval architect 
knows, there are innumerable uses for bent plate 
glass where strength and clear vision are impor- 
tant considerations. 



HOW GLASS IS BENT 

Bent glass is produced by treating glass sheets 
that have been made and finished in the regular 
glass-making processes and involves heating the 
sheet or plate of manufactured glass till it softens 
sufficiently to bend into the desired shape. 

Every kind of sheet glass can be brought to 
bent form; therefore the intending user must be 
careful to specify exactly what kind he wants. 
There is, for example, bent glass that is common 
window glass, and there is also a beautifully mas- 
sive, polished glass as brilliant as cut crystal, 
which is bent polished plate glass. Rough and 
ribbed glass, wire glass, opalite, vitrolite, and 
Carrara Glass are all bent as required. 

Plate glass is, of course, the best glass for 
bent glass purposes wherever transparency is re- 
quired, because a chief reason for the use of bent 
glass is desire for combined beauty and strength 
— distinctive properties of plate glass. 

It happens, too, that plate glass admits of 
being bent into regular curves and many irreg- 
ular ones without the slightest loss of its dis- 
tinctive qualities. The polished surface retains 
all its richness and elegance. The vision-property 
is not affected in the least, for the bending is 
done in such a manner that it produces no 
changes in the structure of the glass. Therefore 
its value for "seeing through 9 ' is as perfect after 
being bent as before. 

For the production of bent glass special ovens, 
also called kilns, are needed. The floors of the 
ovens are deep beds of pulverized clay and sand, 
and in these the workmen scoop out cavities of 
the exact form and depth required for any spe- 
cific shape that a sheet of glass is to take. After 
strips of iron are imbedded in the sides, the 
mould is ready. 

A plate of glass is laid flat over this excavated 
mould. Its sides are held by the iron strips, but 
the ends are unsupported. The oven doors are 
closed and the fire is started, the heat being ap- 
plied very carefully and increased very slowly 
for some hours, until the plate of glass becomes 
soft enough to be plastic, which is when it is a 
little above red heat. 

When it reaches the plastic stage, it bends 
slowly of its own weight, and naturally sinks into 



[199] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



the mould, thus assuming its curvature under 
the best possible conditions, without strains or 
stresses such as would arise if attempts were 
made to bend it forcibly. 

The heat is shut off as soon as the glass has 



assumed the shape of the mould. The kiln is 
kept closed, however, for another twenty-four 
hours in order to anneal the glass and permit 
it to cool back to normal temperature without 
stresses and strains. 



SIZES AND CURVES OF BENT PLATE GLASS— HOW TO ORDER 



THE Ford City plant of the Pittsburgh Plate 
Glass Company is equipped with bending 
kilns that can bend a plate to any size up to a 
maximum of about 144 x 100 inches. 

When ordering bent glass, the width (the 
measurement around the curve) should be speci- 
fied first, and then the height, or straight dimen- 
sion. All measurements of bends should be 
made over the convex surface of the glass. 

If glass is to be bent to a regular curve (an 
arc of a circle), it is necessary only to specify 
first the width, then the height, and then the 
radius of the required arc. All measurements 
must, of course, be accurate. 

It is most desirable that a pattern or template 
of sweep be submitted in all cases, even when 
regular curves are ordered. In the case of ir- 
regular curves, such a pattern, drawing, or tem- 
plate is of the utmost importance. It should 
show always the convex side of the glass, with 
distinct marks to indicate where the edges of the 
glass will come on the drawing after bending. 

If a required bend is not a true rectangle, there 
must be information showing which is the con- 
vex or concave side of the glass in relation to the 
template or drawing furnished for the bend. If 
errors are to be avoided in orders for com- 
pound bends (plates bent in both dimensions), 
full-size forms or templates should be furnished, 
the templates being an exact duplicate of the 
convex side of the glass that is required. 

When beveled, chipped, or lettered plates, or 
Florentine, maze, and other pattern glass are to 
be bent, there must be plain information as to 
which side of the glass is to be concave or convex. 

For bent wire glass, the information must 
show in which direction the mesh is to run. For 
ribbed or prism glass bending, there must be 
instructions as to whether the ribs are to run 
horizontally or vertically. 

Plates requiring bends in both directions, or 
on both dimensions of the glass, generally ne- 



cessitate a specially made iron mould, because it 
is not practicable to excavate such a mould in the 
clay floor of the oven. These iron moulds must 
be of very heavy construction in order not to 
warp or change curvature under the great heat. 
This fact usually makes them expensive. 

It is not desirable to bend plate glass to a 
curve exceeding a half -circle, or to acute bends 
resembling right angles; for such extreme curves 
involve great risk of breakage and of injury to 
the polished surface. 

There is a limit to the heating of plate glass, 
because heating beyond the right point will cause 
fine particles of the softened glass to stick to the 
mould, thus destroying the finely polished sur- 
face. Some sharp curves and bends would re- 
quire such high temperatures that they could not 
be obtained without very materially roughening 
the plate glass surface — a damage technically 
called "burn." 

Plates of irregular shapes, and especially 
those with cash-openings or speaking-holes cut, 
for bank fixtures, ticket offices, and similar 
places, cannot be bent without great risk of 
breakage. Orders for glass of such character 
are accepted only with the understanding that 
the customer assumes the cost of all plates that 
may be damaged in the bending process. 

In bending wire glass, experience has demon- 
strated that breakage is excessive in thicknesses 
over three-eighths of an inch. 

Users of glass in making their calculations 
must bear in mind that specifications for bent 
glass cannot be interpreted as critically as for 
metals. Curves of bends will be accurate for 
practical purposes; but they will not be micro- 
scopically accurate, because glass cannot be 
operated on after cutting or bending, to correct 
trifling discrepancies in curvature or dimension. 

Specify width (measurement around curve) 
first, and then the height. Preferably submit 
pattern or template of sweep in all cases. 



[200] 



BENT PLATE GLASS 



EXPLANATION OF CURVES AND DIAGRAMS 




A — Curves are those which are bent to a given 
radius one way of the pane only, which applies to the 
whole length or width of the pane, and not to one part 
only, the depth of bend not to exceed one-eighth of 
the length of the bent side of pane. Example, length 
of the bent side of pane, 96 inches, depth of bend not 
above 12 inches. 

B — Curves are those which are bent more than one- 
eighth, but not to exceed the quarter of a circle, or 
about 1 in 5V 2 . Example, pane 77 inches, bend 14 
inches. 

C— For the same curve as B, but a part flat, the flat 
part not to exceed one-third. Example, pane 72 inches, 
bend 48 inches, flat 24 inches. 

D — For flat curves, with one part flat, the depth of 
the bent part not to exceed 1 in 12, and the flat part 
one-half. Example, pane 72 inches, bend 36 inches, 
depth 3 inches, flat 36 inches. 

E — For curves, the bent part not less than a 6-inch 
radius, and not to exceed the quarter of a circle, with 
flat part, the flat part to exceed one-third but not to 
exceed two-thirds. Example, pane 72 inches, bend 
24 inches, flat 48 inches. 

F— Curves are those which are bent beyond the 
quarter of a circle, but not to exceed 1 in 4. Example, 
pane 84 inches, depth 21 inches. 

G — For OG curves, depth not to exceed 1 in 16. 
Example, pane 64 inches, depth 4 inches. 

H — For angular curves, viz.: Flat parts on each 
side, the centers not to exceed the quarter of a circle, 
the end flat parts one-fourth of the sides bent. Ex- 
ample, pane 80 inches, bend 60 inches, flat 10 inches, 
each side, or about 5 inches on one side and 15 inches 
on the other. 

J— For angle curves (radius not less than 6 inches) , 
the center not to exceed the quarter-circle, and the flat 
to exceed one-fourth, but not to exceed three- fourths. 
Example, pane 72 inches, bend 18 inches, flat 27 
inches, each side, or about 14 inches on one side and 
40 inches on the other. 

K — Curves are those which are bent beyond 1 in 4 
but not to exceed the half -circle (diameter not less 
than 12 inches). Example, pane 75 inches, depth 
about 24 inches. 

L — Curves not to exceed the quarter of a circle at 
each side (depth of bend not less than 6 inches), the 
bent part not less than one-third, and the flat not more 
than two-thirds. Example, pane 72 inches, bend 12 
inches, each side, center flat 48 inches. 



[201] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Setting a Large Window 

Skillful window setters are employed by all the Warehouses of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. In the picture, an unusu- 
ally large pane is being put in place. This is an operation requiring great care if financial loss is to be avoided. Although this glass 
has not yet been cleaned, its transparency is so nearly perfect that it is hard to detect the pane in the picture. 

THE GLAZING OF STORE FRONTS 



IN SETTING plate glass in wood or iron 
frames in a store front the glass should be 
thoroughly bedded in putty. In copper con- 
struction there is no need for putty. As to the 
proper kind of setting blocks, opinions differ, 
as on many other points connected with glazing. 
We are left to choose between heavy pads of 
felt, lead or iron covered with leather, soft 
wooden blocks, and other such devices. What- 
ever blocks are used should be placed about 
ten to twelve inches from each end of the plate. 
More than two blocks are not required, though 
proper care should be used to prevent the glass 
from coming in contact with metal. 

After the preliminary work has been attended 
to, the glass should be lowered into the rabbet 
with the aid of slings consisting of strong cotton 
webbing measuring about four inches wide and 
five feet long. The Pittsburgh Plate Glass Com- 



pany stocks this webbing and will furnish it at a 
nominal charge. 

The bottom of the glass should be placed on 
the setting blocks, keeping the top away from 
the frame. When once properly placed, allow 
the top to move slowly into position. In the 
event that the glass binds on either side, this 
may be overcome by increasing the height of 
the setting block at that end of the glass. If 
it is a trifle high, the setting blocks can be taken 
out and made thinner. Again, if the glass is 
much too large, it may be necessary to cut it to 
the right dimension. 

When in position the slings should be re- 
moved, not by pulling sidewise, but by pulling 
them straight up parallel with the glass. Press 
the glass firmly against the frame and proceed 
to attach the mouldings. 

If the frame is of wood, care should be used 



[ 202 ] 



THE GLAZING OF STORE FRONTS 



not to toenail the mouldings, because then too 
much pressure will be brought against the glass. 
These nails should be driven straight. 

If plates are taken from the box at the job, 
workmen should be careful to lift the glass 
high up over the edge of the box while removing 
it. Otherwise failure to clear the edge will be 
likely to break the glass. Glass required for 
different street addresses should be numbered 
and marked for the purpose of identification. 



Too much care cannot be used in setting cop- 
per corner and division bars. The glass must be 
cut to correct dimensions to extend into the rab- 
bet and the bar properly adjusted to insure uni- 
form tension the full length of the bar. Division 
bars should not be anchored until this work has 
been completed. 

When the work is properly completed, the gla- 
zier's responsibility ceases, and if insurance is 
desired it should be placed at once. 



BREAKAGE RESULTING FROM POORLY 
CONSTRUCTED BUILDINGS 



BREAKAGE sometimes is directly traceable 
to I beams of insufficient weight to carry 
the load and to want of proper foundations; 
especially when to these conditions there is added 
vibration due to heavy traffic. The sills under 
the plate glass sometimes are found to be made 
up of one piece of heavy lumber. This heavy 
block swells and warps when wet, forcing the 
front out of alignment. Heavy lumber of this 
kind has no place in a front, and if used should 
be kept protected from the elements. Cases have 
been known where ice has formed in and around 
these heavy blocks, breaking a number of the 
plates in a front. 

Breakage also may be due to the use of wide 
or heavy furring or rabbet strips. These strips 
should be narrow, not to exceed two or three 



inches; when too wide there is danger of swelling 
and forcing the glass. 

In the laying of the bulkhead floors, provision 
should be made for the swelling of the flooring 
when wet — in other words, space should be 
allowed to permit of normal swelling. This will 
prevent the sill being forced out of line. 

Breakage at times is caused by transom bars 
being too light. When bars are not strong, or 
properly reinforced so as to withstand wind 
pressure, breakage probably will result. If door 
posts are light, or if they do not extend to the 
ceiling, it is hard to install them in a manner 
that will not result in breakage. Heavy con- 
struction is required to prevent this. Particularly 
is this true if no door-check is used or when a 
door-check is out of order. 



STEEL SASH GLAZING 



SASH of this kind may be used for window, 
wire, rough, or ribbed glass. They are prac- 
tically never used for plate glass. 

In three particulars, glazing of steel sash as 
compared with the glazing of wood sash differs 
quite materially. First of all, steel sash are 
erected and anchored in place in the walls of the 
building before being glazed, whereas it is cus- 
tomary to lay wooden sash on horses for glazing. 
Secondly, it is necessary to use special putty for 
steel sash, because it is not possible for the metal 
to absorb the oil in linseed oil putty, which, of 
course, makes it impossible for the putty to 
harden. Thirdly, the glass is set from the inside 
of the sash instead of from the outside. 

Litharge putty, the kind used for this purpose, 
can be obtained either from the manufacturers 



of sash or from the firm supplying the glass. The 
putty should be sent to the job in steel, air-tight 
cans; if in wood barrels the putty has to be used 
as soon as it reaches the job, because the harden- 
ing of the putty begins with its exposure to the 
air, and in a short time it is impossible to work 
with it. It is quite essential, in order to have 
the putty adhere properly to steel sash, that the 
metal should be perfectly dry. It is not possible 
to glaze these sash in damp weather. 

A contrivance very much on the order of lad- 
der jacks is used by glaziers to support the planks 
from which they do their work. 

Standard sizes of glass used in steel sash are 
14 x 20s, 12 x 18s, and 10 x 16s. If there are 
ventilators in the sash it is necessary to trim 
the outside edges of the lights going into the 



[203] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



ventilators approximately one inch. Exact sizes 
should be secured and the glass cut to fit before 
starting. The first step in the setting of the glass 
is to place a small quantity of putty at the back 
and sides of the rabbet in order to provide a bed 
for the glass. The glass is pressed in place so 
that any excess putty may work out on the face 
of the steel sash. The spring clips which are 
furnished by the manufacturers are then inserted 
in the holes provided for them, after which the 
putty is run around the glass on a bevel covering 
the clips, making the appearance the same as 
in the ordinary type of wood-sash glazing. 

The function of the spring clip is to hold the 
glass in place while the putty is hardening. This 
should occur in a comparatively short time. 
When the putty is thoroughly dry it becomes so 
hard that it is necessary to use a chisel to remove 
it. This method of glazing is for the ordinary 
type of steel sash. 

If the Underwriters 9 type of steel sash is used, 
it will be necessary, after the putty has been 
spread in the rabbet and the glass set in place, 
instead of using the spring clips, to attach angle- 
iron stops to the frames by means of bolts. These 
stops and bolts will be found attached to the 
frames and must be removed by the glazier 
before commencing to set the glass. 



After these stops are bolted on to the frames, 
it will be necessary to run as much of the putty 
as possible in between the glass and stops, to pre- 
vent contact of glass with metal. 

In the glazing of saw-tooth or monitor sash, 
the bed of putty should be much heavier than in 
the ordinary side-wall sash. After the glass has 
been pressed tightly in place, fill in the space 
between the edge of the glass and the metal with 
putty; then with the putty knife cut it off even 
with the face of the glass. This method of setting 
the glass in the monitor sash applies to most 
types, but some manufacturers require in addi- 
tion the face-puttying, which is done in the usual 
manner, but requires a very deep bevel. 

Be sure that the sash and the face-putty are 
not painted for two or three weeks after glazing. 
This is in order to secure thorough drying of 
the putty, because after paint is applied the putty 
does not dry well. 

After completing the glazing of sash in which 
ventilators occur, whether in side-wall sash or in 
monitors, be careful to have all ventilators fas- 
tened or wired securely to prevent the wind from 
blowing them open and breaking the glass. 

When glazing steel sash in winter months, it 
will be necessary to warm the putty in order to 
make it soft enough to handle. 



SETTING AUTO GLASS 



IT IS important that every glass dealer should 
learn to do this work. If supplied with the 
right tools and materials, it is not so difficult as 
might seem. A carborundum stone, plate glass 
pliers, steel wheel cutters, rubber mallet, felt, 
insulating tape, and a Perfection glass-board 
complete the outfit. The glass should be cut to 
fit, the rounded corners nipped with the pliers, 
the rough edges smoothed with the carborundum 
stone, the tape and felt applied, and the glass 
placed in position. With the aid of the rubber 



mallet, it can be made to fit tightly without 
injury to glass. 

STOPPING A BREAK 

In cutting around breaks, examine the glass 
to ascertain how far the break extends. This 
is very hard to determine because the crack 
cannot always be seen for its full length. With 
a steel wheel cut a circle ten to twelve inches 
around this point and tap the plate in the usual 
way until the crack is plain and the glass is 
broken clear through. 



BOXING 



THE customary charge for boxing on orders 
amounting to less than a stipulated figure, 
and of a less number than three plates of what- 
ever value, at times has prompted purchasers 
to inquire if boxes might be returned for credit. 
These boxes are constructed for each individual 



order. If returned they must be knocked down 
and rebuilt to different dimensions. Any sav- 
ing that may be effected in the lumber recovered 
is largely offset by the freight, cartage, and addi- 
tional labor expense. To re-use these boxes, ac- 
cordingly, is not practicable. 

[ 204 ] 



THE SETTING OF PLATE GLASS 




SETTING GLASS ABOVE GRADE FLOORS 



THE plate shown in the illustration is per- 
haps as large in footage, and also as regards 
both the width and the height, as any sheet of 
plate glass ever set above the grade floor. 

To install such a plate in the upper windows 
is not an easy task. In this instance it was 
decided to deliver the glass to the building in 
the box in which it was received. It was then 
hoisted to the opening by a beam rigged out 
from the seventh floor with a Triplex pulley 
attached. It was found necessary to remove 
the sill in order to allow the case to pass into 
the building. The height of the opening slightly 
exceeded the width, thus making it necessary 
to up-end the glass. This was done before 



it was removed from the box. Twenty expe- 
rienced workmen were required to do the work; 
and while the setting was a most unusual one, it 
was executed according to plan without any un- 
toward incident whatsoever. 

The custom is, however, to deliver large plates 
for setting above the grade floor in the same way 
that other glass is delivered to the job. Twenty- 
four-foot scaffolds are used for this purpose. 
Underneath the glass is brought a strong sling of 
webbing, with rings attached to each end, similar 
to and of about the same length as a saddle girth. 
Ropes are passed through the rings and the men 
above lift the glass on to the scaffolding and 
thence into the opening. 



[205] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




WINDOW BRACES 



PRACTICAL men in the business have debated 
at times as to whether window brackets of 
the kind illustrated above possess any real merit. 
Men of wide experience in handling glass, how- 
ever, seem to regard them with considerable 
favor. They maintain that if, and when, the 
brackets are properly installed and adjusted, 
they render material aid in supporting the glass 
against wind pressure. 

Merchants evidently think well of the innova- 
tion, for we are informed that the manufacturers 
receive orders from all parts of the country. 
Plate glass insurance companies, however, have 
not as yet given the device recognition. 

These brackets are made, in the solid part, 
from %e x 1%-inch iron. The arm consists of 



one-inch hollow tubing screwed into the bracket 
portion. In that portion of the arm projecting 
toward the glass, a shaft is attached, in the end 
of which is inserted a rubber wheel that rests 
against the surface of the glass. This bracket is 
adjusted with a set screw to bring against the 
glass the pressure required to absorb vibration. 

Another style of this window brace is one that 
is attached at the transom and does not extend 
to the ceiling. In all other respects it is the same. 

The brackets are made to order to fit indi- 
vidual windows. When ordering, furnish a sec- 
tional view of the window, together with the exact 
measurements of the glass and the woodwork, 
particularly the distance from the ceiling to the 
transom bar. Also specify the finish desired. 



i 



RESILVERING MIRRORS 

T IS often taken for granted by the customer explain these matters clearly: that in the process 
(and sometimes by the dealer, too) that in the of resilvering a mirror no effort at all is made 

to improve the quality of the glass itself, and 
that the old silver has to be removed, the glass 
carefully cleaned, and new silver applied. 

German imported mirrors, or thin %-mch 
mirror plates, cannot be accepted for resilver- 
ing. They are too easily broken. The resilver- 
ing of mirrors always is done at customer's risk. 

Bill of lading with proper instructions always 
should be forwarded, and mirrors should be re- 
moved from frames before shipping. 

[ 206 ] 



process of resilvering a mirror a real effort is 
directed to making over the glass itself. This is 
incorrect. Even if it were considered practical 
to polish out scratches and other defects com- 
monly found in old mirrors, such work would be 
most expensive. The cost of the labor alone 
amounts to appreciably more than the cost of 
brand-new glass; yet there are cases where such 
expectations have led to considerable disappoint- 
ment. It is important that the dealer should 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION 



MAXIMUM SIZES, THICKNESSES, AND APPROXIMATE 
NET AND GROSS WEIGHTS 



PLAIN FIGURED GLASS 



STYLE 



Florentine 

Syenite^ 

u 

Moss. 

" (Thin)'.'.!;!!."!! 

Maze 

Hoiiy". !".".• '.!!!!!!!!! 
Mystic."."." .".'!." !!!!!! 

u 

Muranese 

Ondoyant 

Fig. No. 2 .... 

Fig. No. 2 

Romanesque 

Hammered Cathedral 
Double Rolled " 
Opalescent " 

Opal 

Rippled 

Rippled (Thin) 

Colonial. 

Pyramid 

Carnation 

Liberty 

u 

Cobweb. 

a 
u 

Aqueduct 



Thick 
ness 

Inches 



?.{ 



Maxi- 
mum 
Width 
Inches 



48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
40 
48 
4S 
48 
48 
44 
44 
42 
SO 

48 

42 
48 
60 
80 

30 
30 
30 
30 

44 
44 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
54 
.54 
62 

54 
60 
60 



Maxi- 
mum 
length 
Inches 



132 
132 
132 
132 
132 
132 
126 
132 
132 
132 
132 
132 
132 
110 
110 
110 
110 
132 
132 
90 
!)() 
90 
40 
90 
90 
160 
160 
182 
188 
132 

\m 

120 
120 
126 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 



Approximate 
Net Weight 
per Sq. Fl 



Approximate 

Shipping 

Weight 

perSq.Fi. 



2 
2 

2 

^A 

iM 

2 

% l A 
2 

m 

2 
2 

m 
m 

2 

va 

iH 
iH 
1V2 
Hi 

2 

2 

2 

2 

m 
5 

m 

*A 
5% 



bs. 

bs. 
bs. 

bs, 

bs, 
bs 
bs. 

bs. 
bs. 
bs. 
bs. 
b.. 
bs 
bs 
bs. 
bs 

bs 
bs. 
bs. 
bs. 

bs. 
bs. 

bs. 
bs. 

bs. 
bs. 

bs. 
bs. 
bs. 
bs. 
bs. 
bs. 
bs. 

bs. 

bs. 
bs. 
bs. 
bs. 



23^ lbs. 
3J4 lbs. 
23^ lbs. 
314 lbs. 

%M lbs. 

SM lbs. 
2M lbs. 
2^ lbs. 
3M lbs. 
&A lbs. 
3J4 lbs. 

%y 2 lbs. 

3K lbs. 
2K lbs. 
2^"lbs. 
23^ lbs. 
334 lbs. 
23^ lbs. 
3M lbs. 
2 lbs. 
2 lbs. 
2 lbs. 
2 lbs. 
2 lbs. 
l^lbfl. 
2Ji lbs. 
334 lbs. 
4^ lbs. 
2^ lbs. 
3M lbs. 
2K lbs. 
314 lbs. 
%A lbs. 
3)4 lbs. 
4}^ lbs. 
6 lbs. 
4 lbs. 
5M lbs. 
6% lbs. 



PRISM GLASS 



Prism (Sheet) Thin . . . ; 

Prism (Sheet) Regular 

Glazed Prism Tiles 

Prism Wired Glass 

Pentecor 

u 

"Imperial" Prism-Plate Glass 



48 

(JO 

42 
48 
48 

72 



120 
138 

138 
132 
132 

82 



33^ lbs. 

4 lbs. 
5U lbs. 

5 lbs. 

m ibs. 

3 lbs. 

m ib,. 



434 lbs. 
4% lbs. 
Q l A lbs. 
6 lbs. 

3 lbs. 

4 lbs. 



;i< 



lbs. 



ROUGH, RIBBED OR CORRUGATED 



Rough. 



Ribbed. 



48 
48 
68 
62 
140 
48 
48 
62 
68 
48 



132 
132 
136 
132 
240 
132 
132 
136 
132 
130 



2 lbs. 
23^ Ibs. 
3% lbs. 
5}4 lbs. 
7 Y 2 lbs. 
2 lbs. 
23^ lbs. 
334 lbs. 
5*A lbs. 
7V 2 lbs. 



23^ lbs. 
3M lbs. 
43^ Ibs. 
6 Ibs. 
8 lbs. 
2^ lbs. 
S% lbs. 
4>2 lbs. 
6 lbs. 
8 lbs. 



WIRED GLASS 



STYLE 



Polished Wired Glass 

a « u 

" a a 

Maze " " 

Romanesque " " 

Syenite " " 

Muranese " " 

Cobweb " u 

« a a 

« a a 

" « « 

Holly « « 

Prism " " 

Pentecor " a 

Pyramid " " 

Aqueduct * " 

Rough * « 

« « « 

« « « 

Ribbed « « ' 

« a a 

« « « 

" « « 

Rough Wire Floor Glass. . 

Ribbed " « 

Ground " " « 



Thick 
ness 

:hes 



Maxi- 



Width 
Inches 



48 
48 
46 
48 
48 
48 
48 
42 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
42 
40 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
12 
12 
12 



Maxi- 
mum 
Length 
Inches 



130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
110 
130 
ISO 
130 
130 
130 
130 
138 
130 
132 
132 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
12 
12 
12 



Approximate 
Net Weight 
per Sq. Ft. 



3M lbs, 

4 Ibs. 
8 lbs. 
3M lbs. 
5% lbs. 
334 lbs. 
3% lbs. 
3M lbs. 
2 lbs. 
2^ lbs. 
3% lbs. 
5% lbs. 
3% lbs. 
5U lbs. 

5 lbs. 
lbs. 

3M lbs. 
434 lbs. 
2 Ibs. 
23^ lbs. 
334 lbs. 
5% lbs. 
7A lbs. 
2 lbs. 
23^ lbs. 
3?4 lbs. 
5U lbs. 
1V 2 lbs. 
8 lbs. 
8 lbs. 
8 lbs. 



Approximate 
Shipping 
Weight 
perSq.Ft. 



43^ lbs. 
4M lbs. 

sy 2 ibs. 

4^ lbs. 
6 lbs. 
4^ lbs. 
4^ lbs. 
4^ lbs. 
23^ lbs. 
3M lbs. 
4H lbs. 
6 lbs. 
^A lbs. 
6 lbs. 
6 lbs. 
5 lbs. 
4^ lbs. 
5 lbs. 
2A lbs. 
3^ lbs. 

4y 2 ibs. 

lbs. 

lbs. 
23^ lbs. 
3}4 lbs. 
4^ lbs. 

lbs. 

lbs. 
9M lbs. 
9% lbs. 
9M lbs. 



POLISHED FIGURED GLASS 



Apex about 

Ideal. 

Pyramid 

"Imperial" Prism-Plate . about 

Style 01 

Style 02 

Style 03 

Style 04 

" Style 05 



H 


50 


100 


4 lbs. 


34 


54 


130 


4 lbs. 


H 


' 48 


132 


4 lbs. 


H 


70 


82 


334 Ibs. 


% 


70 


82 


334 lbs. 


l A 


70 


82 


334 lbs. 


X 


70 


82 


334 lbs. 


y 


70 


82 


334 lbs. 


a 


70 


82 


334 Ibs. 



434 Ibs. 
434 Ibs. 
434 lbs. 
43^ lbs. 
43^2 lbs. 
43^ lbs. 
4^ Ibs, 
43^ Ibs. 
4J£ lbs. 



POLISHED PLATE GLASS AND MIRRORS 



STYLE 



Polished Plate Glass 

and 

Polished Plate Mirrors 



Thickness 
Inches Approximate Net Weight per Square Foot 



y 

3 16 

y 

?16 

y 
y 
y 

H 

1 

\H 

\y 2 



11b. 

2 lbs. 

3 lbs. 

4 Ibs. 
4 Ibs. 
6 Ibs. 

8 lbs. 

9 lbs. 
11 lbs. 
13 lbs. 
16 lbs. 
20 lbs. 



10 oz. 

7 oz. 

4 oz. 

2 oz. 
14 oz. 

8oz. 

2oz. 
12 oz. 

6 oz. 

oz. 

4 oz. 

oz. 



[207] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



LOCATION AND ADDRESSES OF 
PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY'S WAREHOUSES 

Akron, Ohio 101 Lincoln Street 

Albany, N. Y , . North Ferry Street, East of Broadway 

Atlanta, Ga 56-60 West Alabama Street 

Baltimore, Md 8-12 South Paca Street 

Birmingham, Ala Second and 29th Streets 

Boston, Mass 99-103 Portland Street 

Brooklyn, N. Y Third Avenue and Dean Street 

Buffalo, N. Y 101-107 Seneca Street 

Chicago, III 431-451 St. Clair Street 

Cincinnati, Ohio Broadway, Court Street and Eggleston Avenue 

Cleveland, Ohio 3849 Hamilton Avenue 

Columbus, Ohio 133-135 East Spring Street 

Dallas, Texas Pearl Street and Pacific Avenue 

Davenport, Iowa „ ....... . 414-428 Scott Street 

Denver, Colo. Twenty-sixth and Blake Streets 

Des Moines, Iowa 108 East Fourth Street 

Detroit, Mich . Hamilton and Holden Avenues 

Ft. Worth, Texas 1105-1107 Calhoun Street 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 21-23 Ionia Avenue, S. W. 

High Point, N. C 431 Hamilton Avenue 

Houston, Texas . . . . Crawford and Commerce Streets 

Indianapolis, Ind 1915 Madison Avenue 

Jacksonville, Fla 1530 Enterprise Street 

Kansas City, Mo. ..... , ...... . Fifth and Wyandotte Streets 

Long Island City, N. Y 193-219 Hunters Point Avenue 

Memphis, Tenn 181-185 Madison Avenue 

Milwaukee, Wis 486-496 Market Street 

Minneapolis, Minn 616-628 South Third Street 

Newark, N. J Elizabeth Avenue and Peddie Street 

New Haven, Conn. 184 Brewery Street 

New Orleans, La Girod and Commerce Streets 

Oklahoma City, Okla 116-118 East Grand Avenue 

Omaha, Nebr Fourteenth and Jones Streets 

Philadelphia, Pa Arch and Eleventh Streets 

Pittsburgh, Pa 632-642 Duquesne Way 

Rochester, N. Y. 149-153 State Street 

San Antonio, Texas 1420-1426 South Alamo Street 

Savannah, Ga. . 731-733 Wheaton Street 

St. Louis, Mo . Tenth and Spruce Streets 

St. Paul, Minn 459-461 Jackson Street 

Toledo, Ohio 2410-2416 Albion Street 

Washington, D. C Fourth and Channing Streets, N. E. 



[208] 



THE MANUFACTURE OF PAINT 




THE ORIGIN AND FIRST USE OF PAINT 



PAINT was used first, in the palaeolithic 
age, for pictorial purposes. This was 
long before historic times — probably 
not less than fifty thousand years ago. The 
records on which modern historical theory 
is based were gathered in connection with 
discoveries made in France, Spain, and Italy. 
Other evidence of prehistoric paint-making 
has been found among ruins in Arizona and 
Mexico, but few deductions have been drawn 
from these specimens, as history has no rec- 
ord of the mysterious races who inhabited 
those regions. 

In 1879 a Spaniard living at Altamira 
was exploring a cave on his estate when his 
little daughter discovered under a low shelv- 
ing rock, not readily accessible to an adult, 
a series of drawings of prehistoric animals 
painted on the stone ceiling of the cave. 
Science connects these with the animals 
which roamed over Europe during the 
Stone Age, and it is probable that these 
drawings were made during that period. 

These pictures were painted in three col- 
ors: red, black, and yellow — pigments that 
must have been made from earths and char- 

[1 



coal. In a certain stratum of earth, which has 
been identified as the surface soil during the 
Stone Age, there is a quantity of yellow and 
red ochre. The black pigment might have 
come from ashes or from a black earth. 

The prehistoric artist, by thus mixing 
ochre, red or yellow, with water, was able 
to make a practicable paint for his purpose. 

Other paintings similar in nature to those 
in Spain were discovered in 1881 in a cave 
at Pair-non-Pair, Gironde, France ; also in the 
Cave of Gourdan, Haute-Garonne, France. 
All these caves were sealed, until their dis- 
covery during the Nineteenth Century, with 
layers of earth and gravel, which undoubt- 
edly is what has preserved the paintings until 
the present time. Those that have been ex- 
posed to the atmosphere show the destruc- 
tive effect of dampness on the coloring. 

Paintings representing prehistoric ani- 
mals and, in a few instances, pictures of 
prehistoric men, have been found at Oued 
Safsaf, in Algeria. Apparently these were 
done with a sort of red dye, probably ob- 
tained from the juice of a berry. 

In America also, drawings have been 
] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



found, in rock shelters and in caves, which 
were made in practically the same manner as 
those in Spain and France, by mixing with 
water the yellow and red ochre obtained from 
the soil. It was even possible to obtain a 
green whenever "terre verte" (glauconite), 
a colored earth, was to be found. 

Worthy of note is the fact that the colored 
powders from which this primitive paint was 
made were kept in tubes, much as tubes are 
used for paints today. The palaeolithic tubes 
were made from horn or bone hollowed out. 

Paint is known to have been used by the 
Egyptians as early as 8000 B.C. Coming 
down to a much later age, we find that by 
3500 B.C. painting had attained the dignity 
of an art, and numerous colors were in use. 
Most of these colors were easily manufac- 
tured from earthy materials found at that 
time in Egypt and the surrounding territory. 
Palettes of slate also were in use among the 
Egyptians, as well as "mullers" for smooth- 
ing down the paint after it had been applied. 

Paint-making in early Egypt made its 
first notable advance through an allied art, 
when it was found that potter's clay changed 
color in the process of baking. Through 
this discovery, in addition to the reds and 
yellows made by mixing crude ochre with 
water, the Egyptian artists found themselves 
able to make green, blue, and black by grind- 
ing up pottery that had cracked in the fire, 
taking the glaze put on by heat, and mixing 
it with water to obtain new colors. 

Black was obtained in other ways : Lamp- 
black was just as common then as now, and 
the mixing of a little gum arabic with the 
water caused the particles of lampblack to re- 
main suspended in the liquid, thus forming a 

[2 



very good paint. The Egyptians found also 
that it was possible to produce a black pow- 
der for coloring matter by charring and grind- 
ing young vines and peach stones. White 
paint was made in much the same manner, 
using chalk instead of lampblack. 

One of the most interesting colors used 
in the ancient world was "azurite," or ultra- 
marine blue. This is a delicate and beau- 
tiful blue, as much prized today as it was in 
the earliest history of painting. It was made 
by breaking up lapis lazuli into small frag- 
ments, then separating the chips and grains 
of blue color that appear in the rock, grind- 
ing them to a powder, and sifting to obtain 
the pure coloring matter. This material, 
suspended in a medium consisting of water 
and gum arabic, or occasionally of water and 
the white of egg, produced a blue paint un- 
rivaled in its delicacy of color. Although 
ultramarine is manufactured today by chemi- 
cal processes, modern artists sometimes pre- 
fer the old-time color because of its superior 
quality. Painters of the Italian Renaissance 
made extensive use of "azurite," and had 
it prepared in a very careful manner in their 
workshops. According to one of the early 
Italian artists, it was found wise to permit 
only old women to work on the making of 
paint from lapis lazuli because of their great 
patience and care in handling the material. 

Another interesting color was murex, or 
the royal purple of Tyre. The color derived 
its name from that of the small fish from 
which it was obtained. In the waters of the 
Mediterranean off Phoenicia these tiny fishes 
abounded. Within the head of the fish was 
found a secretion that could be converted 
into this wonderful dye. 

] 



THE ORIGIN AND FIRST USE OF PAINT 



At one time murex was largely manu- 
factured and used throughout the ancient 
world. Besides being a beautiful color, it 
had remarkable preservative properties. It 
was not purple as we understand that color 
today, but a rich, heavy crimson, that came 
to be used everywhere as the color of roy- 
alty. The "purple and fine linen" men- 
tioned in the Bible refers to murex, and 
indicates the value it had for the people 
of those days. The secret of making Tyrian 
purple died with the vanishing of the Phoe- 
nician race. 

Before 1500 B.C. the art of painting had 
come to be fairly well developed in Crete. 
In the unearthed remains of the Palace of 
Cnossus, as well as in the Labyrinth built 
to house the Minotaur, are to be seen today 
examples of the art of painting as practiced 
by the Cretans. The colors they used were 
practically the same as those found in Egypt 
in that period, and most of them might well 
have heen obtained from that country, since 
they made use of a color known as "blue 
frit," manufactured only along the Nile, by 
grinding up pottery that had been fire-coated 
with a copper glaze. One pigment, however, 
a deep, perfect black, was the Cretans' very 
own, and rendered their paintings distinc- 
tive; it seems to have been made from car- 
bon. This black can be seen in frequent and 
highly effective use on remnants of ancient 
Cretan pottery. Many years later it was 
imitated with much success in the wall fres- 
coes of Pompeii. The Cretan artists made 
their white from lime, probably obtained 
from marble. Marble was widely used in 
the architecture of ancient Crete and Greece. 
At the same time, 1500 B.C., painting 

[3 



had reached an advanced stage in Egypt 
By that time the Egyptian artists had in 
creased the number and variety of their col 
ors almost to equal those of the present day 
About that period, several colors were im 
ported from India, of which madder was one 
and indigo another. From the madder root 
they were able to make the paint known to 
artists as madder lake, besides other "lakes 79 
from other sources; in like manner various 
shades of red, violet, and brown also were 
derived from madder. 

Egypt not only made great strides in the 
discovery, manufacture, and use of colors, 
but about 1000 B.C. the Egyptians de- 
veloped another material which added im- 
measurably to the value and permanence of 
their art. This was varnish. The acacia 
tree grew in abundance in Egypt and from 
its sap, gum arabic was made. Trees grow- 
ing in the Libyan forests gave forth resin 
and this resin was used extensively in 
the manufacture of varnish. Beeswax also 
came to be used as a varnish, and, mixed 
with dyes, was used likewise in pictorial art. 
The paintings in Egyptian palaces and 
tombs, and on coffins and mummies, invari- 
ably were protected with varnish. This has 
preserved the paintings to this day, espe- 
cially in cases where sepulchres and galler- 
ies were choked with the sand of the Sahara 
so that the outer air could not come in con- 
tact with and affect the decorations. The 
strength and permanence of the Egyptian 
colors and varnishes have made it possible 
for us to know and study the civilization of 
the Nile; the history of Egypt is written in 
its art. From Egypt the Romans learned 
much of what they knew of painting. With 
] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



few exceptions the Roman artists made use 
of the same colors, produced by the same 
methods used by the Egyptians. Relics of 
classical Roman art were discovered when 
Pompeii was unearthed in the Eighteenth 
and Nineteenth Centuries. 

Still later, the same methods and materials 
were employed by the early Italian artists. 
Before the Renaissance, however, the Italians 
developed new colors and abandoned some 
of the primitive Roman pigments, so that 
when the great artists of Italy appeared, they 
were able to use tempera and oils in much 



the same way these two media of art are used 
today. The paints were prepared with the 
greatest of care, and the varnishes and oils 
used in the mixing of colors received equal 
attention. Some of the materials that the 
Egyptians used, indeed, have not been su- 
perseded even in the modern composition of 
coloring material. Linseed oil was used then 
as it is today ; a color similar to cochineal was 
obtained from a small tree insect ; in fact, 
there are many points of identity in composi- 
tion between ancient paints and varnishes 
and like materials of the present day. 




[4] 



^^ 







PROGRESS AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE 
MANUFACTURE OF PAINT 



PAINT has been defined as: "Any liquid 
or semi-liquid substance applied to any 
metallic, wooden, or other surface to pro- 
tect it from corrosion or decay, or to give color 
or gloss, or both these qualities, to it." 

Speaking more explicitly, paint is a mixture 
of opaque or semi-opaque substances (pigments) 
with liquids, which may be applied to surfaces 
by means of a brush, or a painting machine, or 
by dipping, and which has the property of form- 
ing an adherent coating thereon. 

In analyzing the development of paints from 
the earliest times, what strikes one most forcibly 
is the dominating position that certain materials 
have maintained up to the present time. Among 
these may be mentioned iron oxide, sienna, 
umber, ochre, white lead, and linseed oil. A 
superficial investigation might lead to the con- 
clusion that the art of paint-making has not kept 
pace with modern progress, but further study 
shows the fallacy of this conclusion. 

The nature of paint is such as to necessitate 
conservative development and the tendency at 
times has been toward ultra-conservatism. De- 
cisive results to be secured by using new mate- 
rials can be determined only after years of care- 
ful test and observation. So many extraneous 
influences affect a paint's value in use that favor- 
able laboratory determinations are not conclu- 
sive criteria of merit. Consequently paint-users 



and paint-makers have been slow to discard 
materials the utility of which has been estab- 
lished. Notwithstanding these conditions, dis- 
tinct progress has been made in the paint indus- 
try and in painting methods, particularly since 
the beginning of the present century, and the 
prospects are that this development will proceed 
very rapidly. 

It is interesting to note that the essential opera- 
tions of early paint manufacture continue to this 
day. The ancient paint-maker ground his pig- 
ment between stones which he operated by hand; 
today the pigment is ground between stones, but 
they are power-driven. The ancient workman 
mixed his batch in a crude bowl with a wooden 
spatula; modern mixing is done in huge vats, 
in which the mixing paddles are operated by 
power. The ancient workman had only a few 
pigments, which he generally mixed with water; 
modern methods involve the use of a varied list 
of products, whose sources of supply are as wide- 
ly separated as Canada and the Argentine, India, 
China, Russia, and the United States. In the 
gathering of the raw materials used in the manu- 
facture of paint all races and nationalities are 
employed, and operations ranging from the sim- 
plest and most elementary to the most scientific 
and complex have their part in the process. 

A review of the development of paint should 
cover the entire range of products. Although 



[5] 






PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




A Section of the Paint Laboratories 

The research and test work done in the experimental department of the Paint and Varnish Division of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass 
Company is the first and most important step in the process of manufacture. Here samples of raw material from all over the world 
are assembled for examination and analysis. Absolute certainty is the only accepted basis and this is insured by the one infallible, 

though painstaking and even tedious method — actual test. 



white is the main base for general exterior paints, 
colors play an important part. During the last 
twenty years the development in colors has been 
rapid and while many that have been staple 
articles for centuries are still used, remarkable 
progress has been made, particularly in the 
development of permanent reds. 

The years since 1914 mark an epoch in the 
development of the American paint industry. 
During that time this country has thrown off 
entirely its dependence on Europe for the raw 
materials necessary in the manufacture of arti- 
ficial colors, and now is able to produce every- 
thing necessary to the manufacture of paint 
from basic materials found or fabricated in the 
United States. At the same time there has been 
striking improvement in metallic pigments, such 
as oxide of iron. Today, for example, there is 
produced a pure yellow oxide with the color of 
ochre, but more highly concentrated. 

The white pigments used in paint manufacture 
may be divided into two classes — those which 



are highly opaque when mixed in oils and those 
which have but little hiding power. To the 
former class belong white lead, both basic car- 
bonate and sulphate, zinc oxide, leaded zinc, 
lithopone, and titanium white. In the other class 
would be included whiting, gypsum, barytes, 
silica, China clay, asbestine, and talc. 

White lead is the oldest white pigment known 
and is mentioned in literature as early as 430 
B.C. Records seem to indicate that this mate- 
rial was made by a process not widely different 
from the present-day Old Dutch Process, the 
method now most widely used. The basic sul- 
phate of lead dates only from 1872. It is now 
generally accepted as equal to white lead for 
most purposes, and superior to it for painting 
steel structures. Blue lead, produced by a sim- 
ilar method, also has obtained recognition for 
the painting of structural iron and steel. 

There is but little difference in the physical 
properties of leads produced by the various 
methods. The outstanding virtue of lead as a 



[6] 



THE MANUFACTURE OF PAINT 




A Row of Dry-Color Tanks 

The raw materials from which colors are made are dissolved in these tubs. The solutions, when brought together in larger tubs 
precipitate the insoluble colors. The liquid containing the by-products is siphoned off, the color is washed with water, and then it is 

transferred to the color presses shown in the picture below. 




Dry-Color Press 

Here the water is pressed from the solids and the material is moulded into cakes, which 
are dried and ground into powders commercially known as dry colors. 

[7] 







Paint and Varnish Plants at Newark, New Jersey 



Paint and Varnish Plants 







at Milwaukee, Wisconsin 



Linseed Oil Plant at Red Wing, Minnesota 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




A Row of Mixers 

Here is illustrated the type of machine used in mixing the pigment with liquid to form a paste. This then is ground between two 
stones which reduce the pigment particles to extreme fineness. Various types of mills are used for this purpose. 



paint material is that, while it has a drying effect 
on oil, it produces a film which never becomes 
brittle, but instead chalks and checks, though 
it does not peel. Consequently it is of value for 
use in combination with zinc oxide to offset the 
extreme hardness of that pigment. Although 
chalking is advantageous from a repainting 
standpoint, it causes tints made with white lead 
to appear faded soon after application and long 
before there is any great actual deterioration in 
the protective quality of the paint-film. 

Zinc oxide has been made commercially for 
at least one hundred and twenty-five years. It 
is now generally used in prepared paints. Be- 
cause it produces a smooth, uniform texture, it 
is admirably fitted for use in enamels. 

Lithopone is a pigment which has made re- 
markable strides as a paint ingredient. The 
discovery is credited to Orr, an Englishman, in 
the year 1874. This pigment is whiter than 
lead, and in texture it is more like white lead 
than zinc oxide, the smoothness of which it lacks. 
Its color is unaffected by sulphur or hydrogen 



sulphide, owing to the fact that it is already a 
sulphide and sulphate combination. Lithopone 
is largely used for the manufacture of interior 
flat wall paints. It is now recognized as one of 
the major white pigments. 

Titanium white is the newest of the white 
pigments and bids fair to become an important 
member of the major or opaque-white group. 

The white pigments in the second class are 
generally described as inert. Inert pigments 
have no chemical action, and although white 
when dry, usually lose their opacity when mixed 
with oil, though retaining it when mixed with 
water in the form of cold-water paints. They 
are derived from many sources and produced 
by various methods. For example, barytes, or 
barite, is a mineral found in large quantities in 
Missouri, Tennessee, and North Carolina. Gyp- 
sum is a natural sulphate of lime. Whiting is 
produced by grinding English cliff stone. Silica 
occurs in the natural state as quartz crystals 
and has been found far superior to any other 
inert material for the protection of structural 



[10] 



■■■ 



m 



THE MANUFACTURE OF PAINT 




A Battery of Double Grinding Mills 
When extreme 'fineness is essential, the. pigment is ground in a double-grinding type of mill illustrated above, 
through one set of grinding stones the pigment drops to another set, where it is ground again. 



After passing 



iron. Other inert pigments used in the paint 
industry are the silicates, asbestine and talc. 
Before the grinding which fits them for use in 
paint-making, these bulky, stone-like materials 
are somewhat similar in appearance. 

Inert materials have a well-defined use in 
paint manufacture. It is only their abuse that 
is open to criticism. Indeed, many colors are 
so strong that to use them without inert pigments 
would be an extravagance. A proper propor- 
tion of inert pigment adds to the durability of 
painting materials for exterior use. Some of 
these inert pigments are extraordinarily resistant 
to atmospheric influences, far superior to lead 
and zinc in this respect, and are deficient only 
in hiding power. Therefore, when properly 
used, they offer a distinct protective value, and, 
having no chemical activity, reinforce the chemi- 
cally active, opaque pigments. 

In addition to the white pigments, the paint 
manufacturer has to deal with another group, 
usually included under the designation, colored 
pigments. These may be divided roughly into 



four classes: those containing lead, those con- 
taining iron, those containing carbon, and those 
containing organic colors. Among the pigments 
containing lead are chrome yellow, chrome 
orange, red lead, orange mineral, and chrome 
green. Pigments containing iron include ochres, 
umbers, siennas, Venetian reds, Indian red, crim- 
son oxide, and black oxide. Chinese blue, as 
it contains some iron, may be included in this 
class, although it is entirely different in nature 
from the foregoing pigments. Pigments contain- 
ing carbon include lampblack, charcoal black, 
bone black, and graphite. 

The organic colors, used either alone or in 
combination with mineral pigment, are of di- 
verse origin. Some, such as carmine, produced 
from the cochineal insect, are of animal deriva- 
tion, while others, like Dutch pink (which, oddly 
enough, is a yellow, produced from quercitron 
bark), are of vegetable origin. Still other or- 
ganic colors, usually grouped under the term 
"coal-tar products," owe their elaboration to 
the processes of modern chemistry. In this 



[11] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




A Special Roller Grinding Mill 

Here is shown the latest type of mill. In this mill the pigment is passed between heavy steel rollers. This modern roller mill has 

several times the capacity of the older type of stone mill. 

latter class are included: alizarine, which, com- 
bined with iron oxide, produces the permanent 
Tuscan reds; eosine, used extensively in the past 
with orange mineral to make vermilion shades; 
and Para red, used alone or in conjunction with 
orange mineral. 

■ There are several miscellaneous pigments, 
namely: Prussian blue, Chinese blue, emerald 
green, genuine cobalt blue, zinc chromate, and 
chrome oxide. 

Prussian and Chinese blue, although contain- 
ing iron as an important constituent, are gen- 
erally classed as cyanide compounds, ahd are 
the only miscellaneous pigments of those just 
mentioned which are used to any extent in the 
manufacture of paints. 

The development of oils has kept pace-with 
the improvement in pigments. For many years 
practically the only oil used as a vehicle for 
paints was linseed oil, obtained by crushing the 
seed of flax. Flax was cultivated, until about 
1850, chiefly for the fiber, the seed being a by- 
product. This condition has been completely re- 
versed and the seed now is by far the chief object 

[12] 




The Stone-Dresser 

The stone-dresser plays an important part in paint-making. 
In the stone-type mill, much depends upon the way in which the 
cutting edges of the stones are shaped. Long experience makes 
the stone-dresser an adept and in recent years the automatic 
hammer has lightened his task considerably. 



™1 



THE MANUFACTURE OF PAINT 




A Battery of Enamel Mills 

Special care is necessary in the manufacture of enamels. The mills in which enamels are made are of a smaller type than the regular 
paint mill and are carefully watched over by expert supervisors who see that the proper degree of fineness in grinding is obtained. 

in its cultivation. Flaxseed is grown principally 
in India, Russia, Argentine Republic, the United 
States, and Canada. 

The first new oil of any importance to be in- 
troduced was China wood oil and for some time 
its use was confined to the manufacture of var- 
nish. With the proper treatment it had the 
valuable property of adding hardness, tough- 
ness, and gloss to a finish. Its use made pos- 
sible the production of cheaper varnishes, 
comparing favorably in durability with those 
formerly made from the hard gums, which are 
gradually becoming scarce and consequently 
more expensive. In the course of time China 
wood oil was introduced into flat interior and to 
some extent flat exterior paints, with the result 
that these paints are more durable, brush more 
easily, and are more resistant to moisture. 

During recent years there have been developed 
a number of oriental oils, of which soya bean 
and Perilla oils have been used to a consider- 
able extent. Having valuable special proper- 
ties, both no doubt will continue to hold prom- 
inent place in the manufacture of paint products. 







Enamel Clarifier 

All enamels are run through a separator operating on exactly 

the same principle as an ordinary cream separator. The rapid 

rotary motion forces the coarser particles toward the outside, so 

that the enamel remaining is impalpably fine. 






[13] 



-^ 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Gravity Paint Fillers 

S1Z e of contame, It is interesting and .indeed fascinating to watch as the c^n ^ffiS iTJV^oX™^ meted* 
to hear the click of the valve as the apparatus registers exact weight and measure 

The third important group of materials used 
in the manufacture of paints and varnishes is 
known as the volatile thinners. The principal 
natural product in this classification is turpen- 
tine, obtained by the distillation of pine resin. 
Turpentine is the best known solvent for oils 
and gums. Its flash-point is 95 degrees Fahren- 
heit, which means that a flame passed over it at 
an ordinary temperature will not cause it to ig- 
nite. When spread out in a thin film it evaporates 
entirely, but when allowed to evaporate from a 
container, oxidation takes place and a residue 
remains. 

Another source of thinner is petroleum. The 
petroleum derivative most used is commonly 
known as painters' naphtha. Benzole and solvent 
naphtha are distillates from coal tar. Benzole 
is much more volatile than solvent naphtha. 

Many excellent turpentine substitutes are pro- 
duced by properly fractioning the different 
petroleum products and incorporating other 
materials. 

[14] 




Filling by Weight and Measure 



THE MANUFACTURE OF PAINT 




Sample and Test Room 
The finished product is subjected to a final test in the sample room. A sample is tested for color, consistency, and covering capacity 
For checking each step in this operation a standard sample is kept, and as the various batches come ih™fr&?t^"&& 

now InT" C ^^ ^ the / tandard . sam P le ' S P^1 samples also are worked out in this room. Many finish ng material! 

now in daily use by leading manufacturers in all parts of the country were first worked out in this miniature painj K 

These products, on evaporation, leave nothing 
behind them in the film. They are added to paint 
for the purpose of making it spread farther and 
obtaining a film of the proper thinness. There- 
fore, the preference is for the one which is most 
economical and at the same time answers the 
purpose. 

Important improvements have been made in 
the manufacture of undercoaters and white 
enamels. In the former the use of lithopone 
has been an important factor. Through a ma- 
nipulation of the vehicle, it has been possible 
to make an undercoater which can be flowed on, 
just as enamels are, thus eliminating the brush 
marks common to the ordinary untreated oil 
film. This greatly improves the ground coat 
and makes possible a high-grade job with fewer 
coats of the higher-priced enamel. 

Until recent years the trade depended on 
enamels produced largely from damar varnish, 
made by dissolving damar gum in turpentine or 
some other volatile thinner. Enamels made 




Test Panels 

The roofs of our paint factories afford ideal facilities for the 
testing of paints and pigments under various conditions which 
are encountered in the application of paints. Numerous panels 
are continually on test and the results of the combination of 
various pigments and oils are carefully noted. 



[15] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




A Battery of Labeling Machines 

A very important operation is the labeling of cans. There are many different lines of paint— exterior and interior; for wood, iron, and 
concrete; gloss and flat; liquid, paste, and semi-paste; each line is made in many colors, each color is put up in various sizes, and 
each requires its separate label. The labels are affixed by automatic machines, as illustrated in these pictures, and a battery of 

these machines will label many thousands of cans daily. 

from damar, however, soon lose their elasticity 
and in course of time are sure to crack and check. 
These enamels possess only one valuable prop- 
erty, and that is their whiteness, which is main- 
tained in a satisfactory manner. Against this 
single advantage must be set off their lack of 
durability, difficulty in brushing, and a tendency 
to soften when repainted, causing checking of 
coats applied over them later. 

The development of oil-base enamels has 
overcome all these difficulties without the sacri- 
fice of any important advantages, and marks 
a notable forward step in the industry. 

Future progress doubtless will be along the 
line of improving the vehicle for exterior paints. 
The knowledge already gained about oils and 
how to treat them will be of great assistance in 
developing this class of paint materials. -Past 
experimentation and exhaustive testing form a 
solid foundation on which to build for future 
progress, and it is entirely reasonable to predict 
that the developments of the next decade will 
greatly surpass those of the past quarter of a 
century, fruitful as that period has been. 

[16] 




A Special Type of Machine Used in 
Labeling Gallon Cans 



THE MANUFACTURE OF VARNISH 




Storage and Aging Tanks 




THE MANUFACTURE OF VARNISH 



THE word Varnish is derived from the name 
of Berenice, Queen of Cyrene, beautiful 
wife of Ptolemy Euergetes, King of Egypt 
about 250 B.C. She is said to have sacrificed 
her wonderful hair in the temple of Venus in 
fulfilment of a vow for her husband's safe return 
from a campaign in Asia. Her hair disappeared 
mysteriously from the altar, and was reported 
by the astronomer Conon to have appeared as a 
constellation in the Milky Way. Amber later was 
likened by the Greeks to Berenice's hair and 
called by her name. Hence the late-Latin word 
vernix and its later Italian form vernice, from 
which our word Varnish is derived. 

Only a few decades ago varnish-making was 
a well-nigh occult art. The formulas and rule- 
of -thumb methods used by the various manu- 
facturers were guarded jealously. Then the 
chemist entered the field. Exhaustive study of 
the needs of the varnish consumer, analysis of 
the raw materials, and constant experimenting 
soon enabled him to make a variety of varnishes 
exactly suited for the purposes required. 

The materials used in the making of varnish 
are drawn from all sections of the globe. 

Of first importance are the resins, or fossil 
gums, which give to varnish its brilliance and 
lustre. These now T have come to be classed under 
the general term copal, a designation originally 
applied only to resins from East Africa. Copals 
result from the exudation of the sap of pre- 
historic trees which became covered with soil 
and later fossilized. These gums have remained 



imbedded in the ground for many centuries and 
now are brought to the surface for use in the 
making of varnish. 

In the early days gum-digging was carried on 
in a very haphazard fashion and because of the 
crude methods used, not much more than the 
surface gum ever was recovered. The gum was 
located by prodding into the ground with long, 
sharp steel rods, and the deposits were then dug 
up, scraped, cleaned, and graded for the market. 
Today the industry is better organized and the 
ancient digger with his prodding stick has been 
replaced by an individual who compares favor- 
ably with the American miner. The industry in- 
cludes a well-ordered system for grading and 
marketing the gum, with extensive warehouses 
and brokerage connections in the chief markets 
of the world. 

Deposits of fossil gums are found in Zanzibar, 
Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Angola, New Zea- 
land, and the Pacific Indies. A vast supply 
comes from the Philippines, the Sunda Islands, 
and the Moluccas, Because this gum usually is 
put aboard ship at Manila it has come to be 
known as Manila gum. 

The resins from Java, Sumatra, and Borneo 
have been classified as damar gums by Euro- 
pean importers, and more recently many resins 
from India and the Malay Islands have been 
introduced under the name of damar. 

Another source of resin supply is in the dis- 
tillation of turpentine. The thick, viscous crude 
turpentine is put into huge stills and all the 



[19] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Testing Raw Materials 

As in the making of paint so is it in the making of varnish: constant testing of raw materials to insure a proper standard of quality 

is carried on in two modernly equipped chemical laboratories. 



volatile matter is driven off and condensed. That 
which remains in the still is run into barrels 
while in a molten state, and allowed to harden. 
This residue is the rosin of commerce. 

Gilsonite is used in the manufacture of black 
air-drying and baking japans, used extensively 
on ironwork. It is a derivative of a material 
found largely in Utah and closely allied in char- 
acteristics with asphaltum. 

These are not all the gums used by the var- 
nish-maker, but the foregoing notes will convey 
some idea of the variety of materials used in 
varnish-making and the wide sources of supply 
from which these materials are obtained. 

The oils used in the manufacture of varnish 
are similar to those used in the making of paint 
and have been described already in the sec- 
tion devoted to paint. The thinners used also 
have been covered in the same article. There 
remain for our consideration, then, only the 
driers, which are incorporated with the oils to 
hasten the drying of the varnish film. The terms 
"japan," "japan drier," and "drier" are used 
interchangeably and it is rather difficult to make 



a hard and fast distinction, but in general, the 
term "japan" is applied to a quick-drying liquid 
used alone, or in connection with color, while the 
terms "japan drier" and "drier" are applied to 
liquids which are added in small quantities to 
hasten the drying of varnish, linseed oil, paints, 
and enamels. 

• It is most interesting to make close comparison 
of ancient and modern methods in varnish-mak- 
ing. In a manuscript of the monk Theophilus, 
written in the Eleventh Century, we find this ac- 
count of the "Varnish Glutten" of his day: 

"Put Linseed Oil into a small new pot and 
add, very fine powdered, a Gum which is called 
Fornis, which has the appearance of the most 
lucid. Thus, but, when broken, it yields a 
brighter lustre. When you have placed over the 
fire, cook carefully, so that it may not boil up, 
until the third part is consumed, and guard 
against the flame, because it is very dangerous 
and is extinguished with difficulty if it is raised. 
Every painting, covered over with this Glutten, is 
made both beautiful and forever durable. 

"Place together four stones which may be able 



[20] 



■ I 



THE MANUFACTURE OF VARNISH 




Melting Varnish Gums 



*~"*&SZttiA^*SttJtttSBiSlZ£,?*- •"" 



to sustain the fire without flying to pieces, and 
place a common pot above them and put into it 
the above-mentioned Fornis, which in Romaic is 
called Glassa, and upon the mouth of the pot 
place a smaller pot which has a small hole in the 
bottom, and lute a paste about it so that no vapor 
may come out between these pots. Then place 
fire carefully underneath until this Gum liquefy; 
you will also have a thin rod with a handle with 
which you will stir this Gum, and with which you 
can feel when it is quite liquid. 

"Have also a third pot nigh, placed upon the 
coals, in which is hot Linseed Oil, and when the 
Gum is quite liquid, so that the iron being ex- 
tracted, a kind of thread is drawn out with it, 
pour the hot Oil into it and stir it with the iron, 
and this cook together that they boil not violently, 
and at times draw out the iron and daub over a 
little piece of wood or stone, to try its substance. 
And take care this, that in weight there are two 
parts of Oil and the third part of Gum. And 
when you have carefully cooked it to your wish, 
removing it from the fire and uncovering it, 
allow it to cool." 



Now note how closely the present process fol- 
lows the method of olden days, though exact sci- 
ence now dictates the proportions of ingredients 
to be used and the kettles and fires are in size 
many times greater: 

The gums are selected according to formula 
and placed in large copper kettles, which are 
mounted on three- or four-wheel trucks. Over 
each kettle is fastened a cover, which is battened 
down fume-tight. This cover has three small 
openings, one in the center with a small stack, 
one on the side which fits the nozzle of a funnel 
used in adding the oils, and a third through 
which a stirring-rod can be operated. 

The kettle is now wheeled into position over a 
gas fire fed from four two-inch gas openings. 
Forced draft is secured by means of electrically- 
driven fans. 

When the cooking process is started, a forced 
draft draws off the fumes and conducts them 
through a system of chilled condensing coils, in 
which they are divested by condensation of all 
volatile oils and other substances of value before 
the refuse gases finally are discharged. 



[21] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Adding Thinners 
Thinners are added to the varnish while it is extremely hot and constant agitation or stirring is necessary throughout the process. 




Running Varnish Through the Clarifier 

After the varnish is run through this machine, which in appearance and construction is much like a 
large cream separator, it is absolutely clean, without trace of sediment or impurity of any kind. 

[22] 



THE MANUFACTURE OF VARNISH 




Testing the Finished Product 
The varnish in its finished state is carefully tested against an established standard. 



The gum first softens to a sticky mass and 
liquefies as the heat becomes more intense. 
Froth, formed by the continuous evolution of 
vapors, is beaten down with a large metal stir- 
ring-rod. Finally the gum becomes quite fluid. 
The judgment of the varnish-maker, who ob- 
serves the drip from the stirring-rod, tells him 
when the solution is ready for the addition of 
the oil. The oil usually is pre-heated, so that 
when added it will not chill the gum sufficiently to 
cause it to become solid again, but instead the 
two liquids will go into smooth solution. 

An extensive variety of varnishes can be 
made by changing the operations, the gums, the 
oils, and the driers used, and also by varying 
the proportionate quantities of the ingredients. 
When the gums, oils, and metallic drying salts 
have been properly combined and thoroughly 
amalgamated, the temperature of the liquid is 
from 500 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit. The ket- 
tles are rolled into a cooling place and when the 
heat has been reduced to a point low enough to 
permit the addition of thinners without flashing, 
the kettles are run into a thinning room, where 



the thinners are added according to formula. 
The varnish must be agitated constantly while 
the thinners are being added. 

After this the varnish, while still very hot, is 
pumped into large cooling tanks where it is 
allowed to stand overnight. Next day, still hot, 
it is put through a machine which filters the 
varnish, removing every particle of undissolved 
gum, dirt, and foreign substance of whatsoever 
kind. A modern steam-driven turbine separator 
is used. This operates much like a centrifugal 
cream-separator, and makes the varnish perfectly 
clear and transparent. 

The varnish is then ready for the aging tanks, 
where it is properly settled and aged before it 
is drawn off into shipping containers. Proper 
aging is essential to final perfection in the high- 
est grades, especially the finishing varnishes. In 
the lower grades of varnish the aging process is 
not so necessary, but for a product of supreme 
excellence, upon which a reputation may be 
built, there are requisite certain smooth-flowing 
and free-working qualities which nothing but age 
can impart. 



[23] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



f 




Newark Varnish Plant 
Paint and Varnish Division, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. 




Milwaukee Varnish Plant 
Paint and Varnish Division, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. 

[24] 







THE USE OF COLOR 



FOR OUTSIDE WORK 

IN THE selection of paints, thought should be 
given to the permanence of colors. All 
shades of Patton's Sun-Proof Paints are as 
unchangeable as the several colors can be made, 
but certain hues can not be made permanent. 
They will either darken gradually under the 
rays of the sun or fade more or less quickly. 

The blues, pinks, and delicate tints intended 
solely for interior work and so marked on our 
color cards should never be used where they 
will be exposed to the sun. The greens of yellow- 
ish cast are more fugitive than the darker greens; 
the former will grow lighter while the latter will 
darken. The grays, browns, and yellows and the 
many beautiful shades and tints made from these 
colors are recommended where permanence of 
color is especially desirable. 

FOR INSIDE WORK 

The pleasantness of a room depends almost 
entirely on the way in which the walls are deco- 
rated. According to the best principles of inte- 
rior decoration, walls must not be considered as 
decorative objects in themselves; they are consid- 
ered as backgrounds for the furnishing of the 
interior, and are to be kept as soft in tone as 
possible because it is the inconspicuous, subdued 
walls that give rooms the appearance of greater 
spaciousness. It is this character of wall that 
provides the proper background for the furnish- 
ings, holding the entire architectural plan of the 
interior in a harmonious whole. Brilliancy in 
the interior color-scheme is by all means desir- 
able, but use it in the furnishings — not on the 
walls. When it comes to selecting colors for 
wall decoration there is wide opportunity for the 
expression of individual preference, but the 



colors selected should always be of a soft and 
mellow tone: light cream, ivory, and grays for 
south rooms, tans and greens for north rooms. 
The darker, more positive tones are best adapted 
for use in club rooms, theatres, restaurants, and 
public buildings, where high ceilings and large 
rooms make the use of these warmer colors per- 
missible and even desirable. 

FOR COMMERCIAL INTERIORS 

In the decoration of a commercial interior, 
the first consideration is light-reflecting value, 
and there is no paint which better serves this pur- 
pose than a pure white. By actual test it has 
been proved that a white paint reflects from 82 
to 89 per cent of the light entering the interior. 
Some of the very light tints are almost as high 
in reflecting value: ivory surfaces reflect 73 to 
78 per cent of the light, cream from 62 to 80 
per cent, yellow from 61 to 75 per cent. These 
shades, therefore, may be used with safety. 
Dark shades of green, blue, and red are to be 
avoided because some of them reflect as little as 
11 per cent of the light. 

For factories, white paints or the very light- 
est tints should be selected to obtain the greatest 
amount of light in the workroom. Surprising 
savings in factory lighting costs may be effected 
by choosing paint of the right color. 

COLOR REPRODUCTIONS 

The colors shown on our color cards and 
reproduced in the pages of this book match as 
nearly as possible the color of the paint when dry. 
Color chips, when kept from the light, change 
their color, the change being more marked in 
some colors than in others. When the color chips 
are exposed to light and applied paint is allowed 
to dry, the paint and sample chips will match. 



[25] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



PATTON'S SUNPROOF LIQUID PAINT 

For description, see page 28 




















JERSEY CREAM 330 


LIGHT STONE 


331 












MILWAUKEE BRICK 55 


PEARL GRAY 


14X 






















STRAW 173 


FRENCH GRAY 


302 








BUBI 








NAPLES 1 


IS 


SLATE 


310 




BBBI 




BBB 






DEEP BUFF 3< 


98 


NEUTRAL DRAB 


304 




BIHB 










INDIAN TAN 


J 


RUSSIAN GRAY 


13X 




■BIB 




BBBI 


* 




LEATHER L 


IS 


BROWN 


30 


6 




BH^BI 




^^^Bi 








AMBER BROWN 3 
ALSO OUTSIDE WHITE, Bl 


20 

ACK, INSII 


COPPER BROWN 
>E FLAT, AND GLOSS WHITE 


34 






[26] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 



PATTON'S SUN-PROOF LIQUID PAINT 

For description, see page 28 




SILVER GRAY 



332 



AZURE 



178 





SEA GREEN 



334 



PINK 



177 




LIGHT OLIVE 



12X 





LIGHT BUFF 



322 




APPLE GREEN 



148 



RICH BUFF 



314 




NILE GREEN 



149 




LIGHT TERRA COTTA 



63 





WILLOW GREEN 



336 



BRICK RED 



337 




COPPER VERDE 



341 




KENTUCKY BLIND GREEN 338 




SASH GREEN 



333 




WAR TUSCAN 



W4X 



[27] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




PATTON'S SUN-PROOF LIQUID PAINT 



For color chips, see pages 26,27 

For examples of work, see pages 99 to 103 

For specifications for use, see Nos. 1, 2,3, 

18, 19, 20, 21, 2t> 25, 38, 39, on pages 82, 8%, 86 



SAVE the Surface and You Save All" has 
deep significance for the property owner. 
A surface which is not adequately protected by 
paint becomes the prey of the elements. The 
fierce summer suns split and warp the boards, 
moisture enters, rot begins, and thereafter 
decay is rapid. The life of a building is in- 
definite if it is properly protected with an 
armor of paint. 

Much depends on the choice of Paint. A 
few people may be able to judge the value of a 
paint by its composition, but to the average 
user the formula on the can means nothing. 
Paint should be bought on the basis of service. 
How many square feet will it cover? How 
many years will it last? 

The answers to these two questions will 
give one the facts necessary to choose paint 
intelligently. 

Low prices in paint should be avoided, for 



note this: In a job of painting, 75 per cent of 
the cost goes into labor and 25 per cent into 
material. Therefore the paint which for the 
longest time defers the necessity of repaint- 
ing is by far the cheapest. 

Patton's Sun-Proof Paint resists the action 
of the sun and atmosphere to an extent which 
will adequately protect a surface against the 
elements. 

It is made according to a formula which, 
long usage has proved, produces a tough, dur- . 
able, wear-resisting paint-film spreading with 
uniform thickness over the surface to which 
it is applied. 

One gallon of Sun-Proof Paint, when used 
according to directions, will cover 350 square 
feet of an average surface on new work, two 
coats; or 250 square feet, three coats. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon, gallon, half- 
gallon, quart, pint, and half-pint cans. 



[28] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 





PATTON'S PORCHITE 

For color chips, see page 30 

For examples of work, see page 31 

For specifications for use, see Nos. 4> 5» 
on page 82 

THE constant tread of many feet will soon 
wear away the hardest surfaces. On the 
porch floors of the home, on the stair-tread, 
and on the decks of boats, the truth of this 
statement soon becomes apparent. It is of par- 
ticular importance that these surfaces be pro- 
tected. An unpainted surface will quickly 
deteriorate under the best of conditions; but 
under abrasion it disintegrates with alarming 
rapidity. 

To give proper service under such severe 
conditions a Paint is required which will resist 
mechanical wear, as well as the action of sun, 
rain, sleet, and snow. An ordinary house 
paint is not properly compounded to meet 
these conditions. 

Patton's Porchite is intended principally 
for exterior use where these extreme condi- 
tions are encountered. It follows naturally 
that a paint which will give satisfaction under 
such conditions can be used satisfactorily for 
various other exterior purposes also. 

The covering capacity of Porchite depends 
on the condition of the surface to be painted, 
but as a basis for calculating the quantity re- 
quired it is safe to estimate approximately 300 
to 330 square feet, two coats. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon, gallon, half- 
gallon, and quart cans. 



PATTON'S FLORHIDE ENAMEL 



For color chips, see page 30 

For specifications for use, see Nos. 

16, 17, 36, 37, on pages 8J+, 86 



T 1 



'HERE are few things the housewife dreads 
more than the drudgery incident to the 
unpainted softwood floor. No other surface 
absorbs dirt so easily. The solution is the 
enameled floor, easily kept bright and sani- 
tary, lightening the household task, and add- 
ing greatly to the appearance of the home. 

The modern concrete or cement floor in com- 
mercial institutions has brought in another 
problem. A floor of this sort, because of hard 
usage, soon begins to "dust" and in time to 
powder or crumble away. Paint protection is 
an absolute necessity, for reasons of economy 
as well as of sanitation. 

Patton's Florhide Enamel is made especially 
for the protection and beautifying of interior 
floors, whether cement, concrete, or wood. 

Florhide Enamel is highly recommended 
for use in office buildings, public and private 
schools, factories, automobile garages and 
show rooms, hospitals, department stores, and 
institutions of all kinds, private and public. 

Two coats of Floride Enamel produce a 
tough, elastic, impervious, high-gloss finish 
that resists wear and abrasion to the highest 
possible degree. It is an Enamel and dries 
quickly, hard enough to be walked on over- 
night, but at least twenty-four hours should 
be allowed before applying the finishing coat. 

Florhide Enamel covers approximately 250 
to 300 square feet per gallon, two coats. 

Sizes — Barrels ; five-gallon, gallon, half- 
gallon, quart, and pint cans. 



[29] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



PATTON'S PORCHITE PATTON'S FLORHIDE ENAMEL 



FOR USE ON SURFACES SUBJECTED 
TO HARD WEAR 



FOR USE ON INTERIOR WOOD AND 
CEMENT FLOORS 



For description, sec page 29 




DIXIE GRAY 




LIGHT DRAB 




MALTESE BLUE 




DIRT COLOR 




DARK SLATE 




LEAD COLOR 





GRANITE GRAY 



FAWN 




OLD GOLD 




LIGHT YELLOW 




LEAF BROWN 




DARK YELLOW 







■■■ 


- 




BROWN 






- 




MAROON 










[30] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 




Pattern's Porchite protects surfaces subjected to the severe wear of scuffing feet and exposure to the elements. 

[31] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



PATTO^ 

For de 

CHROME YELLOW— LIGHT 
CHROME YELLOW— MEDIUM 
CHROME YELLOW— ORANGE 
FRENCH CROWN GOLDEN OCHRE 


f'S OIL 

wription, see 


COLORS 

page $| 

ENGLISH VERMILION— LIGHT 

ENGLISH VERMILION— DEEP 

AMERICAN VERMILION 

SUN-PROOF VERMILION 





FRENCH WASHED OCHRE 



ORIENTAL PERMANENT RED— LIGHT 





RAW ITALIAN SIENNA 



ORIENTAL PERMANENT RED— MEDIUM 





BURNT ITALIAN SIENNA 



VENETIAN RED 





ENGLISH ROSE PINK 



TUSCAN RED 



[32] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 



PATTON'S OIL COLORS 

For description, see page 3J> 




TURKEY RED 




CHROME GREEN— LIGHT 




INDIAN RED 




CHROME GREEN— MEDIUM 




ENGLISH ROSE LAKE 




CHROME GREEN— DARK 




ULTRAMARINE BLUE 




VANDYKE BROWN 




PRUSSIAN BLUE 




COBALT BLUE 




DROP BLACK 




SIGN WRITERS' BLACK 




RAW TURKEY UMBER 




LIGHT OAK GRAINING COLOR 




BURNT TURKEY UMBER 




DARK OAK GRAINING COLOR 



[33] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 





PATTON'S OIL COLORS 



For color chips , see pages 32, 33 

PATTON'S Oil Colors are intended princi- 
pally for tinting and coloring. It is es- 
sential that such colors be uniform in purity, 
fineness, strength, and color. A low price 
per pound does not mean economy. The best 
colors are the cheapest because less material 
is required for tinting, and also because they 
are dependable in every respect. 

The pigments are divided into two prin- 
cipal classifications: natural — Umbers, Sien- 
nas, Vandyke Browns, Yellow Ochre, and 
natural oxides; and manufactured — Blacks, 
Blues, Greens, Vermilions, Chrome Yellows, 
and Tuscan, Venetian, and Indian Reds. 

The manufactured colors used in the making 
of Patton's Oil Colors are made in our own 
Dry Color Plant. By carefully grading and 
selecting the most suitable colors, we insure 
uniformity in the finished product. 

Just enough Linseed Oil is used to produce 
a soft paste, which may be reduced with Oil, 
Leptyne or Turpentine, and Drier to the con- 
sistency of liquid paint and may also be used 
in the making of Stains. 

Sizes — Buckets containing between twenty- 
five and sixty pounds and pots containing 
from twenty-five to thirty pounds, depending 
on the weight of the different oil colors packed 
in this style of package; also twenty-five, 
twelve and a half, five, and one-pound cans. 
(The Blues also in one-half and one-quarter 
pound cans.) 



PATTON'S VELUMINA 

For color chips, see page 35 

For examples of work, see pages 10 k to 120 
For specifications for use, see Nos, 

32, 33, 3k, 35, on pages r 85,86 

THE WALL is of supreme importance in 
interior decoration. It serves as the back- 
ground or "frame" for the furnishings, tying 
them together into one harmonious whole. 
All the difference between pleasant and un- 
pleasant rooms often depends merely upon 
the right or wrong wall treatment. 

A wall should be inconspicuous, soft, and 
mellow in appearance, and these requirements 
call for the use of a Flat Wall Paint. 

Patton's Velumina is an Oil Flat Wall Paint, 
made especially for interior decorative pur- 
poses. The liquid in Velumina is treated in a 
manner to cause it to dry flat, with that velvet 
softness essential to artistic decoration. 

Velumina dries with a smooth, tough, elas- 
tic, "Pore-Proof" film, which will not readily 
collect dust or dirt. The dirt stays on the sur- 
face, where it is easily washed away, and the 
walls are thus kept clean and sanitary. 

It is almost impossible to figure accurately 
the covering capacity of Flat Wall Paints, be- 
cause the degree of absorption of different 
walls varies; but approximately, Velumina, 
when reduced according to directions, for new 
work covers from 450 to 800 sc-uare feet per 
gallon, first coat; without reduction for the 
finishing coat, Velumina covers about 400 to 
500 square feet. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon, gallon, half- 
gallon, and quart cans, (White only also in 
pint and half -pint cans.) 



[34] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 



* 


patto: 

THE OIL 

For de 

PEARL GRAY 

IVORY 

SILVER GREEN 

LIGHT CREAM 

PALE BLUE 

PINK 

MEDIUM BUFF 
CIRCASSIAN BROWN 


NTS ve: 

FLAT WA 

scription, see 

ALSO WHIT 


LUMINA 

LL PAINT 

page 3^ 

FRENCH GRAY 
LIGHT BUFF 
NILE GREEN 

RICH CREAM 

A2URE 

PALE RASPBERRY 

EVER -GREEN 

OLIVE GREEN 
E 





[35] 






PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 







Pattons Industrial Building Paint will protect barns and fences. 

[36] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 





PATTON'S INDUSTRIAL 
BUILDING PAINT 

For color chips, see page 38 

For examples of work, see page 36 

For specifications* for -use, see Nos. 1, 
2, 3, 18, 19, 20, 21, on pages 82, 84 

A GOOD Paint is a good investment any- 
where: in the home, on the farm or on 
commercial buildings. 

The banker more readily lends money on 
buildings which are kept well painted. It is 
his assurance that his security will remain con- 
stant and not shrink below the loan value. 

Patton's Industrial Building Paint is made 
especially for painting barns, warehouses, 
grain elevators, and metal or wooden roofs; in 
fact, it is intended for use generally where a 
good serviceable paint, at moderate cost, is 
required. 

Industrial Building Paint is not hand-mixed, 
but is thoroughly ground by powerful paint 
mills, making it a smooth, durable Paint, with 
good covering capacity. 

Because a Paint of this description is gen- 
erally used on rough lumber and on surfaces 
that are very dry and weather-worn, it is diffi- 
cult to estimate accurately the covering capac- 
ity. Under average conditions, Industrial 
Building Paint will cover approximately 200 
to 250 square feet of surface, ,two coats. 

Sizes — Barrels; five - gallon, gallon, and 
quart cans. 

♦Substitute Industrial Building Paint for Sun-Proof when 
necessary to use a 1 wer-priced paint. 



PATTON'S WAGON AND 
TRACTOR ENAMEL PAINT 

For color chips, see page , . . , 38 

For examples of work, see page 36 

T^rlE protection of farm implements is neg- 
J- lected to a degree that is shocking. Usu- 
ally they are left out in the open, and the 
attack of the elements is relentless and deteri- 
oration rapid. How often a dollar's worth of 
paint would save the usefulness of a hundred- 
dollar implement! 

Patton's Wagon and Tractor Enamel Paint is 
made like an automobile enamel and is intend- 
ed for interior and exterior work. It has an 
excellent gloss, and gives perfect satisfaction 
on wagons, sleighs, and farm implements and 
for general use on articles of utility in and 
about the farm home. 

Wagon and Tractor Enamel Paint is not, 
strictly speaking, a paint, because it is made 
with a good grade of Exterior Varnish, which 
brings it into the class of Enamels. The pig- 
ments are selected for fineness of particles and 
permanence of color. Wagon and Tractor 
Enamel Paint works easily, flows splendidly, 
and dries with a high-gloss finish which 
sheds moisture and prevents decay of wood 
and corrosion of metal parts. 

Sizes — Gallon, quart, pint, and half-pint 
cans. 



[37] 



m 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



PATTON'S INDUSTRIAL 
BUILDING PAINT 



PATTON'S WAGON AND 
TRACTOR ENAMEL PAINT 



For description, see page 37 




RED 



WHITE 




GRAY 




YELLOW 




GREEN 



YELLOW 




VERMILION RED 




GREEN 




GRAY 




MAROON 





BROWN 




KHAKI 

BLUE 

WAGON RED 
ALSO BLACK 


* 



[38] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 






PATTON'S TOR-ON SHINGLE STAIN 

For description, see page 40 




RUSSET 




IVY GREEN 




INDIAN RED 



34% 




MOSS GREEN 



354 




MAROON 



ROOF GREEN 



WALNUT 



SLATE 



360 




353 




363 




366 




Tor-on Shingle Stain will make this type of building last * 

off sun and ram, thus preventing warping and splitting of the shingles. 



[39] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 





PATTON'S TOR-ON 
SHINGLE STAIN 

For color chips, see page 39 

For examples of work, see pages 99, 101, 

102, 103 
For specifications for use, see Nos. 6, 7, 

on page , ... .83 

NO WONDER roofs decay! They are sub- 
jected to the direct rays of the sun, the 
rain beats down upon them, and nothing 
shields them from frost and snow. Roofs, 
beyond all else, need a protective coating. 

The protecting and preserving qualities of 
Tor-on Ready-Mixed Shingle Stain result from 
its penetration into the wood. The pigments 
are high-grade colors ground in oil, and while 
they are as permanent as it is possible to make 
them, it should be remembered that the roof 
has 100 per cent exposure to the weather. As 
only a small quantity of color is used, the 
Stain cannot be expected absolutely to hold its 
color. This is especially true of the Greens. 
For best results, shingles should be dipped 
before being laid, and followed with a brush 
coat when the roof is completed. 

Dipping — Two and one-half gallons of 
Tor-on Shingle Stain will dip 1,000 shingles 
two-thirds of their length. 

Dipping and brushing — Three gallons of 
Tor-on Shingle Stain will dip 1,000 shingles 
two-thirds of their length, and brush one coat. 

Brushing — One gallon of Tor-on Shingle 
Stain brushed on will cover from 60 to 70 
square feet of surface, two coats. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon and gallon cans. 

Note : Tor-on Shingle Oil also is furnished 
in metal drums, wooden barrels, and five-gal- 
lon cans to customers desiring to mix their 
own Stain. 



PATTON'S AUTO 
GLOSS FINISH 



For color chips, see page 1$ 

For examples of work, see page fyl 



IN EVERY home there can be used to advan- 
tage a high-grade Enamel Paint for renew- 
ing and keeping new the surface of many 
articles. By neglect they will soon become 
unsightly, making replacement necessary. 

At the first sign of wear on an automobile 
a protective coat of Varnish should be ap- 
plied. Rust spots should be coated with the 
corresponding color at once. Porch furniture 
may be kept store-new ; kitchen furniture, neat 
and sanitary; the store front, bright and at- 
tractive. 

Patton's Auto Gloss is a high-grade, du- 
rable Color Varnish, suitable for exterior and 
interior work, especially adapted for auto- 
mobiles, carriages, wagons, farm implements, 
porch, lawn and kitchen furniture, pumps, 
baby carriages, metal articles of all sorts, 
toys, store fronts>and the like. 

Auto Gloss is easily applied, and has good 
working and flowing qualities; it dries in 
about eighteen hours with a perfect smooth 
finish and a high lustre. 

The consistency of Auto Gloss is correct for 
all general purposes and its uniformity can be 
depended on always. 

In the application of an enamel like Auto 
Gloss it is important that a good soft-haired 
brush be used. (See Brush Section of this 
volume, pages 125 to 152.) 

Sizes — Gallon, quart, pint, half-pint, and 
quarter-pint cans. 



[40] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 







SWftvgfl 




Pattons Auto Gloss is a general-utility enamel for use on all articles where a high- 
gloss color enamel surface is desirable. 

[41] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



PATTON'S Al 

For desc 
CHASSIS YELLOW 

NAVY GRAY 

WHITE ENAMEL 

IVORY 

CHASSIS RED 

NAVAJO RED 

MAROON 

A 


QTO G] 

ription, see \ 
LSO CLEAR 


LOSS FINISH 

oage |0 

LAWN GREEN 

VICTORIA GREEN 

BREWSTER GREEN 

CANYON BLUE 

AUTO BLUE 

BLACK 

BROWN 








[42] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 



PATTON'S CEMENTHIDE 

FOR ALL CEMENT PURPOSES 
For description, see page 4-1 









LIGHT CEMENT 






BUFF 






FRENCH GRAY 




RED STONE 




WHITE 



LIMESTONE 



-2^ 




Patton's Cementhide will add greatly to the attractiveness of cement or stucco dwellings. 



[43] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




PATTON'S CEMENTHIDE 



For color chips, see page 1^3 

For examples of work, see pages £8 t WO 

For specifications for use, see Nos. /,£, 15, on page. . .88 

THE large increase in cement and concrete construction has made 
necessary a special paint for such structures. The dull gray cement 
or stucco surface soon becomes unsightly and a material which will 
decorate such a surface successfully is much in demand. 

Patton's Cementhide is a flat-drying Liquid Paint for painting 
cement, concrete, stucco, brick, stone, or plaster, both interior and ex- 
terior. It has the properties of a Filler and Waterproofing agent, and 
produces pleasing decorative results. 

Cementhide is as easily applied as an ordinary paint and because of 
its permanency is much more economical for factory interiors, labora- 
tories, engine rooms, basements, or garages than the so-called cold-water 
paints, calcimines, or whitewash. Cementhide dries hard and does not 
soften under water like ordinary paint. It is also affected to a much 
le s degree by steam and alkaline vapors. 

Cementhide Priming Liquid is a Sealer and a Primer, which must 
always be used with Cementhide in accordance with directions, and 
under certain conditions should be used with Sun-Proof Paint and Flor- 
hide Enamel. (See Specifications Nos. 16-19, 38, 39, on pages 84, 86,) 

Owing to the great difference in the character of surfaces on which 
Cementhide is applied, it is difficult to give definite figures on covering 
capacity. Over a rough, absorbent surface, a spread of from 150 to 200 
square feet, two coats, may be expected, and up to 300 square feet on a 
smooth, hard surface. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon, gallon, and quart cans. 






[44] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 



PATTON'S IRONHIDE 

PROTECTIVE PAINT FOR STEEL 

For description, see page £6 




BROWN 




GREEN 




INHIBITIVE RED 




BLACK 




Patton's Ironhide will protect all metal surfaces against rust, the great red plague. 



[45] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




PATTON'S IRONHIDE 

For color chips, see page |5 

For example of work, see page £5, 121 

For specifications for use, see Nos. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 
18, on page 83 

THE preservation of metal surfaces is an economic necessity. No 
ordinary paint will perform this service satisfactorily. Patton's 
Ironhide is a liquid paint, ready for use, for the painting and preserva- 
tion of iron and steel work, inside and outside, suitable for such use as 
on structural steel bridges, gas holders, smokestacks, railway cranes, oil 
tanks, iron or steel wire or light poles, coal loaders, steel cars, tank 
cars, air drafts, metal silos, fire hydrants, cranes, and ventilating fans. 

Patton's Ironhide works easily, and while it dries in eighteen hours 
it is always advisable to allow at least three days between coats. It is of 
heavy painting consistency and requires a fair amount of brushing. 

Ironhide is extremely elastic and tough, and produces a film very 
impervious to gases and moisture. Three-coat work will give service 
from five to eight years, depending upon the climate of the locality 
where the painting is to be done, the care taken in preparing the surface 
for receiving paint, and the method of application. 

Inhibitive Red will cover 600 square feet per gallon, one coat; Fin- 
ishing Black, 600 to 800 square feet per gallon, one coat; Brown, 600 
square feet per gallon, one coat; and Green, 600 to 800 square feet per 
gallon, one coat. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon and gallon cans. 



[46] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 




PLASCO READY-MIXED PAINT 

For color chips, see pages $8, If.9 

For specifications* for use, see Nos. 1, 
2, 3, 18, 19, 20, 21, 2kr 25, 38, 39, 
on pages 82,8^,86 

PLASCO Ready-Mixed Paint is intended for either exterior or interior 
work. It is made to meet the demand for a paint that can be sold at 
a price lower than must be asked for the highest quality, and is as good 
a paint as can be made for the price. 

It works easily, covers well, has good body, dries with a good oil 
gloss, and will give exceptional service for the money invested. 

When used according to directions, one gallon will cover between 
250 and 300 square feet per gallon, two coats. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon, gallon, quart, and half-pint cans. 

* Substitute Plasco Ready-Mixed Paint for Sun-Proof when necessary to use a lower-priced paint. 






[47 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



PLASCO READY-MIXED PAINT 

For description, see page 47 




LIGHT CREAM PL 1 



GRAY STONE PL 9 



TAN 






CREAM 


PL 2 








STRAW 


PL3 




BBBBH 




MANILA 


PL 4 






BUFF 


PL 5 







PL 6 




LEATHER BROWN PL 7 




LIGHT STONE PL 10 




LIGHT GRAY PL 11 




MEDIUM GRAY PL 12 




LEAD COLOR PL 13 




PINK 



RICH BROWN PL 8 BRICK RED 

ALSO OUTSIDE WHITE, INSIDE FLAT WHITE, AND BLACK 



PL 14 




TERRA COTTA PL 15 




PL 16 



[48] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 



1 






PLASCO READY-MIXED PAINT 

For description, see page |7 




NILE GREEN PL 17 




LIGHT BLUE 




DEEP BLUE 



PL 19 




LEMON 



VERMILION 



WILLOW GREEN PL 20 BRONZE GREEN 

ALSO OUTSIDE WHITE, INSIDE FLAT WHITE, AND BLACK 



PL 21 




BLIND GREEN PL 22 




PL 23 




PL 24 




Paint will protect investments in homes and furnishings. 



[49] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




PITCAIRN WATERSPAR TRANSPARENT 

For example of work, see page 51 

A VARNISH made according to a special formula, possessing char- 
acteristics distinct and individual. This Varnish will never turn 
white in water, whether hot or cold, fresh or salt. Waterspar Transpar- 
ent possesses sufficient elasticity to withstand severe weather exposure. 
It is a Long Oil Varnish, which dries dust-free in two hours and hardens 
ready for use in from eighteen to twenty-four hours. 

The toughness and elasticity of Waterspar Transparent make it a 
desirable Varnish to use for exterior purposes — for window casings, 
doors, boats, and canoes. The fast- and hard-drying qualities make it 
an excellent Varnish to use on inside finishing, furniture, and floors. 
On account of its toughness, Waterspar Transparent will successfully 
withstand washing and scrubbing, whether hot or cold water is used. 
It has brilliant lustre, good body, and, possessing hard-drying qualities, 
may be rubbed with pumice stone and water to a dull finish without 
coming back to the gloss. 

Because of its toughness and hardness and because it will never turn 
white in water, Waterspar Transparent is not affected by household 
accidents, such as the spilling of toilet preparations, hot food, hot or 
cold water, rain or snow coming in from an open door or window, 
leaking radiators, escaping steam, or sweating walls. 

Sizes — Gallon, half-gallon, quart, pint, and half-pint cans. 



[50] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 




Pitcairn Walerspar Transparent is a Varnish for universal use, and is indispensable for the protection 

of surfaces subjected to moisture. 

[51] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




PITCAIRN WATERSPAR COLORED VARNISH 
AND ENAMEL 

For color chips, see page. 5 k 

For examples of work, see page. 53 

THE Waterspar line consists of a transparent waterproof Varnish for 
use on surfaces where the finish is dull and needs brightening, an 
Undercoater and Colored Varnish when complete renewal is necessary, 
and White and Colored Enamels for use when a solid color is desired. 

This Varnish is made so as to enable anyone to secure good results 
by the exercise of ordinary care and judgment. It is unexcelled in free, 
easy, smooth-working qualities, and flows out perfectly, leaving a bril- 
liant and lasting finish. Pitcairn Waterspar Colored Varnish and 
Enamel may be used in numerous places in and about the home. Be- 
cause of its great elasticity and toughness it is especially adapted to the 
finishing and refinishing of floors, fine furniture, and interiors. Floors 
may be finished one day and used the next. A Waterspar finish is water- 
proof, and because of its great smoothness is easily kept clean. Wiping 
with an ordinary damp cloth is all that is necessary. 

Surfaces finished with Waterspar Colored Varnish may be rubbed to 
a dull finish or polished. Old surfaces can be renewed without removing 
the old finish. The use of this Varnish brings out the life and beauty of 
the wood. It covers mars and scratches and keeps furniture, floors, and 
woodwork from appearing old or worn. Surfaces that are badly stained, 
dark, and unsightly, may be grained to imitate popular and expensive 
woods after receiving a coat of Waterspar Ground Color. Using Every- 
body's Graining Set (page 175, Sundries Section) in connection with 
Waterspar, the staining, graining, and varnishing are all done in a 
single, simplified operation. 

Sizes — Gallon, half-gallon, quart, pint, half-pint, and quarter-pint 
cans. 



[52] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 









Pitcairn Waterspar Colored Varnish and Enamel will renew and beautify anything in and about the home. 

[53] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



PITCAIRN WATERSPAR COLORED VARNISH AND ENAMEL 



FOR NEW OR OLD WORK 

For description, Sep page -~> 2 



TRANSPARENT 




DARK OAK 




CHERRY 




MAHOGANY 




DARK MAHOGANY 





GROUND COAT 



IVORY ENAMEL 




PEARL GRAY ENAMEL 




WHITE ENAMEL 



PALE BLUE ENAMEL 




FERN GREEN ENAMEL 




VERNAL GREEN 



RICH CHERRY ENAMEL 



ALSO ALUMINUM, GOLD, DULL BLACK ENAMEL, AND GLOSS BLACK ENAMEL 






[54] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 






HTCAIRN WOOD STAIN 

For description, see page 56 




m GREENISH WEATHERED STAIN NO. 4 PINE EARLY ENGLISH STAIN NO. 12 PINE 





GOLDEN OAK STAIN NO. 6 PINE CIRCASSIAN WALNUT STAIN NO. 13 BIRCH 




FLEMISH STAIN NO. 1 




WEATHERED STAIN NO. 2 




OAK DARK MAHOGANY STAIN NO. 10 PINE 



OAK FUMED OAK STAIN NO. 11 



OAK 





GREENISH WEATHERED STAIN NO. 4 OAK EARLY ENGLISH STAIN NO. 12 OAK 




GOLDEN OAK STAIN NO. 6 




OAK CIRCASSIAN WALNUT STAIN NO. 13 GUM 




SILVER GRAY ACID STAIN 




OAK DARK MAHOGANY STAIN NO. 10 GUM 





FUMED OAK STAIN NO. 11 



PINE 




EXTRA DARK MAHOGANY STAIN NO. 15 

BIRCH 



[55] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




PITCAIRN WOOD STAIN 



For color chips, see page 55 

For examples of work, see pages 10 If. to 120 

For specifications for use, see Nos. 50 to 79, 

on pages 88 to 91 



THE cost of the Stain used on the average 
building is exceedingly small when com- 
pared with the cost of labor of application, 
together with the cost of the Finishing Var- 
nish and its application, yet the Stain has a 
most important bearing upon the finished job. 
It is the Stain that brings out the high lights 
and beauty of the wood and in view of the 
fact that one gallon of Pitcairn Wood Stain 
covers on the average from 800 to 1,000 
square feet of surface, it is apparent that a 
difference of 50 cents a gallon in Stain will 
not amount to much on the average job. It 
is, therefore, not the bulk cost or cost per 
gallon that should be the deciding factor, but 
the results obtained and extent of surface cov- 
ered. Pitcairn Wood Stains may cost more 
than others, but they are worth more. 

There are many advantages to the painter in 
using Pitcairn Stains, which have extraordi- 
nary penetrating qualities, go into the wood 
to color it, and do not produce a surface fin- 
ish only, as do the pigment stains. A pigment 
stain is, in reality, a thin paint, which ob- 
scures and clouds the grain of the wood. 

Pitcairn Stains do not raise the grain of 
wood or affect thin veneers. This is proof that 



they do not contain alcohol, water, acid, or 
alkali, as it is characteristic of such stains to 
raise the grain of wood and the moisture in 
water stains frequently blisters thin veneers. 

Pitcairn Wood Stains may be reduced with 
turpentine or benzine the same as any product 
with an oil base. These Stains set slowly, 
which permits them to be used on large sur- 
faces, greatly reducing the danger of laps or 
cloudiness over soft spots in the wood. Spirit 
stains, which usually have shellac as a binder, 
set very rapidly, and are difficult to handle on 
account of the tendency to lap and show 
clouded effects on soft spots. 

The painter using Pitcairn Wood Stains has 
a still further advantage in that he may use 
them for tinting his Filler, with which they 
mix perfectly; in fact, Pitcairn Stains may 
even be mixed in Varnish for producing lake 
or glaze effects. Pitcairn Stains are neutral, 
and have no detrimental effect on the wood to 
which they are applied, or on the finishing 
coats that may be laid over them. The colors 
may be intermixed, thus producing a great va- 
riety of colors, tints, and shades. 

Sizes — Gallon, half-gallon, quart, pint, and 
half-pint cans. 



[56] 



: 



PROOF PRODUCTS 




&4 



PROOF" is the general trade name applied to Paints, Varnishes, Enamels, and other 
allied products of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. This trade name is a distinc- 
tion of quality, and applies generally to these products, in addition to the official 
trade-marks of the individual lines. 

Glass, Paints, Enamels, and Varnishes are indispensable alike to cottage, factory, and 
skyscraper; they protect and beautify our possessions. 

These and innumerable other products — insecticides, disinfectants, and chemicals — 
comprising the entire line of Proof Products, are available always in dependable supply 
everywhere, at the command of architects, dealers, contractors, painters, building owners, 
food growers, and manufacturers. 

From raw material to finished product, the manufacture and distribution of Proof Prod- 
ucts are under one ownership, one organization, operating through specialized manufactur- 
ing divisions, effecting incalculable economies — both in manufacture and distribution — 
assuring dependability of supply and consistent maintenance of Highest Quality Standards. 

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company 

GLASS MANUFACTURERS PAINT 

PAINT AND VARNISH FACTORIES: MILWAUKEE, WIS.; NEWARK, N. J.; PORTLAND, ORE. 



I 57] 




On 










PAINT PROPOSITION FOR DEALERS 



THE demand for Paints is universal. Paints, 
Varnishes, Enamels, Stains, Brushes, and 
other items included under the general 
term Paints are bought and used by, or for, 
every individual. Paint is used at some time 
during each year in every home, factory, office, 
hospital, school, warehouse, and store. Paint is 
needed to complete the work of the artisans in 
nearly all other crafts. It protects the surfaces 
of automobiles, tractors, farm implements, and 
wagons. It is ever-present on the highways and 
byways, decorating and preserving houses, barns, 
bridges, and fences, and in our streets it pro- 
tects and makes more sightly the poles that carry 
the electric wires. 

At one time the Paint business was thought 
of by many as active only during the Spring 
and Fall. There is no reason why this should be 
the case. The interior painting surface of the 
average residence, apartment, or business build- 
ing is about four times greater than the exterior 
painting surface. This interior finishing, as well 
as much outside painting, proceeds throughout 
the year, and specialties are constantly sold in 
small cans, over the counter, for refinishing auto- 
mobiles, furniture, floors, porches, refrigerators, 
screens, and other articles and fixtures. 

There is no sure road to success in merchan- 
dising; results depend in large measure on the 
merchant himself. However, there is a well- 
defined and wonderful aid to any merchandising 
plan — the force of advertising. Our publicity 
plans are based on recognized principles and 
have proved successful again and again. 



Our method of advertising is a happy com- 
bination of a broad policy of general publicity, 
to give the goods national prestige, and a local- 
ized plan that focuses our national advertising, 
as a veritable spotlight, upon the store of the 
individual merchant. 

Our national advertising is backed up by 
dealers' aids which enable each and every mer- 
chant to localize his efforts and secure for his 
establishment the reputation of being known as 
the Store for Paint. These helps enable our 
dealers to plan effective campaigns for securing 
the business of their localities. 

It will be noticed that all the Patton Proof 
Products Labels bear one design, "The Sunface 
with its Rays." This is a wonderful merchan- 
dising aid. It means the identification of the 
trade-mark in the mind of the buying public. 

In the matter of store display also this uni- 
versal label is an important factor. A display of 
Proof Products stands out and attracts the eye, 
leaving a pleasant impression of uniformity, 
neatness, and stability. 

Any one brand of our Paints successfully used 
by a consumer becomes at once a testimonial 
and indorsement of every one of our brands — 
and only by establishing a steady repeat busi- 
ness for the entire line of Paints can a dealer 
secure the utmost profit from that department. 

The exclusive sale for Proof Products gives 
the agent not only protection on the business that 
is developed, but the benefits of our prestige and 
reputation acquired through having conducted 
a successful business for more than sixty years. 



[59] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



One of the most important advantages our or- 
ganization offers the dealer-customer is Service. 

Our distributing facilities save the dealer both 
money and annoyance. He can get his goods in 
the shortest possible time, and quickly replenish 
temporary shortages of any color or material. 
He secures low freight rates with minimum dan- 
ger of damage to the shipment in transit. 

Freight and cartage paid on minimum ship- 
ments mean a sacrifice of profit. On the other 
hand, the purchase of more material than is 



really needed, while possibly reducing the 
freight, will almost certainly result in an over- 
stock. Only by carrying a full line, and pur- 
chasing all goods required from one convenient 
source, can the dealer secure these profit-making 
advantages. 

On page 58 we show a photograph of a well- 
displayed stock of Paints. 

Correspondence is invited from responsible 
dealers in all localities. We have a proposition 
of interest and profit to offer. 



PROOF PRODUCTS 



PATTON'S ALBA-LUX (WHITE LIGHT) 

(Gloss, Flat, and Egg-Shell Gloss) 

Pattern's Alba-Lux (Gloss) is an Oil Paint for in- 
terior use; dries with a tough, elastic, enamel-like 
finish; will remain white; is easily kept clean; will 
withstand repeated washing; will not crack or flake 
off; is not affected by vibration, as of machinery. 

Alba-Lux can be used for interior work on wood, 
metal, plaster, or cement, either when new or if previ- 
ously painted. A list of possible consumers for Alba- 
Lux would be too large to enumerate, but it will be 
found without an equal for use in: 

Textile mills, factories, packing houses, breweries, 
creameries, laundries, ice cream plants, markets, 
office buildings, department stores, elevator shafts, 
power plants, hospitals, and, in fact, any interior 
where a durable white, light-reflecting paint is desired. 

Alba-Lux (Flat) is also an Oil Paint similar in 
every respect to the Gloss, except that it dries to a 
flat finish. 

The liquids in Alba-Lux are specially treated Oils 
and are absolutely free from resin or resinous mate- 
rials. The gloss in Alba-Lux is obtained without the 
use of varnish. 

Alba-Lux works easily, flows freely, and dries with 
an elastic, tough, enamel finish. Under normal condi- 
tions the drying time is from twenty-four to thirty-six 
hours. It is always best, however, to allow as much 
time as is practicable to insure thorough drying. 

Alba-Lux, as it comes in the package, is of the right 
consistency for proper working and covering. 

Patton's Alba-Lux is very opaque and has wonder- 
ful hiding qualities. When applied according to 
directions on a suitable surface, Alba-Lux will cover 
approximately as follows: 

Flat on new work, first coat, 300 to 500 square feet. 
Flat on old work, first coat, 450 to 640 square feet. 
Flat on new or old work, second coat, 400 to 600 
square feet or one coat refinish. 

Gloss on new work, first coat, 300 to 500 square 
feet. Gloss on old work, first coat, 600 to 800 square 
feet. Gloss on new or old work, second coat, 600 to 
800 square feet or one coat refinish. 



Alba-Lux (White Light) is used almost exclusively 
for its light-reflecting properties, consequently there 
is little demand for colors. If desired, however, both 
Gloss and Flat can be tinted with Oil Colors. 

The demand for a paint like Alba-Lux is in the 
natural order of progress and is due to the mod- 
ern desire for better light and better sanitation, both 
of which mean greater efficiency and therefore better 
profits in any large institution. 

Alba-Lux saves electric light. It brings daylight 
inside. Well-lighted factories reduce the risk of acci- 
dent to workmen and damage to machinery and mer- 
chandise. 

Surfaces painted with Alba-Lux will not readily 
collect dirt or dust, can be washed repeatedly, and, 
consequently, kept bright, clean, and sanitary. 

The use of Alba-Lux makes repainting less frequent. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon and gallon cans. 

PATTON'S ALBA-LUX, EGG-SHELL GLOSS 

Especially adapted for surfaces where neither the 
high gloss nor the dull flat effect is desired. Dries to 
a true Egg-Shell Gloss finish. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon and gallon cans. 

PATTON'S SUN-PROOF WHITE 

(Paste) 

Patton's Sun-Proof White is tri-pigment paint made 
in heavy paste form, and when reduced with Linseed 
Oil, Leptyne or Turpentine, and Drier makes a per- 
fect liquid paint that is more durable and at the same 
time less expensive than paint made from White Lead 
only; can be tinted with Oil Colors to desired shade. 

Strictly pure Linseed Oil is the only liquid used in 
the manufacture of Sun-Proof White. 

The following figures represent the covering capacity 
of Sun-Proof White after being reduced according to 
directions for new or old work: 

First, or priming coat, new work, 350 to 400 square 
feet, one coat. Second coat, new work, 600 to 700 
square feet, one coat. Third coat, new work, 600 to 
700 square feet, one coat. 



[60] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 



First coat, old work, 500 to 600 square feet, one 
coat. Second coat, old work, 600 to 700 square feet, 
one coat. 

Sizes — Hundred, fifty, twenty-five, and twelve and 
a half pound kegs. 

PATTON'S SNOLITE 

Patton's Snolite is a Semi-paste Paint, but so heavy 
that it requires thinning and manipulation by the 
Master Painter. Snolite is distinctly different from 
any product heretofore offered, possessing the follow- 
ing exceptional points: 

When thinned for painting, Snolite has fully one- 
half greater opacity than paints now considered 
standard. 

Is furnished in semi-paste consistency that permits 
of reduction at minimum expense, while at the same 
time meeting all conditions of surface and drying. 

Can be used for tinting with any color and can be 
mixed with any other white pigment. 

Produces a Paint which is incomparably superior 
for spray painting because it can be applied thin, 
covers perfectly, and is non-poisonous. 

Dries to a smooth, high-gloss surface of superior 
whiteness which eventually chalks moderately, leaving 
an excellent surface for repainting. 

After chalking for a considerable time, Snolite will 
continue still to obscure the surface as well as stand- 
ard paints newly applied. 

On chalking, tints become lighter, as do those made 
from White Lead, but on tests made over a wide range 
of territory and on a large amount of surface it has 
always been observed that a remarkable uniformi- 
ty of color is maintained without predominance of 
blotched and variegated colors so often in evidence 
on a chalking surface. 

Can be used in industrial sections around gas works 
or oil fields without discoloration from hydrogen sul- 
phide fumes. 

Produces a Paint which, when finally thinned for 
use, is highly economical when surface covered and 
opacity of film are considered, resulting therefore in 
a very considerable saving in cost and superior results. 

Durability: The large percentage of Linseed Oil 
combined with chemically inactive pigments produces 
a theoretically perfect Paint. Not satisfied with theory, 
we tested out Snolite in various parts of the country 
for a period of years prior to placing it on the market 
during the Spring of 1921. The perfect paint-film 
retained by Snolite after exposure for four and five 
years under varying climatic conditions has abun- 
dantly supported our laboratory experiments. 

In placing Snolite before the Master Painter, it has 
been considered that best results will be obtained by 
leaving the manipulation in general to him as required 
by diversified surfaces and conditions which he will 
encounter. Certain basic directions, however, must 
be followed if satisfactory results are to be obtained: 

The pigments in Snolite are all chemically inactive 
and without drying action on oil. In consequence, 
Snolite must be handled differently from paint con- 



taining a high percentage of White Lead, which acts 
as a natural drier and also tends somewhat to flatten 
the surface after drying. Do not fail to observe the 
following instructions: 

Under the same conditions — always use more Drier 
with Snolite than with White Lead. 

Always use Snolite thinner than White Lead. This 
is most important. 

Under sub-normal drying conditions increase Drier 
and replace part of oil in Undercoater with Leptyne or 
Turpentine to improve drying and reduce gloss. 

Under sub-normal drying conditions, not only in- 
crease Drier, but use up to one-eighth gallon Leptyne 
or Turpentine per gallon of finishing coat. 

Slow drying in humid weather leads to many paint 
failures, where fault is generally unjustly laid to mate- 
rials. Avoid painting under such conditions if pos- 
sible and assume no responsibility for results. 

Paint caught in frost while drying is practically 
certain to result in failure, regardless of what is used. 
After frosts begin, painting is undertaken at great risk. 
Do not paint when temperature is below fifty degrees. 

Such woods as cypress and cedar, containing, as they 
do, substances which very seriously retard drying, 
require special treatment for priming coat. 

Sizes — Five-gallon steel containers and Painters' 
Pots containing 289.75 cubic inches. 

PATTON'S TITANIC LIQUID WHITE 
Patton's Titanic White is a Paint in liquid form 
which embodies the unusual properties elsewhere ob- 
tainable only in the semi-paste form of Snolite. 

It has the same extraordinary covering capacity, 
producing a paint-film good for long service and one 
which leaves the surface in excellent condition for 
repainting. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon, gallon, and quart cans. 

PATTON'S SILK-WHITE VELUMINA 
Different from the regular White Velumina in tex- 
ture and in finish produced. Silk- White Velumina is 
ground to extreme fineness and dries with a slight 
sheen. Especially suitable for use as an undercoat 
in preparing surfaces for Enamel. It may be used 
with equal facility on plaster walls and wood trim. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, 
quart, pint, and half-pint cans. 

PATTON'S GREENONA 

Greenona is a trade name for a Green in Oil in 
paste form, made in five shades. Adding eight gal- 
lons of Linseed Oil to 100 pounds of Greenona will 
yield about thirteen gallons of paint ready for use. 

The covering capacity depends largely on the condi- 
tion of the surface and thoroughness in brushing. 
Greenona, when properly reduced and applied, should 
cover approximately 325 to 400 square feet to the 
gallon, two coats. 

Many Master Painters carry in stock some colors of 
this description because they keep well, and by adding 
oil and color the painter can make just enough paint 
of the desired shade to take care of his requirements. 



[61] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



Greenona is used extensively for house painting, 
trimming, store fronts, iron fences, and metal or 
wood telephone or telegraph poles. 

Sizes — Sixty- pound buckets; thirty- pound pots; 
twenty-five, and twelve and a half pound cans. 

PATTON'S FRENCH WASHED YELLOW 
OCHRE IN OIL 

PATTON'S FRENCH CROWN GOLDEN 
OCHRE IN OIL 

Made from Imported French Ochre; ground in 
strictly pure Linseed Oil to the consistency of a heavy 
paste. Used for tinting, with white or colored paints. 

To reduce to brushing consistency, add six gallons 
of Linseed Oil and one-half gallon of Compo Drier to 
100 pounds of Ochre. This will yield twelve and a 
quarter gallons of paint. 

Sizes — Fifty-pound buckets; twenty-five, twelve and 
a half, five, and one-pound cans. 

PATTON'S VENETIAN RED IN OIL 

Venetian Red is ground in pure Linseed Oil to the 
consistency of a heavy paste. In the process of grind- 
ing, all the particles are thoroughly broken up and 
saturated with Linseed Oil. 

By adding Linseed Oil, Leptyne or Turpentine, and 
Drier, a very durable and high-grade paint is made. 
This paint is very practical for painting barns, ware- 
houses, and roofs, and for general exterior work. 

To make a paint of good brushing consistency, add 
six gallons of Linseed Oil and one-half gallon of 
Compo Drier to 100 pounds of Patton's Venetian Red 
in Oil. This will yield about twelve gallons of paint. 

Sizes — Fifty- five-pound buckets; twenty-five, twelve 
and a half, five, and one-pound cans. 

PATTON'S SEVENTEENTH CENTURY WAX 

A prepared Wax of natural color for polishing 
floors, standing woodwork, linoleum, furniture, auto- 
mobiles, and the like. Ready for use without the ad- 
dition of any other materials ; spreads easily, and dries 
sufficiently hard in one-half hour for second appli- 
cation or for polishing. 

One pound is ordinarily enough for about 300 to 
350 square feet of surface, one application. 

Sizes — -Five, two, and one-pound cans. 

PATTON'S ORIENTAL VARNISH STAIN 

A perfect combination of Stain and Varnish. Each 
Stain is ready for use as it comes from the can, and 
stains and varnishes in one application. Anything 
made of wood and any kind of wood can be given a 
handsome finish of the desired color at a trifling cost. 

This Stain is adapted for use on household furni- 
ture, floors, and interior woodwork, where one coat 
must complete the staining and varnishing process. 
Dries hard overnight. 

We have with this line of Stain a Ground Color 
which we recommend for use as a first coater where 
-Oriental Varnish Stain is used over old work. 

Oriental Varnish Stain is made in these colors: 



Cherry, Light Oak, Antique Oak, Mahogany, Wal- 
nut, Rosewood, Ebony, Moss Green, Ground Color. 
Sizes — Gallon, quart, pint, and half-pint cans. 

PATTON'S GRAINING COLOR 

A Paste Paint, made in Light Oak and Dark Oak, 
to be thinned with Leptyne or Turpentine, applied 
over suitable ground coats, and worked, before it is 
dry, with graining combs and pads. When dry, Var- 
nish is applied. The liquid used is pure Boiled Lin- 
seed Oil; the pigments, Umbers and Siennas reduced 
to shade with white pigments — semi-transparent in 
oil, and, therefore, well suited for use in graining 
colors. Solid, opaque colors would produce glaring 
contrasts, resulting in poor imitations of natural grain. 

Patton's Graining Colors work easily and dry in 
about eighteen hours. If quicker drying is required 
or desired, a small amount of Compo Drier may be 
used in conjunction with the Leptyne or Turpentine 
for reducing. 

Sizes — Five-pound and one-pound cans. 

PATTON'S PASTE WOOD FILLER 

Patton's Paste Wood Filler is made in heavy paste 
form, in Natural, Dark Oak, Mahogany, Golden Oak, 
light, and Golden Oak, medium. When reduced and 
applied to open-grained woods like oak, ash, chestnut, 
mahogany, and walnut, the Filler enters the pores of 
the wood, filling them completely, making it possible 
to get a smooth, even finish with subsequent coats of 
Varnish or Wax. 

When reduced with Benzine, about one pound of 
Filler to one-half pint of Benzine, Patton's Paste Filler 
works and spreads easily and sets in about twenty 
minutes, ready for rubbing off. In about fifteen hours 
the Filler is dry enough for waxing and varnishing. 
One pound thinned according to directions, should fill 
about 150 square feet of surface. 

Sizes — Fifty-pound kegs; twenty-five, twelve and a 
half, five, and one-pound cans. 

PITTSBURGH OIL COLORS 

Especially prepared, finely ground colors in oil, 
for the Master Painters' and Decorators' trade. 



Lamp Black 
Drop Black 
Chrome Yellow 

(Light, Medium, Dark) 
Indian Red 
Tuscan Red 
Prussian Blue 
Raw Umber 
Burnt Umber 
Raw Sienna 
Burnt Sienna 

Sizes — Buckets containing from twenty-five to sixty 
pounds; and pots, from twenty-five to thirty pounds, 
depending on the weight of the different colors; also 
twenty-five, twelve and a half, five, and one-pound 
cans. (Prussian Blue also in one-half and one-quarter 
pound cans.) 



American Vermilion 
French Ochre 
Rose Pink 
Vandyke Brown 
Light Oak Graining 
Dark Oak Graining 
Rose Lake 
Venetian Red 
Chrome Green 
(Light, Medium, Dark) 



[62] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 



PATTON'S LIQUID WOOD FILLER 

Pattern's Liquid Wood Filler is a preparation used 
for sealing and surfacing close-grained woods such 
as hemlock, pine, redwood, sycamore, cherry, gum- 
wood, cypress, maple, and poplar. 

It is an excellent first-coater or surfacer on all 
close-grained woods. Its chief function is to hold up 
and prevent absorption of the finishing coats of Var- 
nish. Drying with a semi-flat finish, it requires but 
little sanding, making a firm, hard foundation for the 
succeeding coats of Varnish. 

This filler may be used to advantage as a sizing or 
coating on walls before they are frescoed, as it pre- 
vents absorption and thereby gives an improved ap- 
pearance to the finished work. A liquid wood filler 
never should be used on open-grained woods. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, and quart cans. 

RED SEAL LIQUID WOOD FILLER 

A moderate-priced Wood Filler to be used for seal- 
ing and surfacing close-grained woods. Can also be 
used as a wall size. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, and quart cans. 

PATTON'S IRON AND STEEL FILLER 

Patton's Iron Filler has been perfected for use 
directly on iron surfaces that are porous and uneven 
so as to give them a smooth surface for finishing coats. 

To give an engine or machine a fine finish it is 
necessary that a surfacer be used which will in every 
way strengthen and improve the appearance of the 
finishing coats. 

Patton's Iron Filler is a surfacer of this type. It is 
made of finely ground hard pigment and a special 
iron filler Japan. 

Patton's Iron Fillers are furnished in a paste form 
which is easily applied and can be brought to a proper 
sanding surface in the minimum of time without roll- 
ing up under knife, leather, or cardboard. Where small 
imperfections are to be filled, the Iron Filler should 
be reduced with Naphtha to brushing consistency.* 

For airgun application a reduction of three parts 
of Filler to one of Benzine yields correct consistency. 

Sizes — Barrels; fifty-pound kegs; twenty-five, and 
twelve and a half pound cans. 

PATTON'S FRENCH GREEN SEAL ZINC 
COMPOUND IN OIL 

Patton's French Green Seal Zinc is a French Process 
Zinc Oxide and Barytes ground in bleached Linseed 
Oil. It is used by the Master Painter for various 
purposes, the results to be obtained determining the 
method of mixing. It is used in connection with White 
Lead by painters wanting a combination paint; for 
enamel undercoater by mixing with turpentine; for 
making mixed paints for interior use by mixing with 
Linseed Oil, Leptyne or Turpentine, and Japan. 

Sizes — Twenty-five, and twelve and a half pound 
cans. 



PATTON'S FRENCH RED SEAL ZINC 
COMPOUND IN OIL 

This is a product at a moderate price, very similar 
to Green Seal Zinc in Oil. 

Sizes — Twenty- five, twelve and a half, five, and one- 
pound cans. 

PATTON'S FRENCH ZINC IN DAMAR 

French Zinc in Damar is an imported, high-grade 
Zinc Oxide, ground in Damar Varnish. 

When mixed with Damar Varnish it produces a 
high-gloss White Enamel for interior use only. 

The usual proportions for making Enamel are about 
seven pounds of Zinc in Damar to five-eighths gallon 
of Damar Varnish. 

Can also be tinted if desired. It is best to tint Zinc 
before adding the Varnish. 

Sizes— Twenty-five, twelve and a half, five, and one- 
pound cans. 

PATTON'S GRAPHITE 

(Paste) 

Patton's Graphite is ground in pure boiled Linseed 
Oil to heavy paste form; is to be reduced to brushing 
consistency with Linseed Oil, Leptyne or Turpentine, 
and Drier; and is used for the same purpose as Patton's 
Liquid Graphite. Furnished in natural color only. 

Natural Graphite, the pigment used, is recognized 
and accepted for its protecting and preserving quali- 
ties on metal surfaces. 

When reduced to proper brushing consistency Pat- 
ton's Graphite will cover from 300 to 350 square feet 
of surface, two coats, on new work; for old surfaces in 
bad condition three coats are recommended. 

Sizes — Barrels; 250 and 100-pound kegs; twenty- 
five, and twelve and a half pound cans. 

RED SEAL GRAPHITE 
(Paste) 

This is a moderate-priced paste Graphite, to be 
thinned with Linseed Oil, Leptyne or Turpentine, and 
Drier. 

Sizes — Barrels; 250 and 100-pound kegs; twenty- 
five, and twelve and a half pound cans. 

PATTON'S LIQUID GRAPHITE 

A high-grade Graphite Paint in liquid form for 
painting and preserving iron and steel. Particularly 
suitable for structural steel, metal roofs, bridges, 
smokestacks, and boilers. 

The liquid is Linseed Oil and a little Drier. 

The pigment is a natural Graphite, a pigment recog- 
nized for its protecting and preserving properties on 
metal. Where colors are furnished it is necessary to 
reduce the percentage of Graphite to the extent of the 
amount of coloring pigment used to obtain the desired 
shade. 

Graphite Paint brushes easily, dries in eighteen to 
twenty-four hours, has good, heavy body, and is non- 
fading. 



[63] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



When applied according to directions, one gallon 
will cover perfectly from 375 to 450 square feet of 
surface, two coats. 

On new, unpainted surfaces three coats are recom- 
mended. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon and gallon cans. 

RED SEAL LIQUID GRAPHITE 

(Formerly Keystone) 

Red Seal Liquid Graphite is a Graphite Paint in 
liquid form for painting and preserving iron and 
steel. It is sold at a moderate price and is intended 
for. use where the question of low cost must be con- 
sidered. 

Sizes — Barrels; 100 and 200-pound kegs; twelve and 
one-half pound cans. 

TUSCAR BARN PAINT 

For rough work only. Will give satisfactory serv- 
ice on fences, sheds, etc. Made in Red only. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon and one-gallon cans. 

PATTON'S BLACKBOARD SLATING 

A liquid preparation to produce a smooth surface 
on wood, plaster, or composition board. 

Surfaces finished with Patton's Blackboard Slating 
can be written on with chalk or crayon, and will not 
rub glossy by constant use of eraser. 

A paint for this purpose must be thin, to produce a 
surface that will not crack or chip off. Blackboard 
Slating will dry in about one hour after being applied. 

Sizes — One-gallon, quart, pint, and half-pint cans. 

PATTON'S CRACK PACK 

Crack Pack is a non-shrinking, non-absorbent com- 
position for filling cracks and crevices in floors and 
imperfections in wood. 

Crack Pack is about the consistency of putty and 
works about the same. Under ordinary conditions it 
will dry in from twenty-four to forty-eight hours; 
where cracks are very large and deep, more time may 
be required. 

Sizes — Five-pound and one-pound cans. 

PATTON'S SHUFLI SCREEN PAINT 

Shufli Screen Paint is a quick-drying, high-gloss, 
durable Varnish Paint for painting the mesh or frames 
of screen doors and window screens. Shufli is made 
in two colors, Black and Green. 

The liquids are made from quick-drying, durable, 
Exterior Varnishes. 

For making the Green we use chemically pure 
Chrome Green, and for the Black, pure Carbon Black. 

Shufli Screen Paint brushes easily and will dry 
sufficiently hard overnight to permit use of screens the 
following day. 

Shufli Screen Paint is purposely made thin to avoid 
clogging the screen-wire mesh and to facilitate drying. 

In most cases one coat of Shufli Screen Paint will 



suffice. When framework is new or in very bad condi- 
tion two coats may be necessary. 

Ordinarily one pint of Screen Paint will be suffi- 
cient to paint the mesh of one dozen average-size 
window screens or about eight doors. 

Sizes — One-gallon, quart, pint, and half-pint cans. 

PATTON'S STOVEPIPE ENAMEL 

Patton's Stovepipe Enamel is a quick-drying, high- 
gloss, durable, and heat-resisting jet black Varnish 
Paint for refinishing stovepipes, hot-air furnaces, 
coal scuttles, or other metal surfaces. Can also be 
used for exterior work where a gloss black finish is 
desired. It is not intended for use on superheated 
surfaces. No paint will wear satisfactorily on metal 
surfaces that become red hot or come in direct contact 
with flames. 

Stovepipe Enamel is medium-heavy in consistency 
and has good covering qualities, one coat usually 
being enough. If an extra finish is desired, two coats 
should be applied. 

Stovepipes should be carefully cleaned inside and 
out and painted before being stored. 

Sizes — Pint, half-pint, and quarter-pint cans. 

PATTON'S SUN-BRIGHT METAL POLISH 

Patton's Sun-Bright Metal Polish is a liquid prep- 
aration for cleaning and polishing brass, nickel, and 
copper. It is quick-acting and effective, and produces 
a high lustre that does not tarnish. 

Sun-Bright Metal Polish will not scratch. 

Safe to use, as it is non-inflammable. 

The pigments do not settle hard in the package 
and every drop of Sun-Bright Metal Polish can be 
used effectively. 

Sizes — Gallon, quart, pint, and half-pint cans. 

PATTON'S SUN-BRIGHT FURNITURE POLISH 

Patton's Sun-Bright Furniture Polish is a liquid 
preparation for cleaning and polishing all varnished 
interior surfaces. 

It contains no acid or other injurious ingredients. 
Cleans and polishes easily with little labor. Polished 
surface will not develop a bloom. 

Sun-Bright Furniture Polish should be well shaken 
before using, applied with a rag, rubbed dry^, and 
polished with a soft cloth. 

Sizes — Gallon, ten-ounce, and six-ounce cans. 

PATTON'S DISTEMPER COLORS 

Patton's Distemper Colors are for use in fresco 
work and cold-water painting. They are made from 
pure high-grade Lampblack, Drop Black, Vandyke 
Brown, imported Italian Siennas, and imported Tur- 
key Umbers, ground extremely fine in water. 

The advantage of using pure colors is in their 
strength and covering quality and their full body when 
dry — a faded-out appearance does not result, as would 
be obtained were reduced colors used. 



[64] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 




PITCAIRN AGED SPAR VARNISH 



TVTO EXPENSE has been spared in building the 
1 1 strongest possible organization in our manufac- 
turing department. The best talent obtainable has been 
secured. Our two factories are equipped with modern 
chemical apparatus, laboratories, and every conven- 
ience for the scientific manufacture of Varnishes of 
the highest quality. We know, by actual proof, the 
true worth of each individual product and its relative 
value compared to highest market standards, which 
justifies the claims we make for quality. 

Pitcairn Aged Spar Line of Varnishes represents 
the Pitcairn Idea of the best Varnishes that can be 
made for architectural wood-finishing, as well as the 
most satisfactory moderate-priced Varnishes. 

The great popularity Pitcairn Aged Spar Varnishes 
are enjoying at this time among the more exacting 
wood-finishers throughout the country is due princi- 
pally to the universal satisfaction they are giving. Any 
unprejudiced judge of good materials who has used 
these Varnishes will acknowledge their excellence. 

The raw materials — gums, oils, and thinners — are 
cooked and made into the finished Varnishes by expert 
workmen, under supervision of our chemical staff. 
Our trade-mark and label and the sealed package are 
the purchaser's guarantee that the quality will be 



found as represented. They are his protection and 
insurance of most satisfactory results. 

IMPORTANT 

The varying conditions and temperatures under 
which Varnish is applied forbids the naming of a defi- 
nite drying-time. Therefore, the drying- time named 
herein is approximate. Care should be taken to have 
one coat dry before another is applied, 

A Varnish never should be rubbed until after it 
has thoroughly hardened. 

Varnish works best in a temperature of from seventy- 
five to eighty degrees Fahrenheit. In cold weather, 
when it is not possible to warm the room in which 
varnishing is being done, it may be necessary to add 
a little Turpentine to the Varnish. Be careful not to 
add too much. 

Use Leptyne or Turpentine for cleaning brushes. 

Do not pour Varnish back into the can. 

Keep can well corked. 

Never apply Varnish to a waxed surface without 
previously removing the wax. 

Varnish will not dry and harden properly with- 
out good light and perfect ventilation. Keep Paints 
and Varnishes away from fire. 



[65] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



ARCHITECTURAL VARNISHES 






PITCAIRN MAST SPAR 

A Marine and Exterior Varnish for Use Where 
Extreme Durability is Demanded 

Best Exterior Varnish. 

Where great durability is required, it proves its 
superiority, under the most trying conditions. It is 
not affected by salt or fresh water and has great 
elasticity and wearing qualities. Will not scratch or 
mar white. Dries dust-free in ten to twelve hours 
and hard in forty-eight hours. May be used over 
natural woods, painted or grained surfaces. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN DECK SPAR 

A popular, reliable and satisfactory Varnish for 
boat decks, outside doors, and similar exposed sur- 
faces. A good finishing Varnish for natural wood, 
painted or grained surfaces that are exposed to the 
weather. Elastic and hard-drying. Sets dust-free in 
eight to ten hours and hardens in three to four days. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN FINISHING SPAR 
The best Varnish made for all fine interior archi- 
tectural finishing. Has exceptionally free, easy- 
working qualities, great body brilliancy and per- 
manence, sets dust-free in eight to ten hours, and 
hardens in two days; may be rubbed in three days. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN FLOOR SPAR 

A most popular, satisfactory and best-selling Floor 
Varnish. 

Works perfectly under the brush ; has great elas- 
ticity and brilliancy; will not mar white. An excel- 
lent Varnish for general interior finishing. 

One or two coats of Floor Spar over linoleum will 
bring out the colors and greatly increase its life. 

Sets dust-free in eight hours and hardens in twenty- 
four hours. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN FLAT VARNISH 
For Artistic Interior Work 

Very transparent — brings out the color of the wood 
and produces a richer and softer effect than Gloss 
Finish. Smooth and free from gritty particles. 

Dries with an even, flat finish that has the appear- 
ance of being rubbed. Has the body and durability 
of Gloss Varnish — protects perfectly the surface to 
which it is applied and may be used on either new or 
old work. 

One coat is sufficient to produce a dull, rubbed effect 
on old work or over an undercoat of Gloss Varnish 
for new work. 



Where an oil-rubbed effect is desired, add one- 
quarter gallon of Pitcairn Finishing Spar to each gal- 
lon of Pitcairn Flat Finish. 

Two coats applied to a new wood over Filler will 
produce a silky, soft mission effect. 

Works nicely under the brush, flows out well — dries 
dust-free in two hours and hard in twenty-four hours ; 
may be coated with a Gloss Varnish, or as many coats 
may be applied as are necessary. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

CABINET RUBBING AND POLISHING SPAR 

Best Varnish for interior and architectural finish- 
ing. Has exceptionally free, easy-working qualities, 
body brilliancy, and permanence. 

Sets dust-free in eight to ten hours and hardens in 
two days ; may be rubbed in three days. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN MASTER PAINTERS' SPAR 

For General Interior Work 

A brilliant, satisfactory, free and easy-working Var- 
nish, intended for all general interior finishing. 

Dries dust-free in about eight hours, hardens in 
about thirty-six hours. Rubs nicely to a full finish. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN PAINTERS' COACH 

A reliable and satisfactory medium-priced Varnish. 

For high-gloss interior work. 

Dries dust-free in about seven hours and hardens 
in three days. Has good body and works nicely. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN CHURCH PEW AND SEAT FINISH 

An exceedingly hard-drying Varnish, which will 
never soften or become tacky under the heat of the 
body. Very tough — dries dust-free in six hours and 
hard in twenty-four. 

For use on church and school seats, chairs, desks, 
table tops, and the like. Dries with brilliant gloss, 
rubs well, and takes a fine polish. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN COMPO DRIER 

A safe, reliable and economical Japan Drier — sold 
only in sealed cans. 

To make paint dry and work properly and still 
retain its durability a good Japan Drier must be 
used; to have paint always uniform a Drier of uni- 
form strength must be used. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 



[66] 



Li 



PROOF PRODUCTS 



PITCAIRN PURE BATAVIA DAMAR 

In this finish the best grade of Batavia Gum is used. 

The Varnish is of extremely pale color and espe- 
cially adapted for use in making White Enamels or 
for finishing white or very light surfaces. It has good 
body, works nicely, and dries perfectly. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN TO-YO-LAC 

This Varnish is especially prepared for finishing 
cabinet work, furniture, chairs, tables, desks, and 
seats, whether in polished, dull rubbed, or gloss finish. 
Equally' satisfactory for manufacturer or repairman, 
being in fact one of the few really safe varnishes for 
repairmen's use. 



To-Yo-Lac works very smoothly and freely, flows 
well, and has excellent wearing quality. A coat may 
be applied every day; last coat may be rubbed after 
thirty-six to forty-eight hours. Sets to the touch and 
dries dust-free in two hours. Furniture finished with 
To-Yo-Lac may be safely rubbed and shipped in hot- 
test weather without danger of printing. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

BRONZING LIQUIDS 

See page 176, in the Sundries Section. 

BULK VARNISHES 

See Manhattan Varnishes, page 73. 



PITCAIRN PUBLIC BUILDING VARNISHES 

Made according to government specifications. 

These Varnishes are composed only of selected Fossil Gums, pure refined Vegetable Oils, pure 
Spirits of Turpentine, and pure Driers. They are free from other products of any character what- 
soever. Great care is exercised in their making and aging. 



No. 1080— PITCAIRN INTERIOR PUBLIC 
BUILDING VARNISH 

This Varnish has a brilliant lustre, good body and 
color, and excellent working, drying, and hardening 
qualities. Sets dust-free in four hours and may be 
recoated in twenty-four hours. 

It hardens sufficiently to take a dull rub on the 
third day and may be polished on the fourth day. 

An exceptionally satisfactory all-around finishing 
Varnish. For use on cabinet work, etc., interior fin- 
ish, seats or pews, table tops, fixtures, floors. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon and gallon cans. 

No. 1081— PITCAIRN EXTERIOR PUBLIC 
BUILDING VARNISH 

This Varnish has excellent body and color, free 
working and flowing qualities. It dries with a bril- 
liant lustre that will withstand severe exposure, wear 
and tear. 

Does not scratch or mar white and is not affected 
by fresh or salt water. 

Sets dust-free in six hours and hardens in two to 
three days. 



Used wherever great durability is required, such as 
outside doors and windows, Water Craft and Marine 
Finishing, whether over natural wood, painted, or 
grained surfaces. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon and gallon cans. 

No. 1391— PITCAIRN PUBLIC BUILDING 
OIL DRIER 

This Drier is composed of pure Lead and Manga- 
nese, pure Turpentine, pure Fossil Gums, and refined 
Vegetable Oils. It is free from all other products of 
any character, whatsoever. 

Strong, safe, and reliable. 

It is a good mixer with all pigments, and may be 
added to all paints or oils for the purpose of hasten- 
ing their drying. 

Five per cent of Pitcairn Public Building Oil Drier 
(No. 1391) added to raw Linseed Oil will cause it 
to dry to the touch in seven hours. 

Note: An original analysis of any or all of the 
above, over the signature of our chemist, will be 
furnished upon request. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon and gallon cans. 



[67] 






PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



EMPIRE VARNISHES 



Carefully made from selected raw materials. Empire Varnishes may be used for the various 
purposes for which they are intended with a feeling of entire security that the work will be satis- 
factory. Empire Varnishes are easy-working, brilliant, and durable. 



WHITE ENAMEL 

A popular-priced White Enamel, adapted for use 
on all interior decorative work, giving a brilliant, 
durable finish. 

Produces a hard, non-absorbent, pure white surface 
that will retain its color and brilliance. Works well 
and flows out, leaving a smooth, white finish, free 
from brush marks or laps. Has good covering quali- 
ties. May be used on any surface — wood, metal, 
brick, or plaster, and for old or new work after the 
surface has been prepared with flat undercoats. Dries 
dust-free in twelve hours and hardens in twenty-four 
hours. A bluish hue, an ivory cast, or delicate tints 
may be produced by the addition of a small amount of 
Ultramarine Blue, Chrome Yellow Medium ground in 
oil, or other pure tinting colors. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, pint, 
and half-pint cans. 

INTERIOR FINISH 

A durable Varnish for general work on interior 
surfaces in either public or private buildings. Very 
pale in color, elastic, free-working, dries with a bril- 
liant lustre, and may be rubbed to a dull finish or 
polished if desired. Sets dust-free in about ten hours 
and hardens in three to four days. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, pint, 
and half -pint cans. 

FLOOR FINISH 

A durable finish for hardwood floors, linoleum, 
table tops, and similar uses. Dries hard overnight, 
conditions being favorable. It is elastic, light in color, 
and will not scratch or mar white. Because of its 
toughness, Empire Floor Finish makes an excellent 
Varnish for general interior work. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, pint, 
and half -pint cans. 

FLAT FINISH 

One coat is sufficient to produce a dull, rubbed 
effect on old work, or over an undercoat of Gloss 
Varnish on new work. One coat applied to new wood 
over Filler or Stain will produce a beautiful, silky, 
soft mission effect. 

Flat Finish is transparent, brings out the color of 
the wood, and produces a richer and softer effect than 
Gloss Varnish. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, pint, 
and half-pint cans. 



OLD FASHIONED No. 1 COACH 

A High Gloss Varnish for interior woodwork and 
for painted surfaces. Very satisfactory for all ordi- 
nary purposes. Has good body, works freely, and 
will dry hard in thirty-six hours. Recommended to 
those wanting a good article at a popular price. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, pint, 
and half-pint cans. 

FURNITURE VARNISH 

This Varnish is intended for household purposes and 
repair work where a quick-drying Gloss Finish is 
required. Has light color, good body, and sets hard 
in twenty-four hours. We recommend it to those want- 
ing a bright finish at a reasonable price. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, pint, 
and half-pint cans. 

ASPHALTUM 

Our aim in the manufacture of this Black has been 
to produce an article which will dry with a high, 
glossy-black finish, and one that will be satisfactory 
as a one-coat Black Finish. Suitable for use on all 
kinds, of metal surfaces, such as wire screens, stove- 
pipes, iron fences, hot and cold water pipes, agricul- 
tural implements, and castings of all kinds. It will 
prevent rust and deterioration and prolong the life of 
metals to which it is applied. By reason of its com- 
position, this Black may be relied on to withstand a 
high degree of heat. May be reduced with Turpentine 
or Naphtha. Sets dust-free in two hours and hardens 
in twelve hours. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, pint, 
and half-pint cans. 

LIQUID WOOD FILLER 

A good grade of Liquid Wood Filler for general 
work. Extra light in color and may be used on light 
woods without darkening them. Contains a trans- 
parent mineral pigment intended to be used as a 
First-coater or Surfacer on close-grained woods. Seals 
the surface, making a non-porous foundation for Var- 
nish coats. May be reduced with either Leptyne, 
Turpentine, or Benzine. Dries hard over night. -Sand- 
papers nicely. Can safely be coated over the next 
day without danger of checking or shrinking. One 
coat of Empire Liquid Wood Filler and one coat of 
Varnish will produce a finish which will be found 
satisfactory for all cheap work. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, pint, 
and half-pint cans. 



[68] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 



PITCAIRN AUTOMOBILE VARNISHES 



These Varnishes are so made as to withstand, for the longest time possible, the exposure, hard 
knocks, and wear and tear to which automobiles are subjected. 

In bringing them to their present state of perfection, special attention has been given to the 
requirements of the modern finisher of fine automobiles. Time is an important factor in modern 
automobile finishing, Pitcairn Aged Automobile and Carriage Varnishes permit of the finest 
work being turned out in a minimum of time. They are not sensitive to atmospheric changes 
while in the process of drying. Their use insures the maximum of durability to be obtained in 
automobile finishing. 

The body Varnishes are made of the finest materials obtainable, have exceptionally free- 
flowing qualities, are pale in color, dry free from dust quickly, and yet set slowly enough to 
enable the finisher to make a perfect job on the largest surfaces. 

The gear Varnishes are especially prepared to withstand the frequent washing and constant 
exposure; grease, dust, and dirt, to which automobile gear and chassis are subjected. They are 
full-bodied, pale in color, free-working, and will withstand severest usage. When used on exposed 
surfaces they are especially adapted to the requirements of Railway Car Finishing. They will with- 
stand the severe wear and tear encountered in Railway and Car Service. 



PITCAIRN EXTRA PALE AUTO 
WEARING BODY 

For Use over Lightest Colors on Finest Work 
This Varnish is intended to be used on the finest 
body-finishing, where extreme paleness of color, bril- 
liancy, and great durability are required. Flows out 
perfect!), sets slowly, permitting best results on larg- 
est surfaces. Dries dust-free in eight hours and hard- 
ens in three to four days. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN FINEST AUTO WEARING BODY 

Best Auto Finishing Varnish 
This Varnish is intended for use on the finest Motor 
Car Finishing. Pale, durable, free-working, safe Var- 
nish. Dries free from dust in eight hours, yet sets 
slowly, thus allowing ample time to make a perfect 
job on the largest surface. Hardens in three to four 
days. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN AUTO HARDDRYING BODY 

For Finishing Coats 

Especially intended for durable, hurried work, 
where a heavy-bodied, free-working, good-drying Var- 
nish is required. Is brilliant, safe, and durable. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN ONE-COAT AUTO 

A One-Coat Finishing Varnish for Hurried Work 
Heavy-bodied; dries sufficiently hard to handle in 

twenty-four hours. Possesses good gloss, works freely, 

and is very durable. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 

pint cans. 



PITCAIRN PALE AUTO CHASSIS OR 

ELASTIC GEAR 

For Use over Lightest Colors on Finest Work 

Intended for use on chassis and underparts, where 
extreme paleness of color, brilliancy, and durability 
are required. Very free-working, dries dust-free in 
six hours, and hardens in two days. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN HEAVY GEAR 

A Heavy Varnish for Work on Chassis and Wheels 

For use in finishing wheels and underparts of auto- 
mobiles and carriages, where a heavy Varnish is re- 
quired. Has free-working qualities ; brilliant and dur- 
able. Dries dust-free in six hours and hardens in 
two days. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN HARD-DRYING GEAR 

For Finishing Coats 

A full-bodied, brilliant, quick-drying Gear Varnish. 
Dries dust-free in six hours and hardens in twenty- 
four to thirty-six hours. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN PALE AUTO RUBBING BODY 

A Four-Day Rubbing Varnish 

For undercoats on finest work over lightest colors. 
Especially desirable for use under our Extra Pale 
Auto Wearing Body Varnish. Possesses good level- 
ing qualities and dries to rub in four days. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 



[69] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



PITCAIRN QUICK-RUBBING 

A Two-Day Rubbing Varnish 

Always safe and reliable. May be rubbed close 
without sweating in forty-eight hours. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN DOUBLE-QUICK RUBBING 

Quick-drying, free-working. Can be rubbed in 
twenty-four to thirty-six hours. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half -gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN EXTRA BLACK BODY-RUBBING 

For Undercoats on Automobile and Carriage Bodies 

Produces a deep, black finish. When used over 
flat black, produces a hard, tough surface. Can be 
mossed in twenty-four to thirty-six hours and ready 
for re-coating with clear rubbing. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN BLACK BODY-RUBBING 

For undercoats on carriage bodies, producing a 
deep finish when used over flat black color. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN WAGON COACH 

For Finishing Auto Trucks and Wagons 

Where great durability and free-working qualities 
are required. Dries dust-free in six hours and hard- 
ens in twenty-four hours. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN JAPAN GOLD SIZE 

Also Used as a Binder for Drying and Hardening 
Colors — May be Mixed with Varnish 

Pale Japan for leaf sizing. A good, safe Drier for 
Color, Rough Stuff, and hard putty. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN PALE COACH JAPAN 

Very strong, light in color, quick drying. Used 
principally for binding Colors. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN ROUGH STUFF 
Always Reliable and Satisfactory 

A perfect filler for automobile, carriage, and coach 
finishing. Produces a smooth, solid, non-porous sur- 
face on which to build the final finish. Cuts down, 
without clogging the pumice stone. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, quart, and pint cans. 



PITCAIRN AIR DRYING BODY AND 
FENDER ENAMEL 

An especially high-grade, free-flowing, solid-cov- 
ering Jet Black Finishing Enamel, suited for brush 
work on auto bodies, fenders, hoods, gears, and all 
metal parts. Works like Finishing Varnish and dries 
with a full, brilliant lustre. Sets dust-free in six hours, 
and hardens in thirty-six hours. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN BLACK ELASTIC BAKING 
FINISHING ENAMEL 

A high-grade, Jet Black Enamel. May be applied 
by either brushing or dipping. Produces an extremely 
tough, elastic, and enduring finish on automobile 
fenders, hoods, and metal parts. Bake it in 230 
degrees of heat for three hours. 

Sizes— Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN BLACK UNDERFRAME ENAMEL 

Covers Solid Black in One Coat 

Not so heavy-bodied or free-flowing as Pitcairn 
Body and Fender Enamel. Use on smaller surfaces 
and running parts. A general-purpose, tough, jet 
black, brilliant Finishing Enamel. Dries overnight 
and hardens in twenty-four hours. Withstands a high 
degree of heat on radiators. May be baked lightly 
up to 175 degrees and is then ready for use after 
two hours. In addition to using for running parts 
on autos, also use on inside of wagon or truck boxes, 
battery boxes, iron fences, school seats, or stoves. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

TRANSPARENT SEALER 

Made from Pitcairn Waters par Varnish 

Dries dust-free in two hours and hardens over- 
night. Never lets go. Insures an elastic foundation 
for other finishing materials. Is waterproof and a 
superior Rust Preventive. 

We recommend that Waterspar be reduced one- 
third with Turpentine and used on new work as a 
Transparent Sealer, Rust Preventive, and Priming 
Coat on all metal bodies and other metal surfaces 
that are to be painted or finished. Also for use as 
a Primer on wooden wheels. When used as a sealer 
it must not be sanded. After allowing twenty-four 
hours for drying, continue with succeeding coats. 

PIGMENT PRIMER 

To be Made in the Shop 

A Pigment Primer can be made by mixing two or 
three pounds of Pitcairn Rough Stuff, or two or three 
pounds of Iron Oxide (Red) ground in oil, to the gal- 
lon of Waterspar. This Pigment Primer should be 
used over Transparent Sealer. Use as a sealer and 
surfacer (after sanding) on old work that is badly 
cracked, checked, and more or less porous and ab- 
sorbent. For this work a small amount of color to 
match the body coat should be added. Apply one 



[70] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 



thin coat, allowing twenty-four hours for drying. 
Then proceed with the color coats. 

Use Transparent Sealer, made from Waterspar, 
over Rough Stuff after it has been rubbed or blocked. 
This stops suction and makes an excellent undercoater 
for succeeding color coats. 

This transparent sealer made from Waterspar is 
an excellent crank-case sealer and a preservative 
coating for underframes and all kinds of metal auto 
parts while in stock, before being assembled into cars. 

PITCAIRN MOHAIR TOP DRESSING 

For Waterproofing and Preserving Old and Worn 
Auto Tops 

This is an Oil-base Dressing ^and while drying a lit- 
tle more slowly than Spirit Dressings the results are 



much superior. This material preserves and renews 
old tops and can be used with perfect safety, as 
there is nothing in it to injure the fabric. It is 
easily applied and dries ready for use the next day. 
When used on pantasote auto tops, it dries out with a 
semi-gloss oil finish. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 

PITCAIRN CARRIAGE TOP DRESSING 

For carriage tops and aprons. Dries hard in forty- 
eight hours, yet remains elastic. This material con- 
tains more pigment than the Mohair Top Dressing and 
dries out with a brilliant jet gloss. 

Sizes — Five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, quart, and 
pint cans. 



PITCAIRN JAPAN COLORS 

Pitcairn Japan Colors are of the highest standard of quality. The clear, brilliant tones 
obtained are due to the purity of the raw materials used in their manufacture. These materials, 
with a few minor exceptions, are manufactured within our organization. Absolute constancy of 
shade and strength is assured by rigid laboratory tests. 

Japan Colors have to be ground according to a special method. We do this work under 
expert supervision. Pitcairn Japan Colors will meet the most exacting demands of the critical 
finisher. For clearness and brilliancy of shade, richness and depth of tone, they have no equal. 

Sizes — Five-pound and one-pound cans. 



BLACKS 
Ivory Drop Black 
E-Ivory Drop Black 
Superfine Ivory Drop Black 
Lamp Black 

GRAYS 
French Gray 
Auto Body Gray, Light 
Auto Body Gray, Medium 
Auto Body Gray, Dark 

WHITES 

Silver White 
Flake White 

BLUES 
Azure Blue 
Electric Blue 
Perfect Blue 
Ultramarine Blue 
Prussian Blue 
Royal Blue 
Auto Body Blue 
Blue Groundwork 



LIST OF COLORS 

IVORY AND YELLOWS 

Ivory 

Sulphur 

C. P. Chrome Yellow, Light 

C. P. Permanent Yellow 

C. P. Chrome Yellow, Medium 

C. P. Chrome Yellow, Orange 

C. P. Chrome Yellow, Deep 

Orange 
Golden Ochre 
Old Gold 

BROWNS 
London Smoke 
Golden Brown 
Amber Brown 
Raw Sienna 
Burnt Sienna 
Raw Umber 
Burnt Umber 
Vandyke Brown 

REDS 
English Rose Lake 
Venetian Red 
Vermilion 
Gear Red, Light 
Gear Red, Dark 



Auto Body Red, Light 
Auto Body Red, Dark 
Coach Painters' Red 
Special Carmine 
No. 40 Carmine 
Tuscan Red 
Maroon 

Light Red Groundwork 
Dark Red Groundwork 

GREENS 

Lemon Green 

Bright Olive 

Bronze Green 

Pullman Car Color 

Pea Green 

Kentucky Green 

Milori or C. P. Chrome Green, 

Light 
Milori or C. P. Chrome Green, 

Medium 
Milori or C. P. Chrome Green, 

Dark 
Coach Painters' Green 
Light Quaker Green 
Light Brewster Green 
Dark Brewster Green 



[71] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 
PITCAIRN COLORED RUBBING VARNISHES 



In the manufacture of Colored Rubbing Varnishes, 
only pure Colors and best Auto Rubbing and Mixing 
Varnishes are used. This insures clean, clear, and 
brilliant tints under the Finishing Varnish. 

The stock shades of Colored Rubbing Varnishes are: 
Extra Black, Black, Gray, Blue, Yellow, Green, and 
Red. 

Sizes — Gallon, half-gallon, and quart cans. 

The automobile painter may make his own color 
varnishes, mixing his actual requirements from day to 
day. This will insure fresh stock always. By use of 
Pitcairn Japan Colors and Quick Rubbing Varnish 
complete satisfaction becomes a certainty. 



TO MAKE COLORED RUBBING VARNISHES 

Mix the following quantity of the various colors 
with Pitcairn Rubbing Varnishes in quantities de- 
pending upon the desired density of color. 

Blacks — Mix one and one-half pounds of color to 
the gallon of Varnish. 

Grays — Mix three to four pounds of color to the 
gallon of Varnish. 

Blues — Mix two to three pounds of color to the 
gallon of Varnish. 

Yellows — Mix four pounds of color to the gallon of 
Varnish. 

Browns — Mix three pounds of color to the gallon of 
Varnish. 



PITCAIRN SYSTEM FOR BODY FINISHING 





four-day system 

(for quick commercial work) 


six-day system 


eight-day system 


First Day 


One coat Pitcairn Elastic 
Pigment Primer 


One coat Pitcairn Elastic 
Pigment Primer 


One coat Pitcairn Elastic 
Pigment Primer 


Second Day 


Two coats Pitcairn Sand- 
ing Surfacer 


Two coats Pitcairn 
Sanding Surfacer. Brush 
first coat ; knife second coat 


Two coats Pitcairn 

Rough Stuff. Knife 

second coat 


Third Day 


Sand out. One coat 

Japan Color thinned with 

Turpentine. One coat Color 

Rubbing Varnish 


Sand out. One coat 

Japan Color thinned with 

Turpentine. One coat Color 

Rubbing Varnish 


Two coats Pitcairn 
Rough Stuff 


Fourth Day 


Rub lightly. One coat 

Pitcairn Finest 

Auto Wearing Body Varnish 


One coat Pitcairn Quick 
Rubbing Varnish 


Rub out. One coat 

Japan Color thinned with 

Turpentine. One coat Color 

Rubbing Varnish 


Fifth Day 




Dry 


Dry 


Sixth Day 




Rub out. One coat 

Pitcairn Finest 

Auto Wearing Body Varnish 


One coat Pitcairn Extra 
Pale Rubbing Varnish 


Seventh Day 






Dry 


Eighth Day 






Rub out. One coat Pitcairn 
Finest Auto Wearing Body 


TOTAL: 


Six Coats 


Seven Coats 


Nine Coats 



If metal shows signs of rust, sandpaper and wash with- naphtha and apply one coat of Pitcairn Transparent 
Sealer under the Pitcairn Elastic Pigment Primer. This seals in the rust and makes an elastic and adhesive 
coat which will insure against peeling from oxidized spots. 

[72] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 





• PITCAIRN SPIRIT LACQUER 

Pitcairn Spirit Lacquer is a Spirit Varnish intended 
to do the work of Shellac for first coating, sealing, 
and priming purposes. It is made of carefully selected 
Fossil Gum and high-proof Alcohol. Pitcairn Spirit 
Lacquer can be used for brush, spray, or dip work 
with satisfaction. It dries and works similar to Shel- 
lac and insures an important saving in the cost of the 
finished job, as compared with Shellac Varnish. 

Pitcairn Spirit Lacquer works freely and easily un- 
der the brush, making it suitable for use on large 
surfaces. It does not raise the grain and leaves a 
transparent film slightly heavier than Shellac. Spirit 
Lacquer sands readily and with little labor. It dries 
to handle in thirty minutes and is ready to varnish 
over or to sand in two hours. Spirit Lacquer can be 
used as a sealer for bleeding Stains as well as under 
Varnish. It mixes readily with Shellac. 

Sizes — Barrels; five-gallon, gallon, and quart cans. 

PITCAIRN LEPTYNE 

For Thinning and Reducing All Kinds of Paints 

Leptyne has a flash-point equal to that of Turpen- 
tine; therefore is equally safe to use. The minimum 
flash-point is guaranteed to be ninety-five degrees Fah- 
renheit, closed test. 

The evaporation is one hundred per cent. This takes 
place slowly, permitting the painter to secure the maxi- 
mum spreading and flowing qualities, obtaining greater 
penetration, and thus assuring the two greatest essen- 
tials — life and economy. 

The supply of Turpentine is gradually diminishing 
while the demand for paint thinners increases. Lep- 
tyne has been on the market for more than ten years, 
during which time the demand has increased steadily. 
It has the indorsement of, and is used regularly in 
many of the best shops and by large manufacturers 
who test all new materials most thoroughly before 
adopting them. Because, for all paint purposes, 
Leptyne is fully equal to Turpentine (for some work 
it is superior), paint-users will find it well worth 
while to give it a regular place in their paint shops. 

Sizes— Steel barrels and five-gallon cans. 



PITCAIRN PAINT AND VARNISH REMOVER 

A double-quick, double-power Remover for remov- 
ing Paint, Enamel, Varnish, Shellac, Wax, and Gums. 
A great work-saver and time-saver. Pitcairn Remover 
will penetrate and soften several coats of old Paint, 
Varnish, Shellac, Wax, or Gums, so that they may 
easily be removed from the surface with scrapers or 
with a benzine cloth and with no necessity for hurry- 
ing. The Pitcairn Remover keeps the material soft 
until the user is ready to take it off, and when cleaned 
the surface will be ready for refinishing. 

Note: Pitcairn Remover contains no strong acids 
and therefore will not injure the hands. 

Sizes— Gallon, half-gallon, quart, pint, and half-pint 
cans. 




MANHATTAN VARNISHES 

This is an inexpensive line of Varnish intended for 
the cheaper grades of work and is sold principally in 
bulk. Packed in barrels and in five-gallon and one- 
gallon cans. 

LIST OF MANHATTAN BULK VARNISHES 

Oxford Light Hard Oil Finish, Light Oil Finish, 
House Painters' Japan, B Japan Drier, Extra Gloss Oil, 
No. 1 Furniture Varnish, Pure Egyptian Asphaltum, 
Egyptian (B) Asphaltum, Ceiling or Sizing Varnish, 
Arabian Iron Enamel. 



[73] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




PITCAIRN BANZAI ENAMEL 

For All White Work 

For specifications for use, see Nos. 8b to 87, on page 95 

For examples of results, see pages 98, 99, 103, 10k, 105, 106, 
107, 108, 109, 112, 115, 116, 117, 118 



THIS is the finest quality White Enamel. Its remark- 
able elasticity and durability make it suitable for 
all kinds of work, inside and out, in all climates. 

A distinctive characteristic of Banzai is its wonder- 
fully free, easy-working, and easy-flowing quality. It 
levels out perfectly, leaving no laps or brush marks, 
resulting in a finish that is as smooth, brilliant, and 
immaculately white as fine china. The superior cover- 
ing properties of Banzai Enamel insure a perfect 
finish with fewer coats. Banzai Enamel is the most 
economical of all white interior decorative materials, 
because of its long life. It will retain its toughness 
and elasticity for many years. Even though the fin- 
ish become soiled the film will still remain and an- 
other coat may be applied without removing the old 
coatings, 



Because of the smoothness and hardness of the 
Banzai Enamel film, it does not absorb dirt and 
grease. Woodwork is therefore very easily cleaned. 

The great spreading capacity of Banzai Enamel in- 
sures an economical square-yard cost. 

Banzai Enamel is made in High-Gloss and Egg-Shell 
finish. # 

For preparing the surface, use Banzai Double-Cover 
Undercoater over Tector Primer. 

Banzai Enamel may be tinted by using Patron's Pure 
Oil Colors. 

Banzai Double-Cover Undercoater is made espe- 
cially for use with Banzai Enamel. It will insure a 
most satisfactory and lasting job of Enamel finishing. 

Sizes— Gallon, half-gallon, quart, pint, and half- 
pint cans. 



[74] 



PROOF PRODUCTS 




PITCAIRN TECTOR 

The Great Under coaler- — A Tough and Durable 
Primer, Filler, and Surfacer 



TECTOR is a filler and first-coater, neutral in color, 
for general priming purposes. The pigments are 
transparent and ground to minute fineness. Tector 
is made in heavy liquid form and must always be 
reduced with Leptyne, Turpentine, or Benzine. It 
dries with a permanent elasticity, producing a coating 
as tough as whalebone. 

Tector can be successfully used for the priming 
coat on wood, galvanized iron, cement, metal, brick, 
plaster, burlap, or canvas; under paint, varnish, 
enamel, and wax; on both exterior and interior work. 
There is no substitute for Tector, and no other primer 
or first-coater will produce similar results. 

Tector is a distinct and radical departure from the 
commonly-known liquid fillers or undercoat materials. 
The idea that anything is good enough for a priming 
coat is decidedly wrong; it is of the greatest impor- 
tance that the proper material be used for the purpose. 

To prevent collapse, the foundation of any build- 
ing must be carefully and scientifically planned and 
constructed. A building will not stand after the foun- 
dation gives way; so it is with Varnish, Enamel, or 
Paint. No finishing material can be more durable 
or permanent than the priming coat. The use of 
ordinary Liquid Fillers, Shellacs, and similar under- 
coaters definitely limits, because of their brittleness, 
the durability of the finishing material applied over 
them. Liquid Filler is composed of inert pigments 
and a resinous binder. It does not penetrate, but dries 
quickly on the surface. It is extremely brittle, conse- 
quently its use limits the permanence of the finished 
job. Shellac has its value in some classes of work, 
but also is brittle, impervious, and resinous. Shellac 
should not be used under finishing material that must 



withstand wear and weather or is subjected to abra- 
sion. Use Tector — it will add to the durability of the 
finish. Because of its great toughness it will prevent 
cracking, checking, or peeling. 

Tector is an excellent material to use in connection 
with first-coat work or the priming coat on houses 
from the standpoint of both economy and durability. 
We recommend for this work that it be mixed with 
the paint twenty-five to thirty-three and a third per 
cent. It is used in this manner by many exacting 
Master Painters. Tector penetrates and fills the wood, 
producing a firm and lasting foundation for Paint or 
Varnish coats. Tector is unexcelled as a cypress sealer, 
whether used clear, under paint or varnish, or in com- 
bination with the first coat of paint. 

Because of its toughness and elasticity, Tector makes 
an ideal coat to apply over so-called "chronic peel- 
ers." Brittle paint surfaces, that have a tendency to 
peel no matter what is applied over them, frequently 
have been put in shape through the use of Tector 
and no further trouble has been experienced. 

Because of its elasticity and toughness, Tector is an 
ideal material to apply to canvas surfaces which are 
later to be painted, as, for example, boat decks. 
It effectively stops all suction, is waterproof, and 
keeps the surface elastic and pliable. 

Since the priming coat is the weakest link, why 
not build for permanence by starting with the right 
foundation? It is wrong to apply a high-grade 
Enamel or Finishing Varnish over cheap, brittle, life- 
less undercoaters. The use of Tector insures the right 
foundation. 

Sizes — Barrels ; five-gallon, gallon, half-gallon, 
quart, and pint cans. 



[75] 







-. 

^ 



• — 



^ 



— 

- 



THE PITCAIRN PROPOSITION FOR DEALERS 



T 



| HE merchandising plan for the Pitcairn 
Products begins its effective work as soon 
as the Varnishes are in the dealer's stock- 
All the resources of our great organization — - 
scientific research, modern methods in manu- 
facture, thorough testing, as well as our selling 
and advertising activities — are marshaled and 
directed to keep Pitcairn Products moving from 
the dealer's shelves to satisfied users. 

Pitcairn Products are manufactured in three 
splendid, modernly equipped plants, one located 
at Newark, New Jersey, one at Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin, and the other at Portland, Oregon. 

The dealer who sells Pitcairn Aged Varnishes 
is, in reality, the representative of a highly- 
skilled, well-trained organization of specialists. 
The requirements for quality in all raw mate- 
rials are most exacting and resolutely enforced, 
each of the manufacturing processes is care- 
fully watched and guarded, and the finished 
product is subjected to rigid tests. Thus are 
Pitcairn Aged Varnishes produced. With every 
element of uncertainty eliminated, the dealer 
recommends Pitcairn Aged Varnishes to his cus- 
tomers with the well-grounded assurance that 
the Varnishes are of the very highest character, 
and with the certainty of absolute uniformity 
and dependability. 

Small but well-assorted stocks — more sales 
and greater profits through frequent turnover — 
are characteristic of the Pitcairn Dealers. Sup- 
plies are quickly obtained from the nearest of 
our many distributing Warehouses. These dis- 
tributing Warehouses are located in principal 
jobbing centers throughout the country, and ex- 
tend to the dealer's own locality all advantages 
of factory stock and service. The Pitcairn 
Dealer's investment is reduced, the long, expen- 
sive delays incident to shipments made from 
great distances are eliminated, and freight costs 
are minimized. 

Representatives of our Sales Department are 
always on the alert to be of service to Pitcairn 
Dealers. They effectively co-operate with our 



dealers in applying our merchandising plans 
for increasing dealers' sales. By means of the 
contact thus maintained, our manufacturing and 
distributing proceed in accordance with the re- 
quirements of the trade. 

Absolute control of production, including the 
supply of many of the raw materials, through 
the operation of our own factories, and of mar- 
keting through the Company's distributing Ware- 
houses, assures the dealer of constant and per- 
manent supply. 

Pitcairn Aged Varnishes have been kept con- 
stantly before the favorable notice of the buy- 
ing public by consistent and effective advertis- 
ing. Our advertising is designed to facilitate 
the sale of Pitcairn Aged Varnishes through 
dealers, who are equipped with numerous at- 
tractive store-display features, color cards, price 
lists, booklets, descriptive literature, and other 
Dealers' Helps. Pitcairn Dealers are supported 
also by a great National Advertising Campaign 
which is making household words of the names 
of the principal Pitcairn Products. 

This campaign includes advertising in maga- 
zines of national circulation, and reaches mil- 
lions of readers. It has created and is maintain- 
ing in every locality a consumer demand to be 
supplied by Pitcairn Dealers. Ready accept- 
ance by the consumer of the nationally adver- 
tised Pitcairn Aged Varnishes contributes sub- 
stantially to the increased sales and greater 
profits of the Pitcairn Dealer. 

The Pitcairn Aged Varnish Line is compact 
and complete. It includes no duplicates or un- 
necessary items. It supplies all requirements 
of the trade for Architectural Varnishes, Driers 
and Japans, Enamels, Colored Varnishes, Wood 
Stains, Auto Varnishes, Japan Colors, and such 
specialties as Bronzing Liquids, Sizing Liquids, 
Mixed Bronzes, Spirit Lacquer, and Leptyne. 
Each line and item is representative of Pitcairn 
Quality and especially prepared to produce the 
particular kind of finish or effect for which it 
is designed. 



[77] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 





DRESS ten men in uniform and march 
them down the street and you will 
have everybody asking questions — because 
ten men dressed alike are conspicuous. They 
have the mass formation that catches the eye 
and commands attention. 

You get the same result from a stock of 
Proof Paint Products. Every can wears a 
similar uniform. The same general design 
gives every product a family resemblance. 
Of course, each product has an individuality 
of its own, but, in general design, every label 
resembles the label on every other Proof 
Paint Product. 

Universal Labels make a dealer's paint 
stock look distinctive, attractive, unusual. 
They give the entire line the appearance of 
being systematically selected and actually 
complete in all details. 




^*& 





[78] 



E 



PROOF PRODUCTS 



THUS the confidence of customers is won. 
By this means they are impressed with 
the fact that the Proof Paint Products dealer 
is handling paints as one of the main items of 
his stock. One has only to glance at the 
labels reproduced on this page to picture to 
himself the mass-formation effectiveness, 
the individuality, and the distinctiveness 
they impart to a paint stock. 

Remember this — that every time a dealer 
sells one Proof Paint Product he familiar- 
izes the customer with the general package 
design of every other product. Thus he 
teaches his customers that, represented in 
the Proof Products line, there is a paint for 
every purpose. 

Universal Labels, like the men in uniform, 
command attention and win prestige for the 
dealer as conducting "The Store for Paint." 




. ■ 







[79] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 

QUANTITIES IN WHICH PAINTS AND VARNISHES ARE 
ORIGINALLY PACKED 
PAINTS VARNISHES 

Each size packed in a separate case Each size packed in a separate case 



LIQUID PAINTS 

6 one-gallon cans. 12 half-gallon cans. 24 quarter- 
gallon cans. 48 eighth-gallon cans. 48 sixteenth- 
gallon cans. 100 thirty-second-gallon cans. 



PITCAIRN AGED SPAR LINE 

1 five-gallon can per half-case. 12 one-gallon cans. 
12 half-gallon cans. 24 quarter-gallon cans. 48 
eighth-gallon cans. 



PASTE PAINTS 

100 one-pound cans. 20 five-pound cans. 8 twelve 
and one-half pound cans. 4 twenty-five pound cans. 

PATTON'S OIL COLORS 

Besides the regular Paste Paint packing, the following oil 
colors are packed in cases of 5 five-pound, or 25 one-pound 
cans each (and colors starred also in cases of 50 half-pound or 
50 quarter-pound cans each): 

Prussian Blue*, Ultramarine Blue*, Cobalt Blue*, 
English Rose Lake, English Rose Pink, American Ver- 
milion, Tuscan Red, Turkey Red, Oriental Permanent 
Red (light and medium), Sun-Proof Vermilion. All 
shades of Bulletin Colors. 

PITTSBURGH OIL COLORS 

Besides the regular Paste Paint packing, the following colors 
are packed in cases of 5 five-pound, or 25 one-pound cans each 
(and Prussian Blue* also in cases of 50 half-pound or 50 
quarter-pound cans each): 

Prussian Blue*, English Rose Lake, English Rose 
Pink, American Vermilion, Tuscan Red, Turkey Red. 

PASTE FILLER 

Besides the regular Paste Paint packing, the following are 
packed 5 five-pound and 25 one-pound cans to the case: 

Golden Oak (light and medium), Mahogany. 

DISTEMPER COLORS 

50 one-pound jars per case. 

CRACK PACK 
48 one-pound cans. 12 five-pound cans. 



PITCAIRN PAINT AND VARNISH REMOVER 
AND EMPIRE LINE 

1 five-gallon can per half-case. 12 one-gallon cans. 
12 half-gallon cans. 24 quarter-gallon cans. 48 
eighth-gallon cans. 48 sixteenth-gallon cans. 

PITCAIRN WOOD STAIN 

6 one-gallon cans. 12 half-gallon cans. 24 quarter- 
gallon cans. 48 eighth-gallon cans. 48 sixteenth- 
gallon cans.. 

PITCAIRN AGED AUTO AND CARRIAGE 
VARNISH 

1 five-gallon can per half-case. 6 one-gallon cans. 
12 half-gallon cans. 24 quarter-gallon cans. 48 
eighth-gallon cans. 



TECTOR 



12 one-gallon cans. 



12 half-gallon cans. 24 quarter- 
gallon cans. 48 eighth-gallon cans. 



PITCAIRN WATERSPAR COLORED VARNISH 
AND ENAMEL 

6 one-gallon cans. 12 half-gallon cans. 24 quarter- 
gallon cans. 48 eighth-gallon cans. 48 sixteenth- 
gallon cans. 100 thirty-second-gallon cans. 

No. 1 and No. 2 Gold and Aluminum, 144 to a case. 
12 cartons, 12 cans each per case. 

No. 3 and No. 4 Gold and Aluminum, 48 to a case. 
Waterspar Grainers, 6 dozen to a case. 

*Transparent Waterspar packed same as Spar Line. 



60 one-pound cans 
pound cans. 



17th CENTURY FLOOR WAX 

30 two-pound cans. 



BANZAI ENAMEL 

12 five- 12 one-gallon cans. 12 half-gallon cans. 24 quarter- 

gallon cans. 48 eighth-gallon cans. 48 sixteenth-gallon 
cans. 



SUN-BRIGHT FURNITURE POLISH 

6-ounce bottles — 2 cartons, 12 bottles each, per 
case. 

10-ounce bottles- — 2 cartons, 12 bottles each, per 
case. 



BANZAI DOUBLE-COVER UNDERCOATER 

6 one-gallon cans. 12 half-gallon cans. 24 quarter- 
gallon cans. 48 eighth-gallon cans. 48 sixteenth- 
arallon cans. 



[80] 






SPECIFICATIONS FOR USE OF PROOF PRODUCTS 

Prepared for the Use of Architects and Decorators 

IN THE following pages will be found complete and detailed specifications 
for the use of Proof Products. These specifications are as complete 
as it is possible to make them and here will be found exact information 
on how to use any Paint or Varnish product described in the preceding 
pages of this book. 

Specifications shown cover the use of Paints and Varnishes for new and 
old work on surfaces of all kinds, exterior and interior; on woods of all 
kinds; tin, steel, iron, and galvanized iron; stucco, plaster, cement, brick, 
and wallboard. 

HOW TO USE THESE SPECIFICATIONS 

These specifications can be used word for word, making this section of 
this book a valuable aid to the Specification Department. 

A reference to the Index will disclose the Specification number referring 
to the particular kind of finish desired, as, for example: "Oak wood, Mis- 
sion effect, four-coat work (41), 86." The number in parenthesis in the 
Index is the Specification number; the second number is the page. A refer- 
ence to Specification No. 41, on page 86, will give complete information as to 
how to obtain the Mission effect on Oak, and all that will be necessary is to 
have the stenographer copy Specification No. 41. 

The Paint and Varnish Division of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company 
is prepared to furnish panels showing results obtained by following the 
various specifications given, and will gladly send them to any architect on 
request, either direct or through a Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company salesman. 

Our Paint and Varnish Advisory Board, if called into consultation, will 
be very glad to assist any architect in the solving of any peculiar and unusual 
problems that may arise. 

The Paint and Varnish Division of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company 
is most desirous to co-operate with all architects and decorators, to insure 
quality work through the use of its products. Close attention to the detailed 
specifications will insure the best possible results from the use of Proof Paint 
and Varnish Products. 



[81] 



B* 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



SPECIFICATIONS 



Specification No. 1 — General: 

(a) Unless otherwise specified, the contractor or 
painter shall furnish all materials, provide labor, 
transportation, scaffolding, and all other essential 
equipment, and shall assume all liability of every 
character whatsoever in connection with the work. 

(b) Care shall be taken that surface to be fin- 
ished is thoroughly dry before applying any coating 
whatever. 

(c) No ochre shall be used for priming. 

(d) All finger marks, dirt, grease, or other objec- 
tionable matter shall be carefully removed by the 
painter before commencing to fill, varnish, or paint. 

(e) The work shall be carried on continuously 
except for delays due to unfavorable weather and 
the time allowed for proper drying between coats. 

(/) In painting new work all knots and sappy 
places shall be coated with shellac before priming, 
care being taken to cover completely without spread- 
ing over more of the surrounding surface than is 
necessary. 

(g) In painting new work, all cracks and nail 
holes shall be filled with putty after the priming coat. 

(h) On a varnish job, putty shall match the wood 
after the coat of filler is applied. 

(i) On plaster work, all cracks which can be 
filled with putty shall be filled with soft putty made 
of equal parts plaster of Paris and flour before ap- 
plying priming coat. A putty which will give 
excellent results can be made from Patton's Velu- 
mina stiffened with whiting. Edges of cracks shall 
be sealed with a good varnish to prevent absorption 
of oil by plaster. When too large for puttying, they 
shall be carefully plastered. No painting shall be 
done until plaster is thoroughly dry. 

(/) No painting or varnishing of outside work 
will be allowed in wet or freezing weather, nor of 
inside work except where the building can be prop- 
erly heated to at least 65 degrees Fahrenheit. 

(k) On old paint the surface shall be first 
brushed with a wire brush and where it is scaling 
badly shall be scraped or burned off. 

(/) All paint is to be well brushed out, and all 
paint, enamel, varnish, stain, and filler to be applied 
in a workmanlike manner, and as furnished by the 
manufacturer, without any thinning or addition 
whatever, except as noted on direction label. Care 
shall be taken to keep paint properly stirred. 

(m) All materials shall be brought on the job 
in manufacturer's original package. Paints and 
enamel shall be thoroughly stirred before, and kept 
at a uniform consistency during application. 

PAINTING EXTERIOR WOODWORK 

Specification No. 2: 

(a) All exterior woodwork (except as otherwise 
specified) shall be painted with three coats of 



Pattons Sun-Proof Paint, color selected by the archi- 
tect, as follows: 

(b) Priming coat shall be Pattons Sun-Proof 
Paint, same color as final coat, reduced with three 
pints of pure raw linseed oil and one pint turpentine 
to each gallon of paint. On cypress, cedar, and 
redwood use priming mixture of one gallon Patton's 
Porchite, one quart Pitcairn Tector, and one pint 
turpentine. 

(c) Second coat shall be Pattons Sun-Proof 
Paint, same color as final coat, reduced with one 
pint Leptyne or turpentine to each gallon of paint. 

(a 7 ) Third coat shall be Patton's Sun-Proof Paint 
of the color selected by the architect, and used as 
furnished by the manufacturer without any thinning 
or addition whatever. 

REPAINTING 
Specification No. 3: 

(a) On old paint the surface shall be first brushed 
with a wire brush and where it is scaling badly shall 
be scraped or burned off. 

(b) All exterior woodwork shall receive two 
coats of Pattons Sun-Proof Paint as follows: 

(c) First coat shall be Patton's Sun-Proof Paint 
of the color selected, reduced with one quart of 
pure raw linseed oil and one pint of Leptyne or tur- 
pentine to each gallon. 

(d) Second coat shall be Pat ton 9 s Sun-Proof 
Paint as it comes in the can. 

PAINTING PORCH FLOORS AND DECKS 

Specification No. 4: 

(a) All porch floors shall be painted with three 
coats of Pattons Porchite, the color to be selected 
by the architect, as follows: 

(b) Priming coat shall be Pattons Porchite, same 
color as final coat, reduced with three pints of pure 
raw linseed oil, one pint turpentine, and one pint 
of Compo Drier to each gallon of paint. On cy- 
press, yellow pine, and fir use priming mixture of 
one gallon Pattons Porchite, one quart Pitcairn 
Tector, and one pint turpentine. 

(c) Second coat shall be Patton's Porchite of the 
same color as final coat, reduced with one pint of 
Leptyne or turpentine to each gallon of paint. 

(d) Third coat shall be Pattons Porchite of the 
same color selected by the architect, and used as 
furnished by the manufacturer. 

REPAINTING 
Specification No. 5: 

(a) See Specification No. 1 (k) . 
(6) All porch floors shall be painted with two 
coats of Patton's Porchite, as follows: 

(c) First coat shall be Patton's Porchite of the 
color selected, reduced with one quart of raw linseed 
oil, one pint of Leptyne or turpentine, and one pint 
of Compo Drier to each gallon. 



[82] 



PROOF PRODUCTS SPECIFICATIONS 






(d) Second coat shall be Patton's Porchite as it 
comes in the can. 

PAINTING ROOFS 
SHINGLE ROOFS 
Specification No. 6: 

(a) All shingles shall be dipped full length in 
Pattons Tor -on Shingle Stain of the color selected 
by the architect, before being laid. 

(6) After laying, follow with a brush or spray 
coat of Pattons Tor-on Shingle Stain. The addi- 
tion of one quart of boiled linseed oil to, each gallon 
of -Stain is recommended. 

REPAINTING 
Specification No. 7: 

(a) Apply two brush or spray coats of Pattons 
Tor-on Shingle Stain of color selected by the archi- 
tect. * The addition of one quart of boiled linseed 
oil to each gallon of Stain is recommended. 

TIN ROOFS, LEADERS, GUTTERS 

Specification No. 8: 

(a) Wash with benzine to remove dirt and grease, 
then finish according to the following: 

(b) First coat shall be Pitcairn Tector reduced 
with one quart of Leptyne or turpentine per gallon. 

(c) Second coat shall be Pattons Inhibitive Red 
Ironhide as it comes in the can. At least forty-eight 
hours must be allowed for drying. 

(d) Third coat shall be Pattons Ironhide Finish- 
ing Green or Brown applied as it comes in the can. 

REPAINTING 
Specification No. 9: 

(a) All rust and loose paint must be removed by 
wire-brushing or scraping. All bare spots are to be 
touched up with Pattons Inhibitive Red Ironhide, 
and after three days the entire surface coated with 
Patton's Finishing Green or Brown Ironhide. 
Note : If a red color is desired, apply two coats of 
Pattons Red Ironhide. 

PAINTING IRON AND STEEL 

Specification No. 10: 

(a) The surface to be painted must be free from 
oil, grease, scale, and rust. Rust and scale must be 
removed by wire-brushing, scraping, or sandblast; 
grease, by use of gasoline or benzine. 

(b) All paint must be well brushed and nothing 
larger than a three-inch oval brush used in applying. 

* (c) No paint is to be applied at a temperature 
below 50 . degrees Fahrenheit, in damp or rainy 
weather, or to a damp or wet surface. 

(d) The first coat shall be Pattons Inhibitive Red 
Ironhide as it comes in the container. Allow at 
least three days for drying. 

(e) The second* coat shall be Pattons Brown 
Ironhide or a mixture of equal parts of Inhibitive 
Red and Finishing Black Ironhide. 

(/) The third coat shall be Pattons Finishing 
Black or Green Ironhide as it comes in container. 



REPAINTING 
Specification No. 11: 

(a) All rust and loose paint must be removed 
by wire-brushing or scraping, then finished as fol- 
lows: 

(b) First coat shall be Pattons Inhibitive Red 
Ironhide as it comes in the can. At least forty- 
eight hours must be allowed for proper drying. 

(c) Second coat shall be Pattons Finishing Black 
Ironhide as it comes in the can. 

GALVANIZED IRON 

Specification No. 12: 

(a) Wash all new galvanized iron, interior and 
exterior, and metal ceilings, with a solution of five 
ounces of blue vitriol in one gallon of water. If 
it has been allowed to weather, washing will be 
unnecessary. 

(b) Apply one coat of a mixture of four parts of 
Tector and one part of Leptyne, turpentine, or ben- 
zine. Allow eighteen hours for drying. 

(c) Second coat shall be Pattons Inhibitive Red 
Ironhide as it comes in the can. 

REPAINTING 

Specification No. 13: 

(Same as Specification No. 11.) 

PAINTING STUCCO, BRICK, CEMENT, 

AND CONCRETE 

EXTERIOR OR INTERIOR 

FLAT FINISH 

Specification No. 14: 

(a) Surface to be painted must be clean and dry. 
All dirt and loose particles must be removed with a 
wire brush or stiff broom. 

( b ) First coat shall be Cementhide Priming 
Liquid as it comes in the can. When a dark surface 
is to be repainted, add one-quarter gallon of 
Cementhide of desired shade to each gallon of 
Cementhide Priming Liquid. 

(c) Second coat shall be a mixture in the pro- 
portion of one gallon of Cementhide to one quart 
of Cementhide Priming Liquid. 

(d) Third coat shall be Cementhide as it comes in 
the can. If too heavy for easy brushing, reduce 
with Leptyne or turpentine not to exceed cne pint 
to each gallon of paint. 

(e) Allow forty-eight hours' drying between coats. 

REPAINTING 
Specification No. 15: 

(a) Surface to be painted must be clean and dry. 
All dirt and loose particles must be removed with a 
wire brush or stiff broom. 

(b) First coat shall be a mixture in the propor- 
tion of one gallon of Cementhide to one-half gal- 
lon of Cementhide Priming Liquid. 

(c) Second coat shall be Cementhide as it comes 
in the can. If too heavy for easy brushing, reduce 
with Leptyne or turpentine, not to exceed one pint 
to each gallon of paint. 

(d) Allow forty-eight hours' drying between coats* 



[83] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 






INTERIOR BRICK AND CEMENT 
FLOORS— GLOSS FINISH 

Specification No. 16: 

(a) First coat shall be one of Cementhide Prim- 
ing Liquid as it comes in the can. 

(b) Second and third coats shall be Patton's 
Florhide Enamel as it comes in the can. If too 
heavy for easy brushing, reduce with Leptyne or 
turpentine not to exceed one pint to each gallon of 
Florhide Enamel. 

REPAINTING 

Specification No. 17: 

(a) First coat shall be Patton's Florhide Enamel. 
If too heavy for easy brushing, reduce with Leptyne 
or turpentine not to exceed one pint to each gallon. 

(b) Second coat shall be Patton 9 s Florhide 
Enamel as it comes in the can. 

EXTERIOR STUCCO, BRICK, CEMENT, AND 
CONCRETE WALLS— GLOSS FINISH 

Specification No. 18: 

(a) First coat shall be Patton's Cementhide 
Priming Liquid as it comes in the can. 

(6) Second coat shall be Patton's Sun-Proof 
Paint reduced with a quart of Cementhide Priming 
Liquid to each gallon. 

(c) Third coat shall be Patton's Sun-Proof Paint 
as it comes in the can. 

REPAINTING 
Specification No. 19: 

(a) First coat shall be a mixture of equal parts 
of Cementhide Priming Liquid and Patton's Sun- 
Proof Liquid Paint. 

(b) Second coat shall be Pattons Sun-Proof 
Paint as it comes in the can. 

EXTERIOR BRICK WALLS 

Alternate for Specification No. 18 

Specification No. 20: 

(a) All exterior brick walls shall be painted 
with three coats of Patton's Sun-Proof Paint, color 
selected by the architect, as follows: 

(b) Priming coat shall be Patton's Sun-Proof 
Paint, same color as final coat, reduced with three 
pints of pure raw linseed oil and one pint of Lep- 
tyne or turpentine to each gallon of paint. 

(c) Second coat shall be Patton's Sun-Proof 
Paint, same color as final coat, reduced with one 
quart of linseed oil and one pint of Leptyne or 
turpentine to each gallon of paint. 

(d) Third coat shall be Patton's Sun-Proof Paint 
as it comes in the can. 

REPAINTING 

Alternate for Specification No. 19 

Specification No. 21: 

(a) The first coat shall be Pattons Sun-Proof 
Paint reduced with one quart of raw linseed oil and 
one pint of Leptyne or turpentine to a gallon. 

(b) Second coat shall be Patton's Sun-Proof 
Paint as it comes in the can. 



EXTERIOR WOOD FINISHES 
OAK AND ASH WOODS 

Specification No. 22: 

VARNISH FINISH — FIVE-COAT WORK 

(a) All Oak and Ash Woods (locations desig- 
nated) shall receive a coat of Pattons Natural Paste 
Wood Filler, properly reduced with Leptyne, tur- 
pentine, or benzine, brushed well into the grain. 
(The excess of Filler must be carefully and neatly 
cleaned from the surface by rubbing across the 
grain.) 

(b) Care must be taken that all grooves and 
corners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. 
Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to match finish. 

(c) The surface shall then receive a coat of Pit- 
cairn Tector reduced gallon for gallon with Lep- 
tyne or turpentine. After twenty-four hours, sand 
carefully. 

(d) Apply three coats of Pitcairn Aged Mast 
Spar Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours 
between coats for drying. Sand lightly between 
Varnish coats with No. paper. 

(e) To obtain a high-polished finish — rub the 
last coat of Varnish with pumice stone and water, 
then bring to a high polish with rotten stone and 
water or crude oil, and wipe off absolutely clean. 

BIRCH, PINE, CYPRESS, AND FIR WOODS 
Specification No. 23: 

VARNISH FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 

(a) All Birch, Pine, Cypress, and Fir Woods 
(locations designated) shall receive a coat of Pit- 
cairn Tector reduced according to directions on the 
can with Leptyne, turpentine, or benzine. After 
twenty-four hours, sandpaper carefully. Fill all 
nail holes with putty tinted to match the finish. 

(b) Apply three coats of Pitcairn Aged Mast 
Spar Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours 
between coats for drying. Sand lightly between 
Varnish coats with No. paper. 

PAINTING INTERIOR WOODWORK 
GLOSS FINISH 

Specification No. 24: 

(a) All interior woodwork shall be painted with 
three coats of Patton's Sun-Proof Paint, as follows : 

(b) The first coat shall be Pattons Sun-Proof 
Paint reduced with three pints of raw linseed oil 
and one pint of Leptyne or turpentine to each 
gallon. 

(c) The second coat shall be Patton's Sun-Proof 
Paint reduced with one pint of Leptyne or turpentine 
to each gallon. 

(d) The third coat shall be Pattons Sun-Proof 
Paint as it comes in the can. 

REPAINTING 
Specification No. 25: 

(a) First coat shall be Patton's Sun-Proof Paint 
reduced with one quart of linseed oil and one pint 
of Leptyne or turpentine to each gallon of paint. 






[84] 



PROOF PRODUCTS SPECIFICATIONS 



(I*} Second coat shall be Pattons Sun-Proof 
Paint as it comes in the can, 

FLAT FINISH 

Specification No. 26: 

(a) All interior woodwork shall be painted with 
three coats of Pattons Velumina, color to be selected 
by the architect, as follows: 

(6) The first coat shall be Patton's Velumina, 
same color as final coat, reduced with one quart of 
raw linseed oil to each gallon of paint. 

(c) Second and third coats shall be Patton's 
Velumina as it comes in the can. 

REPAINTING 
Specification No. 27: 

(a) First coat shall be Patton's Velumina reduced 
with'one quart of raw linseed oil to each gallon. 

(b) Second coat shall be Pattons Velumina as it 
comes in the can. 

Note: In many cases one coat of Pattons Velumina 
applied as specified in Specification No. 27 (a) will 
prove sufficient. 

WHITE ENAMEL FINISH 

(See special Enamel specifications, page 95.) 

COMMERCIAL, OR MILL WHITE INTERIOR 
FLAT FINISH 

OLD OR NEW WORK — WOOD, PLASTER, BRICK, OR CEMENT 

Specification No. 28: 

(a) The first coat shall be Pattons Flat Alba-Lux 
reduced with a quart of boiled linseed oil to each 
gallon. Twenty-four hours are to be allowed for 
drying. 

(b) The second coat shall be Patton's Flat Alba- 
Lux as it comes in the package. 

REPAINTING WHITE SURFACE 
Specification No. 29: 

(a) One coat of Patton's Flat Alba-Lux as it 
comes in the can. 

Note: If surface is in poor condition, use Speci- 
fication No. 28 (a) and (6). 

GLOSS FINISH 
Specification No. 30: 

(a) The first coat shall be Patton's Flat Alba- 
Lux reduced with one quart of boiled linseed oil; 
forty-eight hours to be allowed for drying. 

(6) The second coat shall be Patton's Alba-Lux 
Gloss as it comes in the can. 

REPAINTING WHITE SURFACE 
Specification No. 31: 

(a) One coat of Patton's Alba-Lux Gloss as it 
comes in the package. 

Note: If surface is in poor condition use Speci- 
fication No. 30 (a) and (b) . 



WALLS—NEW OR OLD WORK 
PLASTER— FLAT EFFECT 

Specification No. 32: 

(a) Preparation of surface: Wash or scrape off 
all calcimine, loose paint, dirt, grease, etc. Smooth 
or glossy paint shall be roughened with steel wool 
or sandpaper. Fill cracks with a stiff paste made 
from plaster of Paris and flour and allow at least 
twenty-four hours for drying. Edges of cracks 
shall be sealed with a good varnish. 

(b) The first coat shall consist of Patton's 
Velumina reduced with one-quarter gallon of pure 
boiled linseed oil except for new and exceedingly 
porous walls, in which case more satisfactory re- 
sults will be obtained by using a mixture of one gal- 
lon of Patton's Velumina, one quart of boiled lin- 
seed oil, and one quart Pitcairn Tector. Mix only as 
used, as mixture may thicken on prolonged stand- 
ing. It is absolutely necessary that boiled oil be 
used with Tector as above directed to insure results. 
Do not use any Leptyne, turpentine, or benzine in 
first coat under any circumstances, unless to thin 
mixture of boiled oil and Tector slightly. Allow 
at least twenty-four hours for drying, more time 
being required in cold or damp weather. 

(c) Suction or so-called "hot-spots," which may 
show up through first coat, shall, when dry, be 
touched up with first-coat mixture, allowing at least 
twenty-four hours for drying. Otherwise, these suc- 
tion spots may appear through the following coat. 

(d) To insure perfect results, never apply the 
finishing coat until first coat presents a uniform 
surface. Extremely bad walls may require an ad- 
ditional application of the first-coat mixture to ac- 
complish this, or, if preferred, a thin coat of glue 
size may be applied over the first coat. The use of 
glue is something that should be attempted only 
by one thoroughly experienced, as, if too heavy, 
it is likely to cause peeling later. In general, it is 
well to avoid the use of glue size wherever pos- 
sible. Never apply glue or varnish size direct to 
plaster as it will prevent proper penetration of the 
paint. 

0) The finishing coat shall be Patton's Velu- 
mina as it comes in the can. Do not use any of the 
material left over from the first coat in the finishing 
coat as it will impair the perfect flatness of Velu- 
mina. Velumina is made heavy in body, but 
brushes easily and should be flowed on with a wide 
wall brush. If too heavy, add Leptyne or turpen- 
tine, not to exceed one-eighth gallon to each gallon 
of Velumina. Never add thinners, however, until 
a brushing test shows it is necessary; then add very 
sparingly. After the finishing coat has set for about 
thirty minutes, it may be stippled if such finish is 
desired. 

Note: Velumina should be flowed on like a high- 
grade enamel and not brushed out like a paint. 



[85] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



WALLBOARD— FLAT EFFECT 

Specification No. 33: 

See Specification No. 32. (Same as for Plaster 
Walls.) 

METAL CEILINGS— FLAT EFFECT 

Specification No. 34: 

(a) The first coat shall consist of a mixture of 
four parts of Tector and one part of Leptyne, tur- 
pentine, or benzine. Allow eighteen hours for dry- 
ing. 

(b) The second coat shall be Patton's Velumina 
reduced with one quart of boiled linseed oil to each 
gallon used. 

(c) The third coat shall be Pattons Velumina as 
it comes in the can. 

REPAINTING 
Specification No. 35: 

(a) The first coat shall be Patton's Velumina 
reduced with a quart of boiled linseed oil to each 
gallon used. 

(b) The second coat shall be Pattons Velumina 
as it comes in the can. 

PAINTING INTERIOR WOOD FLOORS 

Specification No. 36: 

(a) Floor shall be painted with three coats of 
Pattons Florhide Enamel, color to be selected by 
the architect, as follows: 

(b) First coat shall be Pattons Florhide Enamel 
reduced with one quart of Leptyne or turpentine to 
each gallon of paint. 

(c) Second and third coats shall be Patton's 
Florhide Enamel used as it comes in the can ; 
twenty-four hours' drying time must be allowed be- 
tween coats. 

REPAINTING 

Specification No. 37: 

(a) First coat shall be Pattons Florhide Enamel 
reduced with one quart of Leptyne or turpentine to 
each gallon of paint. 

(6) Second coat shall be Patton's Florhide 
Enamel as it comes in the can. 

PAINTING INTERIOR BRICKWORK, PLASTER 
GLOSS FINISH 

Specification No. 38: 

(a) The first coat shall be Patton's Sun-Proof 
Paint reduced with one quart of Cementhide Priming 
Liquid to each gallon of paint. 

(b) The second coat shall be Pattons Sun-Proof 
Paint as it comes in the can. 

REPAINTING 
Specification No. 39: 

(a) The first coat shall be Patton's Sun-Proof 
Paint reduced with a quart of Cementhide Priming 
Liquid to each gallon of paint. 

(b) The second coat shall be Pattons Sun-Proof 
Paint as it comes in the can. 



NATURAL WOOD FINISHES 
OAK AND ASH 

Specification No. 40: 

VARNISH FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak or Ash Wood (locations designated) 
shall receive a coat of Pattons Natural Paste Wood 
Filler, properly reduced with Leptyne, turpentine, 
or benzine, and brushed well into the grain. (Ex- 
cess of Filler must be carefully and neatly cleaned 
from the surface by rubbing across the grain.) 

(b) Care must be taken that all grooves and 
. corners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. 

Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to match the 
wood. 

(c) The surface then shall receive a coat of 
Pitcairn Tector, reduced with Leptyne or turpentine, 
one-half gallon to the gallon. After twenty-four 
hours, sandpaper carefully. Then apply two coats 
of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish, allowing 
at least forty-eight hours between coats for drying. 
Sand lightly between varnish coats with No. 
paper. 

(d) For an extra-fine job, apply a third coat of 
Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

(e) For dull finish — rub the last coat with fine 
pumice stone and rubbing oil. 

(/) For a dull finish without the expense of rub- 
bing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish for the 
last Varnish coat. 

(g.) Apply Flat Varnish freely with a badger- 
hair or black fitch flowing brush. 

Specification No. 41 : 

MISSION EFFECT FOUR-COAT WORK 

STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak or Ash Wood (locations designated) 
shall receive a coat of Pattons Natural Paste Wood 
Filler, properly reduced with Leptyne, turpentine, 
or benzine, and brushed well into the grain. (Ex- 
cess of Filler must be carefully and neatly cleaned 
from the surface by rubbing across the grain.) 

(b) Care must be taken that all grooves and 
corners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. 
Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to match the 
wood. 

(c) The surface shall then receive a coat of 
Pitcairn Tector, reduced with Leptyne or turpentine, 
one-half gallon to the gallon. After twenty-four 
hours, sandpaper carefully. Apply two coats of 
Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish, flowed on with a badger- 
hair or black fitch flowing brush to insure a smooth 
dull finish. Allow at least twenty-four hours be- 
tween coats for drying. 

Specification No. 42: 

WAX FINISH — THREE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak or Ash Wood (locations designated) 
shall receive a coat of Pattons Natural Paste Wood 
Filler, properly reduced with Leptyne, turpentine, 
or benzine, and brushed well into the grain. (Ex- 






[86] 



PROOF PRODUCTS SPECIFICATIONS 



cess of Filler must be carefully and neatly cleaned 
from the surface by rubbing across the grain.) 

(b) Care must be taken that all grooves and 
corners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. 
Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to match wood. 

(c) Apply a coat of Pitcairn Tector reduced 
with Leptyne or turpentine, one-half gallon to the 
gallon. After twenty-four hours, sandpaper care- 
fully and apply Pattons Seventeenth Century Wax, 
and polish by hand-rubbing. 

(d) For an extra-fine job, after allowing a few 
hours' drying, apply second coat of Wax and again 
polish. 

BIRCH AND MAPLE 

Specification No. 43 : 

VARNISH FINISH — THREE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Birch or Maple Wood (locations desig- 
nated) shall receive a coat of Pitcairn Tector re- 
duced with Leptyne or turpentine, gallon for gal- 
lon. After twenty-four hours, sandpaper carefully. 
Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to match the 
wood. 

(b) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Finishing 
Spar Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours' 
drying between coats. Sand lightly between coats. 

(c) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a third 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

(d) If dull rubbed finish is desired, rub the last 
Varnish coat. 

(e) If a dull finish is desired without the ex- 
pense of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Fin- 
ish for the last Varnish coat. Apply Flat Varnish 
freely with a badger-hair or black fitch flowing 
brush. 

Specification No. 44: 

MISSION EFFECT — THREE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Birch or Maple Wood (locations desig- 
nated) shall receive a coat of Pitcairn Tector re- 
duced with Leptyne or turpentine, gallon for gal- 
lon. After twenty-four hours, sandpaper carefully. 
Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to match the 
wood. 

(6) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Flat 
Finish, flowed on with a badger-hair or black fitch 
flowing brush to insure a smooth dull finish. 

(c) Allow at least twenty-four hours between 
coats for drying. 

Specification No. 45: 

WAX FINISH — TWO-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Birch or Maple Wood (locations desig- 
nated) shall receive a coat of Pitcairn Tector re- 
duced with Leptyne or turpentine, gallon for gal- 
lon. After twenty-four hours, sandpaper carefully. 
Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to match wood. 

(b) Let stand for eight hours; apply Pattorfs 
Seventeenth Century Wax; polish by hand-rubbing. 



(c) If an extra-fine job is desired, allow a few 
hours for first coat to dry; apply a second coat of 
Wax, and again polish. 

GUM, PINE, FIR, AND REDWOOD 

Specification No. 46: 

VARNISH FINISH — THREE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Gumwood, Pine, Fir, or Redwood (lo- 
cations designated) shall receive a coat of Pitcairn 
Tector reduced with Leptyne or turpentine, one-half 
gallon to the gallon. After twenty-four hours, 
sandpaper carefully. Fill all nail holes with putty 
tinted to match the wood. 

(6) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Finishing 
Spar Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours' 
drying between coats. Sand lightly between coats. 

(c) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a third 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. If 
desired, the last coat may be rubbed to a dull finish 
with fine pumice stone and rubbing oil. 

(d) If a dull finish is desired without the ex- 
pense of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Fin- 
ish for the last Varnish coat. Apply Flat Varnish 
freely with a badger-hair or black fitch flowing 
brush. 

Specification No. 47: 

MISSION EFFECT — THREE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Gumwood, Pine, Fir, or Redwood (loca- 
tions designated) shall receive a coat of Pitcairn 
Tector reduced with Leptyne or turpentine, one-half 
gallon to the gallon. After twenty-four hours, sand- 
paper carefully. Fill all nail holes with putty tinted 
to match the wood. 

(b) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Flat 
Finish, flowed on with a badger-hair or black fitch 
flowing brush to insure a smooth dull finish. 

(c) Allow at least twenty-four hours between 
coats for drying. 

Specification No. 48 : 

WAX FINISH — TWO-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Gumwood, Pine, Fir, or Redwood (loca- 
tions designated) shall receive a coat of Pitcairn 
Tector reduced with Leptyne or turpentine, one-half 
gallon to the gallon. After twenty-four hours, sand- 
paper carefully. Fill all nail holes with putty tinted 
to match the wood. 

(b) Apply Patton's Seventeenth Century Wax 
and polish by hand-rubbing. 

(c) If an extra-fine job is desired, allow a few 
hours for first coat to dry; apply a second coat of 
Wax, and again polish. 

GENUINE MAHOGANY 

Specification No. 49: 

VARNISH FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 
(a) All Mahogany Wood (locations designated) 
shall receive a coat of Mahogany Paste Wood Filler, 



[87] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



properly reduced with Leptyne, turpentine, or ben- 
zine, and brushed well into the grain. (The excess 
of Filler must be carefully and neatly cleaned from 
the surface by rubbing across the grain.) 

(b) Care must be taken that all grooves and cor- 
ners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. Fill 
all nail holes with putty tinted to match the finish. 

(c) The surface shall then receive a coat of 
Pitcairn Tector reduced with Leptyne or turpentine, 
one-half gallon to the gallon. After twenty-four 
hours, sand carefully. 

(d) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Finishing 
Spar Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours 
between coats for drying. 

(e) Sand lightly between coats with No. paper. 
(/) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a third 

coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

(g) For dull finish, rub the last coat with fine 
pumice stone and rubbing oil. 

(h) If a dull finish is desired without the expense 
of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish for 
the last Varnish coat. Apply Flat Varnish freely 
with a badger-hair or black fitch flowing brush. 

STAINED WOOD FINISHES 

Note : Soft, porous woods absorb stain more readily 
than hard, close-grained pieces. Painters will use care 
and judgment to get uniform effects. When necessary 
reduce stain with Leptyne, turpentine, or naphtha. 

OAK WOOD— FLEMISH OR WEATHERED FINISH 

Specification No. 50: 

MISSION FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak Wood (locations designated) shall 
receive a coat of Pitcairn No. I Flemish Stain, or 
Pitcairn No. 2 Weathered Stain, the excess being 
removed with a cloth after sufficient time has elapsed 
for penetration. Fill all nail holes with putty tinted 
to match the finish. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish, 
flowed on with a badger-hair or black fitch flowing 
brush to insure a smooth dull finish. Allow at 
least twenty-four hours between coats for drying. 

(d) Apply only enough Lacquer or shellac to seal 
the Stain. Avoid a heavy coating. 

Specification No. 51 : 

WAX FINISH — THREE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak Wood (locations designated) shall 
receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 1 Flemish Stain, or 
Pitcairn No. 2 Weathered Stain, the excess being 
removed with a cloth after sufficient time has elapsed 
for penetration. Fill all nail holes with putty tinted 
to match the finish. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 



Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 
Tint the Lacquer or shellac with a little dry lamp- 
black, being careful to avoid a streaky finish. 

(c) Apply Pattons Seventeenth Century Wax and 
polish by hand-rubbing. 

(d) If an extra-fine job is desired, allow a few 
hours for the first coat to dry; apply a second coat 
of Wax, and again polish. 

OAK WOOD— FLEMISH OR WEATHERED FINISH 
WHITE SILHOUETTE EFFECT 

Specification No. 52: 

MISSION FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak Wood (locations designated) shall 
receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 1 Flemish Stain, or 
Pitcairn No. 2 Weathered Stain, the excess being 
removed with a cloth after sufficient time has elapsed 
for penetration. Fill all nail holes with putty tinted 
to match the finish. 

(6) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) This is followed by a coat of White Zinc 
Filler properly reduced with Leptyne, turpentine, or 
benzine, and brushed well into the grain. (The 
excess of Filler must be carefully and neatly cleaned 
from the surface by rubbing across the grain.) 

(d) Care must be taken that all grooves and cor- 
ners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. All 
nail holes to be filled with putty tinted to match the 
finish. 

(e) Apply one coat of Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish, 
flowed on with a badger-hair or black fitch flowing 
brush to insure a smooth dull finish. 

Specification No. 53: 

WAX FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak Wood (locations designated) shall 
receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 1 Flemish Stain, or 
Pitcairn No. 2 Weathered Stain, the excess being 
removed with a cloth after sufficient time has elapsed 
for penetration. Fill all nail holes with putty tinted 
to match the finish. • 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 
Tint the Lacquer or shellac with a little dry lamp- 
black, being careful to avoid a streaky finish. 

(c) Apply one coat of Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish, 
flowed on with a badger-hair or black fitch flowing 
brush to insure a smooth dull finish. Allow at 
least twenty-four hours between coats for drying. 

(d) Apply only enough Lacquer or shellac to seal 
the Stain. Avoid a heavy coating. 

(e) Apply Pattons Seventeenth Century Wax 
and polish by hand-rubbing. 

(/) If an extra-fine job is desired, allow a few 
hours for the first coat to dry; apply a second coat 
of Wax, and again polish. 






[88] 



PROOF PRODUCTS SPECIFICATIONS 






ALL SOFT WOODS— WEATHERED OAK EFFECT 

Specification No. 54: 

VARNISH FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Soft Wood (locations designated) shall 
receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 2 Weathered Stain, 
the excess being removed with a cloth after suffi- 
cient time has elapsed for penetration. Fill all nail 
holes with putty tinted to match the finish. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcair;z 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(r) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Finishing 
Spar Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours be- 
tween coats for drying. Sand lightly between Var- 
nish coats with No. paper, 

(d) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a third 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

(e) If desired, the last coat may be rubbed to 
a dull finish with fine pumice stone and rubbing 
oil. 

(/) If a dull finish is desired without the expense 
of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish for 
the last Varnish coat. 

(g) Apply Flat Varnish freely with a badger- 
hair or black fitch flowing brush. 

(h) Apply only enough Spirit Varnish to seal 
the Stain. Avoid a heavy coating. 



OAK AND ASH WOODS 
GREENISH WEATHERED OAK EFFECT 

Specification No. 55: 

VARNISH FINISH — FIVE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak or Ash Wood (locations designated) 
shall receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 4 Greenish 
Weathered Stain, the excess being removed with a 
cloth after lapse of sufficient time for penetration. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) This is followed by a coat of Patton's Natural 
Paste Wood Filler, tinted with Stain to match the 
finish, properly reduced with Leptyne, turpentine, or 
benzine, and brushed well into the grain. (The 
excess of Filler must be carefully and neatly cleaned 
from the surface by rubbing across the grain.) 

(d) Care must be taken that all grooves and 
corners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. 
Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to match the 
finish. 

(e) Apply one coat of Pitcairn Green Glaze and 
then one coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar 
Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours between 
coats for drying. Sand lightly between Varnish 
coats with No. paper. 

(/) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a second 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

(g) If desired, the last coat may be rubbed to a 
dull finish with fine pumice stone and rubbing oil. 



(h) If a dull finish is desired without the expense 
of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish for 
the last Varnish coat. 

(i) Apply Flat Varnish freely with a badger-hair 
or black fitch flowing brush. 

(/) Apply only enough Spirit Lacquer to seal 
the Stain. Avoid a heavy coating. 



CYPRESS, PINE, FIR, ASH, OR OAK WOOD 
GREENISH WEATHERED OAK EFFECT 

Specification No. 56: 

VARNISH FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Cypress, Pine, Fir, Ash, or Oak Wood 
(locations designated) shall receive a coat of Pit- 
cairn No. 4 Greenish Weathered Stain, the excess 
being removed with a cloth after sufficient time has 
elapsed for penetration. Fill all nail holes with 
putty tinted to match the finish. 

(6) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Then apply a coat of Pitcairn Green Glaze 
and one coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar 
Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours between 
coats for drying. Sand lightly between Varnish 
coats with No. paper. 

(d) If an extra-fine job is desired apply a second 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

ie) If desired, the last coat may be rubbed to a 
dull finish with fine pumice stone and rubbing oil. 

(/) If a dull finish is desired without the expense 
of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish for 
the last Varnish coat. 

(g) Apply Flat Varnish freely with a badger- 
hair or black fitch flowing brush. 

Specification No. 57: 

MISSION FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Cypress, Pine, Fir, Ash, or Oak Wood 
(locations designated) shall receive a coat of 
Pitcairn No. 4 Greenish Weathered Stain, the excess 
being removed with a cloth after sufficient time has 
elapsed for penetration. Fill all nail holes with 
putty tinted to match the finish. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Apply one coat of Pitcairn Green Glaze and 
one coat of Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish, flowed on with 
a badger-hair or black fitch flowing brush to insure 
a smooth dull finish. Allow at least forty-eight 
hours between coats for drying. 

Specification No. 58: 

WAX FINISH — THREE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Cypress, Pine, Fir, Ash, or Oak Wood 
(locations designated) shall receive a coat of 
Pitcairn No. 4 Greenish Weathered Stain, the excess 



[89] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



being removed with a cloth after sufficient time has 
elapsed for penetration. Fill all nail holes with 
putty tinted to match the finish. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcaim 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Then apply Pattern's Seventeenth Century 
Wax and polish by hand-rubbing. 

(d) If an extra-fine job is desired, allow a few 
hours for the first coat to dry. Apply a second coat 
of Wax and again polish. 



OAK, ASH, CYPRESS, PINE, FIR, OR REDWOOD 
GOLDEN OAK EFFECT 

Specification No. 59: 

VARNISH FINISH — FIVE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak, Ash, Cypress, Pine, Fir, or Red- 
wood (locations designated) shall receive a coat of 
Pitcaim No. 6 Golden Oak Stain, the excess being 
removed with a cloth after sufficient time has elapsed 
for penetration. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) This is followed by a coat of Pattons Natural 
Paste Wood Filler, tinted with Stain to match the 
finish, properly reduced with Leptyne, turpentine, or 
benzine, and brushed well into the grain. (The 
excess of Filler must be carefully and neatly cleaned 
from the surface by rubbing across the grain.) 

(d) Care must be taken that all grooves and 
corners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. 
Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to match the 
finish. 

(e) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Finishing 
Spar Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours be- 
tween coats for drying. Sand lightly between 
Varnish coats with No. paper. 

(/) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a third 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

(g) If desired, the last coat may be rubbed to a 
dull finish with fine pumice stone and rubbing oil. 

(h) If a dull finish is desired without the expense 
of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish for 
the last Varnish coat. 

(i) Apply Flat Varnish freely with a badger- 
hair or black fitch flowing brush. 

(/") For a deep, rich, coffee-brown effect, in place 
of first Varnish coat, apply one coat of Pitcairn 
Walnut Water spar Colored Varnish. 

Specification No. 60: 

MISSION FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak, Ash, Cypress, Pine, Fir, or Red- 
wood (locations designated) shall receive a coat of 
Pitcairn No. 6 Golden Oak Stain, the excess being 
removed with a cloth after sufficient time has elapsed 
for penetration. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 



(c) Then apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Flat 
Finish, flowed on with a badger-hair or black fitch 
flowing brush to insure a smooth dull finish. Allow 
at least twenty-four hours between coats for drying. 

Specification No. 61 : 

WAX FINISH — THREE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak, Ash, Cypress, Pine, Fir, or Red- 
wood (locations designated) shall receive a coat of 
Pitcairn No. 6 Golden Oak Stain, the excess being 
removed with a cloth after sufficient time has elapsed 
for penetration. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer, or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Then apply Patton's Seventeenth Century 
Wax, and polish by hand-rubbing. 

(d) If an extra-fine job is desired, allow a few 
hours for the first coat to dry. Apply a second coat 
of Wax and again polish. 

Specification No. 62: 

VARNISH FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak, Ash, Cypress, Pine, Fir, or Red- 
wood (locations designated) shall receive a coat of 
Pitcairn No. 6 Golden Oak Stain, the excess being 
removed with a cloth after sufficient time has elapsed 
for penetration. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Finishing 
Spar Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours 
between coats for drying. Sand lightly between 
Varnish coats with No. paper. 

(d) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a third 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

(e) If desired, the last coat may be rubbed to 
a dull finish with fine pumice stone and rubbing 
oil. 

(/) If a dull finish is desired without the expense 
of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish for 
the last Varnish coat. 

(g) Apply Flat Varnish freely with a badger-hair 
or black fitch flowing brush. 



PINE, CYPRESS, BIRCH, OAK, OR ASH WOOD 
SILVER GRAY EFFECT 

Specification No. 63: 

VARNISH FINISH^FIVE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Pine, Cypress, Birch, Oak, or Ash Wood 
(locations designated) shall first be sponged with 
water to raise the grain. Then dry thoroughly. 
Sandpaper to a smooth surface and apply a thin 
coat of Pitcairn Silver Gray Acid Stain. After this 
has dried well, apply a coat of White Zinc Filler, 
properly reduced with Leptyne, turpentine, or ben- 
zine, aiad brushed well into the grain. (Do not add 
oil when thinning the Filler.) The excess of Filler 






[90] 



PROOF PRODUCTS SPECIFICATIONS 



must be carefully and neatly cleaned from the sur- 
face by rubbing across the grain, 

(b) Care must be taken that all grooves and cor- 
ners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. Fill 
all nail holes with putty tinted to match the finish. 

(c) After twelve hours, apply a thin coat of 
Pitcairn Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac. 

(d) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Finishing 
Spar Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours 
between coats for drying. Sand lightly between 
Varnish coats with No. paper. 

(e) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a third 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

(/) If desired, the last coats may be rubbed to a 
dull finish with fine pumice stone and rubbing oil. 

(g) If a dull finish is desired, without the expense 
of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish for 
the last Varnish coat. 

(h) Apply Flat Varnish freely with a badger- 
hair or black fitch flowing brush. 

(i) Apply only enough Spirit Lacquer to seal the 
Stain. Avoid a heavy coating. 

Specification No. 64: 

MISSION FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Pine, Cypress, Birch, Oak, or Ash Wood 
(locations designated) shall first be sponged with 
water to raise the grain. Then dry thoroughly. 
Sandpaper to a smooth surface and apply a thin 
coat of Pitcairn Silver Gray Acid Stain. After this 
has dried well, apply a coat of White Zinc Filler, 
properly reduced with Leptyne, turpentine, or ben- 
zine, and brushed well into the grain. (Do not add 
oil when thinning the Filler.) The excess of Filler 
must be carefully and neatly cleaned from the sur- 
face by rubbing across the grain. 

(b) Care must be taken that all grooves and cor- 
ners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. Fill 
all nail holes with putty tinted to match the finish. 

(c) After twelve hours, apply a thin coat of 
Pitcairn Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac. 

(d) Apply a coat of Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish, 
flowed on with a badger-hair or black fitch flowing 
brush to insure a smooth dull finish. 

Specification No. 65: 

WAX FINISH — FOUR-COAT TRIM 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Pine, Cypress, Birch, Oak, or Ash Wood 
(locations designated) shall first be sponged with 
water to raise the grain. Then dry thoroughly. 
Sandpaper to a smooth surface and apply a thin 
coat of Pitcairn Silver Gray Acid Stain. After this 
has dried well, apply a coat of White Zinc Filler, 
properly reduced with Leptyne, turpentine, or ben- 
zine, and brushed well into the grain. (Do not add 
oil when thinning the Filler.) The excess of Filler 
must be carefully and neatly cleaned from the sur- 
face by rubbing across the grain. 



(b) Care must be taken that all grooves and cor- 
ners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. Fill 
all nail holes with putty tinted to match the finish. 

(c) After twelve hours, apply a thin coat of 
Pitcairn Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac. 

(d) Apply Pattons Seventeenth Century Wax and 
polish by hand-rubbing. 

(e) If an extra-fine job is desired, allow a few 
hours for the first coat to dry. Apply a second coat 
of Wax and again polish. 

MAHOGANY WOOD 
DARK OR EXTRA DARK MAHOGANY EFFECT 

Specification No. 66: 

VARNISH FINISH — FIVE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Mahogany Wood (locations designated) 
shall receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 10 Mahogany 
Stain, or Pitcairn No. 15 Extra Dark Mahogany 
Stain, the excess being removed with a cloth after 
sufficient time has elapsed for penetration. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) This is followed by a coat of Patton's Natural 
Paste Wood Filler, tinted with Stain to match finish, 
properly reduced with Leptyne, turpentine, or ben- 
zine, and brushed well into the grain. (The excess 
of Filler must be carefully and neatly cleaned from 
the surface by rubbing across the grain.) 

(d) Care must be taken that all grooves and cor- 
ners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. Fill 
all nail holes with putty tinted to match the finish. 

(e) Apply one coat of Pitcairn Mahogany Glaze 
Varnish; allow at least forty-eight hours' drying; 
follow with one coat Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar 
Varnish. Sand lightly between Varnish coats with 
No. paper. 

(/) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a third 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

(g) If desired, the last coat may be rubbed to a 
dull finish with fine pumice stone and rubbing oil. 

(h) If a dull finish is desired without the expense 
of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish for 
the last Varnish coat. 

(i) Apply Flat Varnish freely with a badger-hair 
or black fitch flowing brush. 

(/) Apply only enough Spirit Lacquer to seal the 
Stain. Avoid a heavy coating. 

BIRCH WOOD 
DARK OR EXTRA DARK MAHOGANY EFFECT 

Specification No. 67: 

VARNISH FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 

STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Birch Wood (locations designated) shall 

receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 10 Mahogany Stain, 

or Pitcairn Stain No. 15, the excess being removed 

with a cloth after sufficient time has elapsed for 



[91] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



penetration. Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to 
match the finish. 

(6) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied, 

(c) Apply one coat of Pitcairn Mahogany Glaze 
Varnish; allow at least forty-eight hours' drying, 
and apply one coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar 
Varnish, Sand lightly between Varnish coats with 
No. paper. 

(d) If an extra- fine job is desired, apply a third 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

(e) If desired, the last coat may be rubbed to a 
dull finish with fine pumice stone and rubbing oil. 

(/) If a dull finish is desired without the expense 
of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish for 
the last Varnish coat. 

(g) Apply Flat Varnish freely with badger-hair 
or black fitch flowing brush. 

Specification No. 68: 

MISSION FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Birch Wood (locations designated) shall 
receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 10 Mahogany Stain, 
or Pitcairn Stain No. 15, the excess being removed 
with a cloth after sufficient time has elapsed for 
penetration. Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to 
match the finish. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish, 
flowed on with a badger-hair or black fitch flowing 
brush to insure a smooth dull finish. Allow at least 
twenty-four hours between coats for drying. 

Specification No. 69: 

WAX FINISH — THREE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Birch Wood (locations designated) shall 
receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 10 Mahogany Stain, 
or Pitcairn Stain No. 15, the excess being removed 
with a cloth after sufficient time has elapsed for 
penetration. Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to 
match the finish. 

(6) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Apply Patton's Seventeenth Century Wax and 
polish by hand-rubbing. 

(d) If an extra-fine job is desired, allow a few 
hours for the first coat to dry; apply a second coat 
of Wax, and again polish. 

OAK WOOD—FUMED EFFECT 

Specification No. 70: 

VARNISH FINISH — FIVE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak Wood (locations designated) shall 
receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 11 Fumed Oak Stain, 



the excess being removed with a cloth after sufficient 
time has elapsed for penetration. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) This is followed by a coat of Pattorfs Natural 
Paste Wood Filler, tinted with Stain to match the 
finish, properly reduced with Leptyne, turpentine, or 
benzine, and brushed well into the grain. (The 
excess of Filler must be carefully and neatly cleaned 
from the surface by rubbing across the grain.) 

(d) Care must be taken that all grooves and cor- 
ners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. Fill 
all nail holes with putty tinted to match the finish. 

(e) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Finishing 
Spar Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours 
between coats for drying. Sand lightly between 
Varnish coats with No. paper. 

(/) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a third 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

(g) If desired, the last coat may be rubbed to 
a dull finish with fine pumice stone and rubbing 
oil. 

(h) If a dull finish is desired without the expense 
of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish for 
the last Varnish coat, 

(i) Apply Flat Varnish freely with a badger- 
hair or black fitch flowing brush. 

(/*) Apply only enough Spirit Lacquer to seal the 
Stain. Avoid a heavy coating. 

Specification No, 71 : 

MISSION FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak Wood (locations designated) shall 
receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 11 Fumed Oak Stain, 
the excess being removed with a cloth after sufficient 
time has elapsed for penetration. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Flat Fin- 
ish, flowed on with a badger-hair or black fitch 
flowing brush to insure a smooth dull finish. 

Specification No. 72: 

WAX FINISH — THREE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak Wood, (locations designated) shall 
receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 11 Fumed Oak Stain, 
the excess being removed with a cloth after sufficient 
time has elapsed for penetration. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Apply Patton's Seventeenth Century Wax 
and polish by hand-rubbing. 

(d) If an extra-fine job is desired, allow a few 
hours for the first coat to dry; apply a second coat 
of Wax, and again polish. 



[92] 



PROOF PRODUCTS SPECIFICATIONS 



OAK AND ASH WOODS 
EARLY ENGLISH EFFECT 

Specification No. 73: 

VARNISH FINISH — FIVE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Oak and Ash Woods (locations desig- 
nated) shall receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 12 Early- 
English Stain, the excess being removed with a cloth 
after sufficient time has elapsed for penetration. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) This is to be followed by a coat of Pattons 
Natural Paste Wood Filler, tinted with Stain to 
match finish, properly reduced with Leptyne, turpen- 
tine, or benzine, and brushed well into the grain. 

(d) Care must be taken that all grooves and cor- 
ners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. Fill 
all nail holes with putty tinted to match the finish. 

(e) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Finishing 
Spar Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours 
between coats for drying. Sand lightly between 
Varnish coats with No. paper. 

(/) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a third 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

(g) If desired, the last coat may be rubbed to a 
dull finish with fine pumice stone and rubbing oil. 

(h) If a dull finish is desired without the ex- 
pense of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Fin- 
ish for the last Varnish coat. 

(i) Apply Flat Varnish freely with a badger-hair 
or black fitch flowing brush. 

(/) Apply only enough Spirit Lacquer to seal 
the Stain. Avoid a heavy coating. 

(k) For a deep, rich, coffee-brown effect, in 
place of the first Varnish coat apply one coat of 
Pitcairn Walnut Waterspar Colored Varnish. 



BIRCH, PINE, CYPRESS, REDWOOD, 

AND FIR WOOD 

EARLY ENGLISH EFFECT 

Specification No. 74: 

VARNISH FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Birch, Pine, Cypress, Redwood, and Fir 
Wood (locations designated) shall receive a coat 
of Pitcairn No. 12 Early English Stain, the excess 
being removed with a cloth after sufficient time has 
elapsed for penetration. Fill all nail holes with 
putty tinted to match the finish. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Finishing 
Spar Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours 
between coats for drying. Sand lightly between 
Varnish coats with No. paper. 

(d) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a third 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

(e) If desired, the last coat may be rubbed to a 
dull finish with fine pumice stone and rubbing oil. 



(/) If a dull finish is desired without the expense 
of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish 
for the last Varnish coat. 

(g) Apply Flat Varnish freely with a badger-hair 
or black fitch flowing brush. 

{h) Apply only enough Spirit Lacquer to seal 
the Stain. Avoid a heavy coating. 

Specification No. 75: 

MISSION FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Birch, Pine, Cypress, Redwood, and Fir 
Wood (locations designated) shall receive a coat 
of Pitcairn No. 12 Early English Stain, the excess 
being removed with a cloth after sufficient time has 
elapsed for penetration. Fill all nail holes with 
putty tinted to match the finish. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Flat Finish 
flowed on with a badger-hair or black fitch flowing 
brush to insure a smooth dull finish. Allow at least 
twenty-four hours between coats for drying. 

(d) Apply only enough Spirit Lacquer to seal 
the Stain. Avoid a heavy coating. 

See Specification No. 73 (j) and (&). 

Specification No. 76: 

WAX FINISH — THREE-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Birch, Pine, Cypress, Redwood, and Fir 
Wood (locations designated) shall receive a coat 
of Pitcairn No. 12 Early English Stain, the excess 
being removed with a cloth after sufficient time has 
elapsed for penetration. Fill all nail holes with 
putty tinted to match the finish. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Apply Pattons Seventeenth Century Wax and 
polish by hand-rubbing. 

(d) If an extra- fine job is desired, allow a few 
hours for the first coat to dry; apply a second coat 
of Wax, and again polish. 

See Specification No. 73 (j) and (k). 



GUM, PINE, AND FIR WOODS 
CIRCASSIAN WALNUT EFFECT 

Specification No. 77: 

VARNISH FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Gum, Pine, and Fir Woods (locations 
designated) shall receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 13 
Circassian Walnut Stain, the excess being removed 
with a cloth after sufficient time has elapsed for 
penetration. Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to 
match the filler. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 



[93] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 






(c) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Finishing 
Spar Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours 
between coats for drying. Sand lightly between 
Varnish coats with No. paper. 

{d) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a third 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Finishing Spar Varnish. 

(c) If desired, the last coat may be rubbed to a 
dull finish with fine pumice stone and rubbing oil. 

(/) If a dull finish is desired without the ex- 
pense of rubbing, substitute Pitcairn Aged Flat Fin- 
ish for the last Varnish coat. 

(g) Apply Flat Varnish freely with a badger- 
hair or black fitch flowing brush. 

(h) Apply only enough Spirit Lacquer to seal 
the Stain. Avoid a heavy coating. 

Specification No. 78: 

MISSION FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Gum, Pine, and Fir Woods (locations 
designated) shall receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 13 
Circassian Walnut Stain, the excess being removed 
with a cloth after sufficient time has elapsed for 
penetration. Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to 
match the filler. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Flat Fin- 
ish, flowed on with a badger-hair or black fitch flow- 
ing brush to insure a smooth dull finish. Allow at 
least twenty-four hours between coats for drying. 

See Specification No. 77 (h) . 

Specification No. 79: 

WAX FINISH — THREE- COAT WORK 
STANDING TRIM 

(a) All Gum, Pine, and Fir Woods (locations 
designated) shall receive a coat of Pitcairn No. 13 
Circassian Walnut Stain, the excess being removed 
with a cloth after sufficient time has elapsed for 
penetration. Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to 
match the filler. 

(b) After twelve hours, a thin coat of Pitcairn 
Spirit Lacquer or pure gum shellac shall be applied. 

(c) Apply Patton's Seventeenth Century Wax 
and polish by hand-rubbing. 

(d) If an extra-fine job is desired, allow a few 
hours for the first coat to dry; apply a second coat 
of Wax, and again polish. 

See Specification No. 77 (h) . 

FLOOR FINISHES 
OAK OR ASH WOOD 

Specification No. 80: 

VARNISH FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 

(a) All Oak or Ash floors (locations designated) 
shall receive a coat of Pattons Natural Paste Wood 
Filler, properly reduced with Leptyne, turpentine, 
or benzine, brushed well into the grain. (The ex- 
cess of Filler must be carefully and neatly cleaned 
from the surface by rubbing across the grain.) 



(6) Care must be taken that all grooves and cor- 
ners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. Fill 
all nail holes with putty tinted to match the finish. 

(c) The surface shall then receive a coat of Pit- 
cairn Tector, reduced with Leptyne or turpentine, 
gallon for gallon. After twenty-four hours, sand 
carefully. 

(d) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged Floor Spar 
Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours between 
coats for drying. Sand lightly between Varnish 
coats with No. paper. 

(e) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a third 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Floor Spar Varnish. 

(/) If desired, the last coat may be rubbed to a 
dull finish with fine pumice stone and rubbing oil. 

Specification No. 81: 

WAX FINISH — THREE-COAT WORK 

(a) All Oak or Ash floors (locations designated) 
shall receive a coat of Pattons Natural Paste Wood 
Filler, properly reduced with Leptyne, turpentine, 
or benzine, brushed well into the grain. (The ex- 
cess of Filler must be carefully and neatly cleaned 
from the surface by rubbing across the grain.) 

(b) Care must be taken that all grooves and cor- 
ners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. Fill 
all nail holes with putty tinted to match the finish. 

(c) The surface shall then receive a coat of Pit- 
cairn Tector, reduced with Leptyne or turpentine, 
gallon for gallon. After twenty-four hours, sand 
carefully. 

{d) Apply Patton's Seventeenth Century Wax 
and polish with a weighted brush. 

(e) If an extra-fine job is desired, allow a few 
hours for the first coat to dry; apply a second coat 
of Wax, and again polish. 

MAPLE, BIRCH, BEECH, PINE, AND FIR WOODS 

Specification No. 82: 

VARNISH FINISH — THREE-COAT WORK 

(a) All Maple, Birch, Beech, Pine, and Fir 
Wood floors (locations designated) shall receive a 
coat of Pitcairn Tector, reduced, according to di- 
rections on the can, with Leptyne, turpentine, or 
benzine. After twenty-four hours, sandpaper care- 
fully. Fill all nail holes with putty tinted to match 
the finish. 

(b) Apply two coats of Pitcairn Aged* Floor 
Spar Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours 
between coats for drying. Sand lightly between 
Varnish coats with No. paper. 

(c) If an extra-fine job is desired, apply a third 
coat of Pitcairn Aged Floor Spar Varnish. 

(d) If desired, the last coat may be rubbed to a 
dull finish with fine pumice stone and rubbing oil. 

Specification No. 83: 

WAX FINISH — TWO-COAT WORK 

(a) All Maple, Birch, Beech, Pine, and Fir Wood 
floors (locations designated) shall receive a coat 
of Pitcairn Tector, reduced, according to directions 



[94] 



PROOF PRODUCTS SPECIFICATIONS 



on the can, with Leptyne, turpentine, or benzine. 
After twenty-four hours, sandpaper carefully. Fill 
all nail holes with putty tinted to match the finish. 
(6) Apply one coat of Pitcairn Aged Floor Spar 
Varnish, allowing at least forty-eight hours for 
drying. 

WHITE ENAMEL FINISHES— BANZAI SYSTEM 
OAK AND ASH WOODS 

Specification No, 84: 

HIGH-GLOSS ENAMEL FINISH — FIVE-COAT WORK 

(a) All Oak and Ash Woods (locations desig- 
nated) shall receive a coat of Patton's Natural 
Wood Paste Filler, properly reduced with Leptyne, 
turpentine, or benzine, brushed well into the grain. 
(The excess of Filler must be carefully and neatly 
cleaned from the surface by rubbing across the 
grain.) 

(b) Care must be taken that all grooves and cor- 
ners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. Fill 
all nail holes with putty. 

(c) Then apply two coats of Banzai Double- 
Cover Undercoater as it comes in the can, allowing 
twenty-four hours between coats. Sand the last 
coat to a smooth surface. 

(d) For the next coat, use a mixture of two part 
of Banzai Enamel and one part Banzai Double 
Cover Undercoater. Sand lightly after allowing 
forty-eight hours for this coat to dry. 

(e) The last coat shall be flowed on freely- 
using Banzai Enamel as it comes in the can. 

(/) If an extra-fine finish is desired, rub the 
enamel coat and flow on another coat of Banzai 
Enamel 

Specification No. 85: 

EGG-SHELL ENAMEL FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 
(a) All Oak and Ash Woods (locations desig- 
nated) shall receive a coat of Patton's Natural 
Wood Paste Filler, properly reduced with Leptyne, 
turpentine, or benzine, brushed well into the grain. 
(The excess of Filler must be carefully and neatly 
cleaned from the surface by rubbing across the 
grain.) 

(6) Care must be taken that all grooves and cor- 
ners are well cleaned with a hardwood stick. Fill 
all nail holes with putty. 

(c) Then apply two coats of Banzai Double- 
Cover Undercoater as it comes in the can, allowing 
twenty-four hours between coats. Sand the last 
coat to a smooth surface. 

(d) The last coat shall be flowed on freely, using 
Banzai Egg-Shell Enamel as it comes in the can. 

(e) If an extra-fine finish is desired, rub the 
Enamel coat and flow on another coat of Banzai 
Egg-Shell Enamel. 



{/) In applying Egg-Shell Enamel avoid retouch- 
ing places which have already set or flattened. 

BIRCH, MAPLE, CYPRESS, GUM, WHITEWOOD, 

REDWOOD, AND POPLAR WOOD 

METAL AND PLASTER 

Specification No. 86: 

HIGH-GLOSS ENAMEL FINISH — FIVE-COAT WORK 

(a) All Birch, Maple, Cypress, Gum, White- 
wood, Redwood, and Poplar Wood, and metal and 
plastered surfaces (locations designated) shall re- 
ceive a coat of Pitcairn Tector, reduced according 
to directions on the can, with Leptyne, turpentine, 
or benzine. If desired, covering will be improved 
by use of a priming mixture of one gallon Pitcairn 
Tector reduced with one gallon Banzai Double- 
Cover Undercoater and one-half gallon boiled lin- 
seed oil. After twenty-four hours, sandpaper care- 
fully. Fill all nail holes with putty. 

(b) Then apply two coats of Banzai Double- 
Cover Undercoater as it comes in the can, allowing 
twenty-four hours between coats. Sand between 
coats to a smooth surface. 

(c) For the next coat use a mixture of two parts 
of Banzai Enamel and one part Banzai Double- 
Cover Undercoater. Sand lightly after allowing 
forty-eight hours for this coat to dry. 

(d) The last coat shall be flowed on freely, using 
Banzai Enamel as it comes in the can. 

(e) If an extra-fine finish is desired, rub the last 
Enamel coat and flow on another coat of Banzai 
Enamel. 

Specification No. 87: 

EGG-SHELL ENAMEL FINISH — FOUR-COAT WORK 

(a) All Birch, Maple, Cypress, Gum, White- 
wood, Redwood, and Poplar Wood, and metal and 
plastered surfaces (locations designated) shall re- 
ceive a coat of Pitcairn Tector, reduced according 
to directions on the can, with Leptyne, turpentine, 
or benzine. After twenty-four hours, sandpaper 
carefully. Fill all nail holes with putty. 

(b) Then apply two coats of Banzai Double- 
Cover Undercoater as it comes in the can, allowing 
twenty-four hours between coats. Sand the last 
coat to a smooth surface. 

(c) The last coat shall be flowed on freely, using 
Banzai Egg-Shell Enamel as it comes in the can. 

(d) If an extra-fine finish is desired, rub the last 
Enamel coat and flow on another coat of Banzai 
Egg-She 11 Enamel. 

(e) In applying Egg-Shell Enamel avoid re- 
touching places which have already set or flattened. 

(/) The success of the finish depends upon each 
coat being thoroughly dry before another coat is 
applied. As much time as possible should be given 
between coats. 



[95] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



A SERVICE FOR INDUSTRIAL PAINT USERS 






THE Paint and Varnish Division of the Pitts- 
burgh Plate Glass Company has a techni- 
cal staff composed of men with years of 
both practical and laboratory experience, whose 
services are at the disposal of industrial concerns 
who have exceptional or troublesome problems 
to meet. 

This organization is the outgrowth of a definite 
demand for a service of this nature, and this 
group of men are functioning daily at our plants 
at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Newark, New 
Jersey, being known as the Patton Paint and 
Varnish Advisory Board. 

Manufacturers are constantly striving to im- 
prove the appearance of their products; others 
are in search of a finish that will last longer. 
Special finishes to resist oil, brine, gases, extreme 
temperature, or vibration, are among the prob- 
lems this Board has been called upon to solve. 

There is always the question of reduced fin- 
ishing costs, or better results at an equal cost. 
The Patton Paint and Varnish Advisory Board 
has found it possible to make suggestions which 
in a number of instances have resulted in mate- 
rial economies. 

Again, there are plants which are improperly 
painted, where corrosion is getting in its de- 
structive work, where dark and dingy interiors 
are decreasing efficiency of men and machines, 
and greatly multiplying the chances for acci- 
dents. A chart of standardized practices for 
plant maintenance, as to material and color to 
be used for the various needs encountered, would 
eliminate all guesswork and would result in 
much saving to almost any concern whatsoever. 

The Patton Paint and Varnish Advisory Board 
is ready to co-operate and to assist any manufac- 
turer in the development of new paint products 



exactly suited to his problem, new methods of 
application as a means toward economy or im- 
proved finishes, or the preparation of charts and 
specifications for scientific plant maintenance. 
Perhaps your paint department is having dif- 
ficulties which our Advisory Board, thanks to 
years of varied experience, can quickly remedy. 

In many cases a single wrong paint product is 
spoiling an otherwise good finish. Sometimes 
the filler is causing the trouble, or it may be the 
priming or finishing coat. The changing of one 
or two ingredients in one of these paint products 
may make a world of difference in the quality 
of the final finish. 

Are your finishing costs too high? Perhaps 
satisfactory results can be obtained with fewer 
coats. Or, possibly, by changing your methods 
of application economy can be secured. 

Let our Advisory Board co-operate with your 
paint department. If you are now following 
the best practices, they will tell you so; if not, 
suggestions for improvement will be made. 

Since the founding of the Patton Paint and 
Varnish Advisory Board hundreds of manufac- 
turers have requested and received help — help 
for which no charge has been made or accepted. 
So, by availing yourself of this service you are 
placed under no obligation whatsoever. Any 
increased business that may develop must come 
to us on the merits of the changes suggested. 

Let one of our representatives confer with you 
concerning any paint difficulties you may be hav- 
ing. Or, if the case requires it, a member of 
the Advisory Board will call in person.* Then 
a thorough study of your problem will be made 
and a written report will be submitted to you 
giving in detail the recommendations of our 
Advisory Board. 



[96] 






COLOR SUGGESTIONS 

TN THE following pages are illustrated a number of exteriors and 
interiors showing effects produced by the use of Proof Paint 
J. and Varnish Products. These selections cover a wide range of 
subjects. The color specifications given below each picture are not 
intended as infallible guides. In choosing a combination of colors, 
many things must be taken into account. 

On exteriors, the surroundings enter largely into the problem; 
and in interiors the furnishings play a very important part in deciding 
on the wall color that will display them to the best advantage; in 
commercial interiors practical considerations are uppermost, but 
individual preference weighs heavily in the final decision. 

The subjects following, therefore, are given as examples of what 
can be produced by the use of Proof Paint and Varnish Products. 
Of course, it goes without saying that where the illustration aptly 
meets some particular need, it may be utilized unchanged, as a 
guide for producing like results. 



[97] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Pitcairn Banzai Enamel is used in finishing this white enamel entrance. 

[98] 



COLOR SUGGESTIONS 







Color Suggestions for Subject Above 

BODY— No. 308 Deep Buff Sun-Proof Paint. 
TRIM— Outside White Sun-Proof Paint. 
ROOF— No. 343 Indian Red Tor-on Shingle Stain. 
PORCHES— Outside White Sun-Proof Paint. 
PORCH FLOORS— Old Gold Porchite. 
FRONT DOOR— Pitcairn Banzai White Enamel. 



[99] 



«* 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




[100] 



-N 






COLOR SUGGESTIONS 







Color Suggestions for Subject 
on Opposite Page 

BODY— Patton's Buff Cementhide Paint. 

TRIM— Patton's Buff Cementhide Paint. 

ROOF — Composition Shingles — Terra Cotta 
color. 

WINDOW SASH.AND WOOD TRIM— Out- 
side White Sun-Proof Paint. 

PORCH FLOOR— Terra Cotta color. Tile 
floors. 

FRONT DOOR— Stained with. Pitcairn Dark 
Mahogany Stain No. 10, varnished. 



Color Suggestions for Subject Above 

BODY— No. 302 French Gray Sun-Proof 
Paint. 

TRIM— Outside White Sun-Proof Paint. 

ROOF— No. 342 Ivy Green Tor-on Shingle 
Stain. 

BLINDS— No. 336 Willow Green Sun-Proof 
Paint. 

PORCH— No. 302 French Gray Sun-Proof 
Paint. 

PORCH FLOOR— Maltese Blue Porchite. 

FRONT DOOR— Stained with Pitcairn Stain 
No. 6, Golden Oak, and varnished. 



[101] 






PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Color Suggestions for Subject Above 



No. 1 

BODY— No. 340 Copper Brown Sun-Proof 
Paint. 

TRIM— No. 55 Milwaukee Brick Sun-Proof 
Paint. 

ROOF— No. 354 Moss Green Tor-on Shingle 
Stain. 

PORCH FLOOR— Leaf Brown Porchite. 

FRONT DOOR— Stained with Pitcairn Stain 
No. 6, Golden Oak, and varnished. 

No. 2 

BODY— Upper: No. 304 Neutral Drab Sun- 
Proof Paint. 

Lower : No. 320 Amber Brown Sun-Proof 
Paint. 

TRIM— Outside White Sun-Proof Paint. 



ROOF— No. 342 Ivy Green Tor-on Shingle 
Stain. 

PORCH FLOOR— Maltese Blue Porchite 
Paint. 

FRONT DOOR— Stained with Pitcairn Stain 
No. 6, Golden Oak, and varnished. 

No. 3 

BODY— Upper: No. 320 Amber Brown 
Sun-Proof Paint. 

Lower: No. 55 Milwaukee Brick Sun- 
Proof Paint. 

TRIM— No. J Indian Tan Sun-Proof Paint. 

ROOF— No. 362 Russet Tor-on Shingle 
Stain. 

FRONT DOOR— Stained with Pitcairn Stain 
No. 6, Golden Oak, and varnished. 



[102] 



COLOR SUGGESTIONS 







Color Suggestions for Subject Above 



No. 1 

BODY— No. J Indian Tan Sun-Proof Paint. 

TRIM— No. 314 Rich Buff Sun-Proof Paint. 

ROOF— No. 362 Russet Tor-on Shingle 
Stain. 

BLINDS— No. 341 Copper Verde Sun-Proof 
Paint. 

PORCH FLOOR— Leaf Brown Porchite 
Paint. 

FRONT DOOR— Stained with Pitcairn Stain 
No. 6, Golden Oak, and varnished. 



No. 2 

BODY— No. 12X Light Olive Sun-Proof 
Paint. 

TRIM— Outside White Sun-Proof Paint. 



ROOF— No. 354 Moss Green Tor-on Shingle 
Stain. 

BLINDS— No. 336 Willow Green Sun-Proof 
Paint. 

FRONT DOOR— Pitcairn Banzai White 
Enamel. 

No. 3 

BODY— No. 173 Straw Sun-Proof Paint. 

TRIM— Outside White Sun-Proof Paint. 

ROOF— No. 343 Indian Red Tor-on Shingle 
Stain. 

BLINDS— No. 338 Kentucky Blind Green 

Sun-Proof Paint. 
PORCH FLOOR— Leaf Brown Porchite. 

FRONT DOOR— Stained with Pitcairn Stain 
No. 6, Golden Oak, and varnished. 



[103] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 







[104] 



COLOR SUGGESTIONS 




Color Suggestions for Subject 
on Opposite Page 

CEILING — Rich Cream Velumina. 

WALLS— Medium Buff Velumina. 

WOODWORK— Banzai Enamel tinted to a 
very light gray. 

STAIR RAIL— Stained with Pitcairn Dark 
Mahogany Stain No. 10, varnished. . 

FLOORS— Stained with Pitcairn Early Eng- 
lish Stain No. 12 and varnished. 



Color Suggestions for Subject Above 

CEILING — Ivory Velumina. 

V WALLS — Velumina intermixed according to 
the following formula: 
Two parts Ivory Velumina, 
One part Silver Green Velumina, 
One part Pearl Gray Velumina. 

WOODWORK— Banzai Enamel tinted ivory. 

FLOORS — Natural and varnished. 






[105] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 





[106] 



8 



COLOR SUGGESTIONS 







Color Suggestions for Subject 
on Opposite Page 

CEILING AND WALLS— Banzai Enamel 
tinted to a very faint gray. 

WOODWORK— Same as walls, except side 
boards, which are to remain natural and 
to be varnished. 

FLOORS — Covered with linoleum, varnished. 

RADIATORS — Velumina intermixed accord- 
ing to the following formula: 
Two parts Medium Buff Velumina, 
One part French Gray Velumina, 
One part Nile Green Velumina. 



Color Suggestions for Subject Above 

CEILING — Patton's Velumina intermixed 
according to the following formula: 
Two parts Light Buff Velumina, 
One part Medium Buff Velumina, 
One part French Gray Velumina. 

WALLS — Same as ceiling. 

MOULDING AND WOODWORK— Banzai 

Egg-Shell Enamel tinted to same shade 
as the walls. 

DOORS — Stained with Pitcairn Mahogany 
Stain No. 10, varnished and rubbed dull. 

FLOORS — Natural and varnished. 



[107] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




[108] 






COLOR SUGGESTIONS 







Color Suggestions for Subject 
on Opposite Page 

CEILING— Patton's White Velumina tinted 
with Azure Velumina. 

WALLS — Same as ceiling. 

WOODWORK— Banzai Enamel tinted a deep 
ivory shade. 

FLOORS — Covered with linoleum and var- 
nished. 



Color Suggestions for Subject Above 

CEILING— Patton's Rich Cream Velumina. 

WALLS — Patton's Velumina intermixed ac- 
cording to the following directions: 
Three parts French Gray Velumina, 
One part Silver Green Velumina. 
Stencil design as shown. 

WOODWORK— Banzai Enamel. 

FLOORS — Natural and varnished. 



[109] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 







[no] 



COLOR SUGGESTIONS 








Color Suggestions for Subject 
on Opposite Page 

WALLS AND CEILING— Velumina tinted 
with Pattern's Oil Colors to the desired 
shade. 

BEAMS— White Velumina tinted to a light 
brown by addition of the Wall Color. 

SEATS — Stained with Pitcairn Early English 
Stain No. 12 and varnished. 

FLOOR— Natural and varnished. 



Color Suggestions for Subject Above 

WALLS AND CEILING— Patton's Velumina 
intermixed according to the following 
formula : 

Three parts French Gray Velumina, 
One part Silver Green Velumina. 

INSETS — Silver Green Velumina. 

BEAMS — Gold Bronze. Stencil and decor- 
ations as shown. 

WOODWORK— Stained with Pitcairn Extra 
Dark Mahogany Stain No. 15, varnished. 

SEATS — Stained with Pitcairn Silver Gray 
Acid Stain and varnished. 



[ in 3 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



■I 





[112] 



COLOR SUGGESTIONS 




Color Suggestions for Subject 
on Opposite Page 

CEILING — Patton's Velumina intermixed 
according to the following formula: 
Two parts Light Buff Velumina, 
One part Pearl Gray Velumina, 
One part Ivory Velumina. 

WALLS AND BEAMS— Pitcairn Banzai 
Enamel Egg-Shell Gloss tinted to match 
ceiling. 



Color Suggestions for 
Subject Above 

WALLS AND CEILING— Patton's Velumina 
intermixed according to the following 
formula : 

One part Light Buff Velumina, 
One part Pale Raspberry Velumina, 

WOODWORK— Stained with Pitcairn Dark 
Mahogany Stain No. 10, varnished. 



[113] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




[114] 



1 



COLOR SUGGESTIONS 




Color Suggestions for Subject 
on Opposite Page 

CEILING — Pattern's Velumina intermixed ac- 
cording to the following formula: 
Two parts Medium Buff Velumina, 
One part French Gray Velumina, 
One part Nile Green Velumina. 

BORDER AND MOULDING— Velumina in- 
termixed according to the following 
formula: 

Two parts French Gray Velumina, 
One part Light Buff Velumina, 
One part Nile Green Velumina. 

WALLS — Ground Tone, Circassian Brown 
Velumina, finished in Tiffany effects by 
use of Yellow, Green, and Blue Oil 
Colors. 



WOODWORK— Stained with Pitcairn Wood 
Stain No. 12, varnished, and rubbed dull. 

FLOORS — Stained with Pitcairn Early Eng- 
lish Wood Stain No. 12, varnished. 

Color Suggestions for Subject Above 

CEILING— Patton's Light Cream Velumina. 
Decorations in gold leaf and red. Bor- 
der in green bronze. 

WALLS— Deep Red, made with Patton's Oil 
Colors thinned with Turpentine. 

WOODWORK— Banzai Enamel tinted to 
ivory. 

FLOORS — Natural, varnished and waxed. 



[115] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




[116] 



COLOR SUGGESTIONS 




Color Suggestions for Subject 
on Opposite Page 
CEILING— Pattern's Rich Cream Velumina. 

WALLS — Velumina intermixed according to 
the following formula: 
Two parts Light Buff Velumina, 
One part Medium Buff Velumina, 
One part French Gray Velumina. 

BEAMS AND WOODWORK— Banzai 
Enamel tinted a very light gray. 

DOORS — Stained with Pitcairn Dark Mahog- 
any Stain No. 10 and varnished. 

FLOORS— Natural and varnished. 

Color Suggestions for Subject Above 

CEILING — Velumina intermixed according 
to the following formula: 
Three parts Pearl Gray Velumina, 
One part Pink Velumina. 



BEAMS — Same as ceiling, with stencil design 
as shown. 

WALLS — Dado : Circassian Brown Velumina. 
Top Walls: White Velumina tinted with 
Patton's Oil Colors. 

WOODWORK— Stained with Pitcairn Stain 
No. 11 and varnished. 

RAILING— Stained with Pitcairn Stain No. 
10 and varnished. 

STAIRWAY— Natural. Varnished. 

CENTER PILLARS— Top: Stained with Pit- 
cairn Stain No. 10 and varnished. 
Bottom: Carrara Glass. 

SIDE PILLARS— Pitcairn Banzai Enamel. 

FLOORS— Tile. 



[117] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




[118] 



COLOR SUGGESTIONS 




Color Suggestions for Subject 
on Opposite Page 

CEILING— Equal parts White and Pearl Gray 
Velumina. 

WALLS — Velumina intermixed according to 
the following formula: 
One part Pearl Gray Velumina, 
One part Silver Green Velumina. 

WOODWORK— Banzai Enamel tinted a very 
light gray. 

FLOOR — Natural and varnished. 

FIXTURES — Banzai Enamel tinted to match 
woodwork. 



Color Suggestions for Subject Above 

CEILING — Velumina intermixed according 
to the following formula: 
Two parts Ivory Velumina, 
One part Silver Green Velumina, 
One part Pearl Gray Velumina. 

WALLS — Velumina intermixed according to 
the following formula: 
Two parts French Gray Velumina, 
One part Light Buff Velumina, 
One part Nile Green Velumina. 

WOODWORK— Stained with Pitcairn Dark 
Mahogany Stain No. 10 and varnished. 

FLOORS — Pitcairn Stain No. 6, varnished. 

SEATS — Tops: Stained with Dark Mahogany 
Stain No. 10 and varnished. 
Backs and seats: Natural and varnished. 



[119] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




^ 



z 

o 

v. 

< 



z 
z 

Q 

'*= 
- 

PQ 












[120] 



COLOR SUGGESTIONS 




UPPER SU^CT-Patton^ Ironhide on metal, Patton's Alba-Lux on ceilings and walls. 
LOW Ml bUBJECT— Patton's Alba-Lux on ceiling, walls, and pillars. 

[121] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 






"SAVE THE SURFACE AND YOU SAVE ALL" 
PAINT AND VARNISH 



UNDER this slogan a campaign of educa- 
tion was launched in 1919, by paint and 
varnish and allied interests, for the pur- 
pose of getting the whole American public to 
use more paint and varnish, and to demand the 
proper finishes on manufactured articles which 
they purchase. 

The appeal of this propaganda is directed to 
the individual's natural interest in what he owns. 
There are but few kinds of property that will 
not have a longer life, have greater value, and 
give better and longer service when they have the 
protection of paint and varnish. Every phase of 
activity, every ramification of the Save the Sur- 
face Campaign, every dollar spent on it, has for 
its immediate or ultimate purpose a single ob- 
ject common to the needs of everybody in the 
paint and varnish business — to educate and to 
actuate the public to a wider and more frequent 
use of paint and varnish. 

The slogan "Save the Surface and you Save 
All — Paint and Varnish" has become widely 
known. Its influence has done much to change 



the public attitude toward paint and varnish, but 
there is still much to be done. Formerly consid- 
ered as luxuries, largely for the purpose of 
beautification, these products are now being used 
as prime economic necessities for the preserva- 
tion of property, for cleanliness, and for their 
influence on morale. 

From the standpoint of the industry, the Save 
the Surface Campaign has done more than to 
create new markets and outlets for its products. 
Representing as it does a sales appeal common to 
every factor in the industry and sound as regards 
public policy, the Save the Surface Campaign 
has been the means of uniting the industry in 
an organized body, working efficiently in the 
public interest for surface protection of property. 

The Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company has been 
a consistent contributor to this movement and 
heartily indorses it. It is a campaign for the 
entire industry and will benefit alike the manu- 
facturer, jobber, dealer, painter, and consumer. 
Each should contribute to its success by active 
co-operation with the national movement. 




[122] 









BRUSHES 



'The Brush — As Important as the Paint or Varnish 9 







THE BRUSH- ITS HISTORY 



AMONG the implements which have 
f\ been used by man in his advance in 
-L A_ civilization, the brush has played a 
most important part. From the earliest days 
man has had the desire to express his 
thoughts and to chronicle events — first evi- 
denced in picture writing; but it was not 
until liquid paint came into use among the 
Egyptians that there was need of a brush. 
Previously colored earth had been used, 
applied in the fashion of a crayon. 

'The Egyptians had neither pencil nor 
stylus," wrote Maspero, the French archae- 
ologist, "but they used reeds, the ends of 
which, soaked in water and split into minute 
fragments, formed a brush more or less fine 
according to the size of the stem." With 
this simple tool were laid on the brilliant 
colors recording the great and intimate hap- 
penings and emotions of an unparalleled 
civilization. 

In the British Museum there are speci- 
mens of the tools and instruments used by 
these Egyptian painters, including palettes, 
remains of colors, a color box, and three 
brushes which appear to have been made 
of reeds or from the fibrous stem of palm 
leaves. 



The Greeks of the time of the Ptolemies 
used the tails and feet of small fur-bearing 
animals as brushes. To that age may be 
traced the origin of using a hare's foot for 
applying grease paints by the members of 
the theatrical profession. 

With the abandonment of the old sche- 
matic painting by the great Greek painters, 
led by Apollodorus of Athens, who flour- 
ished about 404 B.C., these Greeks devel- 
oped brushes more suitable for reproducing 
the forms and colors of nature. At first they 
were made of tiny feathers, then of hair, and 
later of bristles set into handles of terra cotta. 

Pliny "The Elder," the celebrated Roman 
naturalist, who perished in the eruption of 
Vesuvius 79 a.d., writing in his history 
of art says of Apollodorus that "he first 
bestowed true glory on the brush"; and of 
a contemporary of Apollodorus he wrote: 
"Zeuxis . . . gave to the painter's brush 
the full glory to which it before aspired." 

With the death of the civilization of 
Greece and Rome, art, with its demand for 
brushes, was lost in the Dark Ages until the 
dawn of the Renaissance. With the study of 
the literature of ancient Greece, brought into 
Italy by the Byzantine scholars, began the 



[125] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 






transition from the medieval to the modern 
world and the revival of classic art. 

The birth of this new art brought forth 
the artist brushes much as we have them 
today. Cennini in his "A Treatise on Paint- 
ing," written in 1437, says, "But you must 
first know how to make use of them [colors] , 
and this you cannot do without brushes. 
Two kinds of pencils are necessary, namely, 
pencils of miniver [probably ermine] and of 
hog's bristles." He then proceeds to tell 
how the brushes are to be made, for in those 
days the artist had to be a brush artisan 
as well. 

The soft-hair brushes were made in quills 
much as they are made today; the others 
were made of bundles of hog's bristles bound 
securely to a round stick with waxed thread. 
A little later brush-making became an indus- 



try and brush-makers' fraternities or guilds, 
as they were called, were organized in 
France and England and special privileges 
granted them. From the early Thirteenth 
Century it was the custom in England to 
whitewash the exterior of castles and then 
later to paint them with the colors red, blue, 
and green. It is evident from Cennini's 
"Make a large brush in which you put a 
pound of bristles, and bind them to a large 
stick . . . you may use this for whiten- 
ing walls," that thus was born the "pound 
brush" used until even this day. 

We find records of flat brushes (made of 
the "Stucco" type) being used in England 
about 1840, but it remained for the Amer- 
ican brush industry to develop the flat paint 
and varnish brush to its present practical 
shape and design. 



m 




[126] 




BRISTLE AND WHERE IT COMES FROM 



IT IS doubtful if in any other of the arts or 
manufactures a basic material, as important 
as bristles are to the brush industry, is so 
dependent on the peculiar tastes and customs of 
any people. Bristle is a by-product, salvaged 
from swine when they are killed for food. Pork 
is an important article of diet in most civilized 
countries, but were all who eat it of the same 
taste as we in this country, who relish it only 



when fat and young and tender, other materials 
than bristle would have to be found for paint 
and varnish application. Swine domesticated, 
carefully bred for food, and slaughtered as soon 
as they grow to maturity, do not produce bristle 
of length sufficient for brushes. The species of 
the swine and the climatic conditions under which 
they are grown, do, of course, influence the length 
and character of the bristle produced, but the 




A Chinese Boar 
Note the marked difference between the bristle carried by the Chinese Boar and that which we are accustomed to seeing on native swine. 

[127] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Drying Bristle 
Drying bristle in China before its preparation for shipment. 



From an actual photograph 




Samples of Chinese Bristle 
Showing several lengths and qualities, and examples of the Chinese wrapping. 

[128] 



BRISTLE AND WHERE IT COMES FROM 







Several Samples of Russian Bristle 
Contrast this with the neat way in which Chinese bristle is wrapped, as shown on the preceding page. 



age at which the animal is killed, as much per- 
haps as anything else, determines the value of the 
bristle for brush-making. The Chinese have long 
been known to value food by its age, and depend- 
ing as we do on China for a large part of our 
bristle supplies, we should be grateful for it. 

Bristles are so peculiarly suited to brushes 
that no substitute for them has ever been found 
or devised. Their consistent elasticity in most 
paint vehicles and the peculiar split end or 
"flag," which serves the double purpose of 
carrying the paint and spreading it evenly and 
smoothly, are advantageous properties of bristle 
distinctly its own. 

As the average contribution of a Chinese pig is 
less than a pound and a half of bristle suitable 
for brushes, some idea may be had of the diffi- 
culty of obtaining supplies in quantity sufficient 
to keep pace with the ever increasing consump- 
tion of paints and varnishes. 

Bristles are obtained in Poland, Russia, Si- 
beria, Bessarabia, Turkey, France, India, and 
China, the most valuable coming from the colder 



climates where the swine are least domesti- 
cated. It is within the last thirty years that the 
marketing of bristle has become an industry in 




A Bargain in Bristle 

It is here that the merchant makes his contract with the 
Chinese for future delivery. 



[129] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



China, but records of the collection and sorting 
of bristles in other countries date back over a 
century. Before the World War the best bristle 
came from Siberia and Russia, being brought in 
a raw state to the fairs at Irbit and Nizhni Nov- 
gorod, the latter the largest merchandise fair 
in the world, from which it was sent to Petrograd 
or Leipsic; both are old, established markets, 
probably the oldest in the world. 

In recent years the advantages of Chinese bris- 
tle have been exploited by the American manu- 
facturers and by far the greater part of the 
bristle marketed in China has found its way into 
American brushes. 

European and Siberian bristles are white, yel- 
low, gray, and black. Chinese bristles are white 
and black, $>nly the black Chinese being used in 
paint brushes. 

Bristles are to be found in every province of 
China and vary in quality, elasticity, and taper 
with the province from which they come and the 
methods of dressing peculiar to that province. 
Pigs are kept in great numbers; many millions 




Samples of Tampico and Horsehair 
Tampico is used only in cheaper grades of special brushes. 




A Bristle-Dressing Room in China 

Here the bristle, after being dressed to a certain degree, is wrapped in small bundles and packages, as illustrated 
on page 128, in preparation for shipment abroad. 

[130] 



BRISTLE AND WHERE IT COMES FROM 




Bristle in China 



d photograph 



This is only a superficial washing; all bristle must be washed again 
before careful manufacturers make it up into brushes. 

of them are raised each year. After a pig is 
slaughtered, boiling water is poured over the car- 
cass and the hairs are scraped off with an iron 
scraper. Only the stiff hairs on the back are 



dressed for bristle; the shorter soft hairs that 
grow on the belly and legs are used for fertilizer 
by the native farmers or made into rope. The 
dressers send their buyers to the different dis- 
tricts of the country to purchase these raw bris- 
tles. The bristles are put into gunny sacks and 
transported on horseback or wheelbarrow to the 
godowns, or shops where they are dressed. 

They are first washed and then combed out 
with wooden combs to clean them well and to 
remove all foreign matter and short hair. They 
are then arranged according to lengths, tied in 
bundles about an inch and a half in diameter, 
and wrapped, two bundles in a paper package, 
which is marked with the size and packer's 
brand. Packed in cases containing one hundred 
and ten or one hundred and thirty-three pounds, 
they are ready for market. 

Bristles are collected in China during the 
months between October and March, because in 
these months fish are scarce and the natives 
slaughter pigs for their New Year festivities. It 
is for this reason that the Chinese bristle market 
opens in March. The greater part of the year's 
output is invariably contracted for within sixty 
days thereafter. 













[ 131 ] 




DEVELOPMENT OF THE AMERICAN 
BRUSH INDUSTRY 



MODERN paint and varnish brushes owe 
their present state of perfection to Amer- 
ican ingenuity, thoroughness, and skill. 
France, perhaps, can still claim leadership in 
the manufacture of fine artist brushes, but Amer- 
ican-made painters' tools, brushes of American 
design and type, are in every way superior to 
anything made in any other part of the world. 



Brushes had been made in a commercial way 
across the seas long before the industry became 
established here. It was not until the early part 
of the last century that paint brushes were made 
in this country, though paints had been exten- 
sively used for many years. The industry has 
been developed, especially in the last twenty-five 
years, until the fame of our brushes has traveled 




A View in One of Our Storage Rooms 

Bristle in storage at the Rennous-Kleinle plant before the cases have been broken open. These goods alone represent 

an investment of approximately $750,000. 

[133] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Cupping Bristle 
The first step in the straightening process. 

around the globe, and they are being used in 
every civilized country in the world. Is it not 
strange that bristle from Russia should be 
brought to America, made into brushes, and sent 
back again? And that China, which has used 
brushes for writing for thousands of years, is 
using American paint and varnish brushes made 
from the bristle of her own hogs? 

It was in 1850 that our own brush factory 
had its beginning, with Baltimore, Maryland, as 
its birthplace. This plant, started in a small way, 
with highest quality for its standard, soon estab- 
lished for itself in the mind of the painter a 
reputation for the best in painters' tools. Pro- 
gressive, quick to approve and adopt new and 
better methods, its business steadily grew, as 
did the reputation of its product. 

Until 1891 the only bristle used, with the 
exception of very small quantities of domestic 
bristle, came from Russia, Germany, and France. 
In that year, after most careful study and ex- 
haustive experiments, Rennous, Kleinle & Com- 
pany introduced to the world the first full line 
of black Chinese bristle brushes. At first these 
brushes were not received with favor, but, when 
they began to demonstrate their real worth in 
use, the reputation of the pioneers in their 
manufacture began to attract the notice of the 
entire brush-using world. Soon their outstanding 
advantages and lower cost brought them into 
general use. 

The Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, as it 
launched out into the paint business, and came 




The Next Step 

Laying out the bristle in preparation of the batch formula; 
the first step after straightening. 

to realize the need of a factory for the mainte- 
nance of Pittsburgh quality standards and a de- 
pendable source of supply of brushes, acquired 
in 1901 an interest in the Rennous-Kleinle plant 
and the Horseshoe Brand. In 1912 Rennous, 
Kleinle & Company became one of the subsidi- 
ary companies of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass 
Company. 

Means for plant expansion were thus pro- 
vided ; with an enlarged organization came more 
intimate knowledge of the development in paint 
manufacturing and painting methods. This 
knowledge suggested and made possible the 
many important improvements in brush-making 
so acceptable to the men held responsible for 
successful results with the new finishes. 

On January first, 1921, Rennous, Kleinle & 
Company was, with other subsidiaries, consoli- 
dated with the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company 
and is now operating as the Rennous-Kleinle 
Division. 

Brush-making is a complicated process, but 
devoid of any mystery and, though little under- 
stood by those who ,use brushes, is intensely 
interesting. It is a modern mechanical method, 
employing advanced ideas in tools and machin- 
ery, and calling for the highest skill on the part 
of many artisans. The little journey through the 
Rennous-Kleinle Works that follows describes 
the more important processes and operations in- 
volved in better brush-making. 

All bristle, whether European or Asiatic, as 
it grows on the hog has a natural bend or crook. 



[134] 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE AMERICAN BRUSH INDUSTRY 




Mixing Machine 
One of the battery of mixing machines on which the bristle batches are mixed with scientific accuracy. 



Although dressed at its original point of col- 
lection, some of it even being bought as "straight- 
ened," it is still crooked when the brush manu- 
facturer receives it. Under old processes, still 
followed in the making of some kinds of brushes, 
especially long-stock Russian bristle calcimine, 
and fine French bristle artist brushes, this bend, 
by clever manipulation in the hands of the ar- 
tisan, is turned in toward the center of the brush. 
With the introduction of Chinese bristle, more 
modern and effective methods of handling these 
bends were found — the bristle is straightened. 
It is a peculiar property of bristle that when it 
is put into a liquid, this bend is greatly in- 
creased. Obviously, a brush made of unstraight- 
ened stock, with these bends running in all direc- 
tions, would finger and flare and make good work 
an impossibility. 

European bristle is washed with soap and 
water on a scrubbing board. After a thorough 
rinsing, handfuls of the bristle are taken and, 
with the bends all turned toward the center, each 
handful is tightly and closely wound with string 



throughout its entire length. When the bundles 
are dried and the string is removed, the bristle 
is straight. 

Chinese bristle is straightened by another 
equally efficient method. Bristle is very absorb- 
ent, and it is this property which is turned to 
advantage in the straightening process. The 
bristle is tightly packed in perforated galvanized 
iron cones open at both ends. The cones are then 
placed in water, containing a soap solution to 
remove the dirt, and boiled for several hours. 
The bristles, absorbing water freely, swell and, 
under the pressure exerted over their entire 
length, the cones being made of the same relative 
taper, are made perfectly straight from butt to 
flag. They are then dried in a vacuum dryer. 
This washing and straightening of the bristle is 
the first operation in the making of any brush. 

Many kinds of bristle, each with its peculiar 
properties and several lengths, are utilized in 
the building of brushes to meet their special 
requirements. Just as the modern paint chem- 
ist uses various combinations of pigments and 



[135] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 







Weighing Bristle 

In this operation scrupulous accuracy is of the 
highest importance. 

vehicles to produce his desired results, our 
brushes are built to formulas as carefully and 
scientifically predetermined. The batches of 
bristle and the quantity which go into a brush 
are as carefully ascertained as the constituents 
of the batches themselves. 

The mixing of the various component parts of 
a bristle batch is a most interesting process. 
Here the introduction of modern semi-automatic 
machinery makes possible greatly reduced costs 
and better results. An illustration on page 134 



Laying Out Brushes 
One of the operations in setting up calcimine brushes. 

shows the workers laying out the eight or ten 
kinds or sizes of bristle that go to make the 
batch, each kind or size laid out in a thin layer, 
one on top of the other, until the required for- 
mula has been completed — this preparatory to 
mixing them. On the extreme right in the 
same picture a worker is shown mixing bristle 
by the old method of halving a handful, laying 
one half on top of the other and repeating this 
operation until the various sizes and kinds are 
thoroughly intermixed. After each operation he 




Making Varnish Brushes 
Setting up flat and oval varnish brushes; these illustrations show clearly the method of chiseling. 

[136] 






DEVELOPMENT OF THE AMERICAN BRUSH INDUSTRY 





Setting Up Brushes 

Setting up leather bound flat paint or stucco brushes. 

draws his handful through a bench comb to keep 
the bristle straight. This rather slow, though 
effective method has been greatly improved in 
the machine illustrated, which handles bristle of 
all lengths and kinds, mixing them thoroughly 
and with little waste. Numbers of these ma- 
chines provide the steady flow of prepared bristle 
to the brush-makers. After a batch is mixed it is 
carefully bundled and wrapped to preserve it in 
workable condition; it is then stored subject to 
the requirements of the brush-making depart- 



Nailing Leather Bound Brushes 
Regular nailing requires a skillful operator, 

ments. Several hundreds of these batches are 
required to make the various sizes of the many 
kinds of brushes demanded of the industry. 

The bristle batch and quantity of bristle which 
go into a brush are determined with equal care. 
It will be of interest to follow the processes 
through which some of the more important kinds 
of brushes pass. 

The brush mostly used by the modern painter 
is the flat paint brush, either metal or leather 
bound. The first operation in making is "set- 




Cementing Metal Bound Flat Paint Brushes 

Note the way in which the cement is first poured and then forced about the 
bristle by hot compressed air. 

[137] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Nailing Machines 
A force of nailing machines where ferrules are firmly attached to the bristle end of the brush with amazing rapidity. 



ting up." The brush formula calls for a certain 
weight in each brush. The brush-maker carefully 
weighs out of the designated batch to a variation 
of less than one sixty-fourth of an ounce the 
quantity required by the formula, laying the 
bristle in piles overlapping one another until 
the required number of brushes is provided for. 
Next taking one of the little piles and carefully 
butting the stock down solid, he puts it into the 
metal band. In the case of leather bound brushes 
a temporary metal band is used. Then inserting 
a strip of wood, fiber, or cardboard between the 
bristle at the butt end, he pulls the bristle through 
the ferrule to its required length, and carefully 
combs the bristle so that it will lie perfectly 
straight. This accomplished, he is ready for the 
next operation. 

Some brushes are cased, that is, the outer part 
of them has bristle of a different batch than has 
the middle. This casing of the brush is a simple 
process. The brush-maker first takes his casing 
and lays it flat on the edge of his bench, the flag 
end of the bristle overhanging; the middle is then 
placed upon the casing. Laying this bristle in 



the palm of his left hand, he puts his right thumb 
into the center of it, closing his left thumb and its 
handful of bristle around the right one; he with- 
draws his right thumb and the trick is done. 

Here the similarity in the making of the metal 
and leather bound brushes ceases. The metal 
bound brush next goes to the cementing bench. 
Brush-makers' cement is a rather heavy-bodied 
shellac varnish. It is made of pure rosin-free 
shellac, with alcohol as a solvent and small 
quantities of neutral oils added to prevent its 
drying brittle-hard. This cement is poured into 
the open end of the ferrule and is then -blown 
under compressed hot air to insure its surround- 
ing every single bristle. 

Many brushes are now made with the bristle 
vulcanized in rubber instead of set in cement or 
glue. The butt ends of the bristles are thoroughly 
surrounded with liquid rubber and then vulcan- 
ized into a solid block. This process of setting is 
not complicated, though it involves many addi- 
tional operations. 

The next step is to the semi-automatic nailing 
machines where the nails are driven through the 



[ 138 ] 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE AMERICAN BRUSH INDUSTRY 



ferrule and bristle. The nails are then cut off 
and clinched. The handle is next inserted; the 
two or three heading nails which secure the 
handle and ferrule are driven at one operation. 

In leather bound brushes the cement is rubbed 
into the butt end of the brush, after which the 
temporary metal band is replaced with the leather 
one. The brush is hailed by hand, when the 
cement has hardened sufficiently. 

The proper taper of paint brushes is obtained 
by mixing various lengths of bristle in the batch. 
Varnish brushes, on the other hand, are made of 
bristle of more nearly the same length. The 
taper, or chisel, as it is called, is formed by 
gradually shortening the bristle on each of the 
two faces. This is done by putting the bristle 



flag end down into a cup, the inner shape of 
which is that desired for the finished brush. 

The illustrations of both oval and flat var- 
nish brush-making clearly show the process. 
This chiseling is never done by trimming or by 
grinding on an abrasive wheel, or any method 
which would remove the soft flag ends of the 
bristle. These are a necessity to good brushes. 

Just as care and skill are important in the 
actual making, so too are they important in the 
various steps in finishing. The brushes are beaten 
out to remove any loose bristles, trimmed, buffed, 
wrapped, and boxed, each operation so per- 
formed that the finished product will pass in- 
spection, meeting the Pittsburgh Plate Glass 
Company standards for the best in brushes. 




A Handle-Nailing Machine 



[139] 




Soft Hair Bearing Animals 

Principal animals which contribute some part of their fur to the manufacture of high grade soft hair brushes. 

(a) Siberian Squirrels, the trade name for whose fur is Camel Hair. (n) Civet (Spotted Skunk). (c) European Badger. 

(d) American Badger. (e) Mink, whose fur is known to the trade as Red Sable. (p) Skunk. (g) Genet. 

[140] 




SOFT HAIR— WHAT IT IS AND WHERE 
IT COMES FROM 



BRISTLE, because of the great quantity used 
in brush-making, has elevated the boar to 
a position of importance in this industry, 
but other animals also play a material part in 
making possible much of the decorative and pre- 
servative painting and varnishing of today. 

The brushes used by painter, decorator, and 
artist are broadly classified as bristle brushes 
and soft hair brushes. Were it not for the ox 
hair used, the term "fur brushes" would be more 
descriptive than "soft hair," for we depend upon 
our fur-bearing animals, particularly the various 
members of the weasel family— the sable, ko- 
linsky, skunk, and badger, for the material used 
in many brushes. Goat hair is used for some of 
the cheaper brushes. 

Although a substantial amount of this mate- 
rial is obtained in our own country, much of it 
is to be found only in the innermost sections of 
Siberia. 

The soft, straight hair, of which the so-called 
camel hair brushes are made, is clipped from 
the tails of Russian and Siberian squirrels. 
These are better furred than the American squir- 
rels, whose hair is not suitable for brushes. 

It is an interesting and notable fact that the 
fur of the squirrel, which is red in Germany, be- 
comes gray in the winter coat as we approach 
the eastern part of Europe, growing darker and 
darker as we journey east, until it reaches an 
almost black color along the Pacific coast. Thus, 



while all members of the same family, these 
little animals produce hair of entirely different 
colors, though much the same in quality. 

This hair is classified as Kazan, Sakkamina, 
and Talahutky. The province of Kazan furnishes 
red and reddish gray skins. Light blue skins 
are found in the Yeniseisk, and skins of deep, 
steel blue color in the province of Yakutsk in 
far eastern Siberia. These are the Sakkamina 
squirrels; the hair is usually referred to by the 
trade as "blue." Talahutky squirrels from south- 
ern Siberia are scarce and the hair is used only 
in lettering and striping brushes. It is gray with 
a pronouncedly darker stripe near the tip. It 
resembles badger hair in appearance, though 
much finer. 

Squirrel hair is straight and fine in texture, 
but not very elastic. It makes an ideal brush for 
applying japan colors, lacquer, and similar light- 
bodied varnishes, and for fine bronzing. It is 
used for lettering and striping brushes, but is not 
so well suited to this purpose as sable or ox hair. 

Of all the furs used by the brush-maker the 
most valuable, perhaps, is red sable or Siberian 
mink. This hair is very fine, has strong, sharp 
points, great elasticity, and carries color well. 
It is used exclusively for fine artist and lettering 
brushes. The red sable, or kolinsky, as it is 
called by the furrier, is about fifteen inches long, 
has an eight-inch tail, and is of a rich yellow or 
brownish yellow color — it is not red. It is found 



[ 141 ] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




Soft Hair 
Some of the many materials used in soft hair brushes. The G-inch scale at the right will give an idea of the length of the hair. 



in Siberia in the district east of the Yenesei River. 
Comparatively few of these animals are caught 
and the fur is very expensive. 

The finest lettering or striping brushes are 
made from the tail hair of the sable of Russia 
and Siberia, . called black sable by the trade. 
This hair is straight, elastic, of uniform taper, 
and has splendid points; it is especially desir- 
able for the longer lettering and striping brushes. 
As it is scarce, there are many substitutes, though 
nothing serves so well. The so-called black sable 
used in sign writers' and flowing brushes is civet. 

Civet hair is obtained from the tail of the civet 
cat of commerce. (This animal should not be 
confused with the civet cat of Africa, which it 
does not resemble in any way.) It is the little 
striped skunk found chiefly in our western, cen- 
tral, and southern states; this animal is not so 
large as the true skunk, being only about one 
foot long, but having a tail nearly as long 
as its body. The body is black, marked with 
white square-like patterns — designs unusual in 
nature. The tail hair, which is black and very 
long, is straight and regular, has good points, 



and is fairly elastic. It is used for lettering, 
striping, sign writers', and lacquering brushes, 
and when so used is often called black sable. 

In this country, so-called fitch hair is clipped 
from the tails of the American skunk. The gen- 
eral color of the animal is brownish black. It 
has a tip of white on the head and is marked 
on the back with white stripes of considerable 
variation; the long, bushy tail has a white tip. 
The skunk is found in almost every part of the 
United States, but the quality of the hair varies. 
The finest skins come from Michigan, Ohio, New 
York, Pennsylvania, and the lower Dominion of 
Canada. The hair of the animals found in these 
sections is blacker and more regular in form, 
with greater tensile strength and better points. 
(Tail hair only is used in brushes — the black 
in fitch brushes, the white mixed with badger to 
reduce the cost of badger brushes.) 

Skunk hair is not used alone to any great 
extent. It is too coarse to substitute for civet 
and has not sufficient elasticity for good varnish 
flowing brushes. When mixed with Chinese bris- 
tle in proper proportion it makes an excellent 



[142] 



SOFT HAIR 



brush. The hair of the American black bear, 
while sometimes employed in brushes, is never 
used alone. Though of great strength, it is too 
kinky to be used in large proportion; it is used 
mixed with bristle, skunk, or other hair. 

For many years the carriage painter has 
looked upon badger as the only hair for flowing 
varnish brushes. While their cost does restrict 
their use to a degree, there seems to be an in- 
creasing demand for badger brushes. Badger 
haip is very elastic and has greater tensile 
strength than any other soft hair; it makes the 
best possible brush for flowing carriage or auto- 
mobile varnishes. 

The badger is found throughout Europe, Asia, 
Canada, and the central and western portions of 
the United States. The best hair comes from 
Russia, Siberia, Macedonia, and the Balkans 
generally. The cost of imported badger skins, 
however, has encouraged the greater use of 
American hair, although the latter is too soft 
for the better grades of brushes. 

Cattle, too, contribute to brush-making; the 
long, soft hair which prevents insects intruding 
too far into their ears, makes excellent flowing 
brushes for enamel and color varnishes and for 
certain kinds of sign writers' brushes. The best 
ox hair comes from Europe; it is lighter in color, 
stronger, and more elastic than the American 
hair, though some excellent brushes have been 
made from our own product. 



Goat hair is the least important of the group. 
It is largely obtained from pieces salvaged when 
making goatskin robes and coats. It lacks elas- 
ticity and its natural kink cannot be straightened. 
It is used either in its natural brown color or 
dyed black for the cheaper grades of mottling 
and bronzing brushes. 

Japanese pony hair has little value though it 
does masquerade as "camel hair." Genet, the 
dyed tail hair of the ringtail and other wild cats, 
is also used as a substitute for squirrel; it is 
soft, silky, and of attractive appearance. 

The preparation of soft hair is tedious and 
costly. When the tails are received they are put 
into revolving drums and treated with hot saw- 
dust to remove the dirt and animal fat. The hair 
is clipped close to the skin, carefully washed 
and rinsed, then put into small bundles and 
wound with string to straighten it. When it is 
dry it is combed to remove all wool and dragged 
into lengths. Great skill is necessary to avoid 
tearing or destroying the points, as these points 
mean everything in soft hair brushes. Badger 
hair is pulled from the hide. It is washed, 
dragged, and dressed as is other soft hair, but 
in addition is bleached to make it as white as 
possible. 

Acknowledgment is made to Gerrit 5. Miller, Jr., 
of the Smithsonian Institution, United States National 
Museum, for his helpful criticisms and suggestions in 
compiling information on soft hair bearing animals. 




[ 143 ] 







c 





- 


6fl 


^z 


Q> 


;< 


H 






w: 






-. 


^ 


a 




i — 


I 


ft. 


pC 


"< 




•— . 




Q 


- 










*« 


Z 


^ 




=: 


c 


k. 




sq 















MERCHANDISING BRUSHES 



T^TnTln!:,: Paimei i Z m 7 e £ r St ™ m V™ h ™™ development of brushes for 

needs than is fctSS ""r - f ° r t" ^ maSter PaiDter - In t0Uch at a11 time * with 

needs than is his fellow artisan m other changes in paint- and varnish-making we are 

countnes. Although brushes were made else- constantly improving brushes to meet'he neeS 



where many years before the 

industry was started in America, 

the thought and care devoted to 

the art of brush-making by our 

manufacturers here have made 

possible better and more practical 

brushes than are to be found in 

other lands. 

The American types, with few 

exceptions, are distinctly different. 

Our characteristic habit of making 

things to produce best the work 

expected of them, of departing 
from old ideas and quickly adopt- 
ing new ones immediately their 
worth is proved, has created 
brushes of notably better quality, 
brushes, indeed, producing more 
and finer work. 

In this development the Ren- 
nous-Kleinle Division has been for 

many years among the foremost, Brushes of 

contributing its full share of Oriental Manufacture 

improvements and refinements in manufacture 
and many new types of brushes that have added 
greatly to the efficiency of painting. 

The acquisition of Rennous, Kleinle & Com- 
pany by the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company 
brought resources in knowledge of materials and 
painting methods which have made possible a 




of the new painting methods. 

We qualify as specialists in the 
making of painters' tools and 
recommend only brushes that we 
know are practical and econom- 
ical to use. 

We illustrate and describe here 
a number of lines of brushes; 
while they are but general exam- 
ples of Rennous-Kleinle manu- 
facture, they are the best of their 
types. We recommend them to 
the painter with the assurance, 
founded on years of their success, 
that better brushes cannot now be 
made. 

The Extra Black Stucco Leath- 
er Bound Flat Paint Brush has 
for many years enjoyed a larger 
sale and use than any brush of 
similar kind. It is made of pure 
black Chinese bristle — a mixture 
of several kinds and lengths to pro- 
duce a brush satisfactory not only when first put 
into work, but one which gives complete satisfac- 
tion throughout a long life. It is a brush that 
needs no breaking in. 

This brush contains much stock; it is a quarter 
of an inch oversize; but it is made with such 
refinement and consideration for balance that it 



[145] 



■■■ 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




The Three Leaders in the Brush Industry 
The Extra Black Stucco, Leather Bound, Sfeelbound, Metal Bound Stucco Type, and Best Black, Metal Bound, Flat Paint Brushes. 



is more satisfactory than most brushes made with 
less stock. It is made in all widths and will do 
much more work than most stucco brushes. 

The Steelbound is a metal bound brush of 
the stucco type; it is a recent development. In 
creating this excellent master painter's tool we 
have successfully avoided the criticism leveled 
against attempts to make a similar metal bound 
stucco: that of being too heavy and awkwardly 
out of balance. 

Our metal bound stucco is made with a very 
narrow band, so light that it balances perfectly. 
This brush has won many friends among users 
of both leather and metal bound brushes, since 
it combines advantages of both types. It is made 
of the same carefully selected Chinese bristle 
used in the leather bound stucco and is vulcanized 
in rubber. It is recommended as a highly satis- 
factory painter's tool. 

Many painters prefer the metal bound or so- 
called wall type of brush. To these men we 
recommended the Best Black, a brush made of 
the same stock used in our best leather bound 
brushes, and a brush made with every con- 
sideration for the master painter's needs. The 



brush is proof against shedding. It is a tool 
of such pre-eminent quality that it dominates an 
overcrowded field. 

In many parts of this country the oval style 
paint and varnish brush, an outgrowth of the 
old "pound" brush, is now extensively used. As 
these brushes are now made, slightly oval and 
chiseled ready for use, they have great merit. 

Efforts have been made to manufacture 
brushes of this type with a so-called solid center 
construction. We too make a solid center oval, 
but find these latter brushes less elastic, more 
difficult to keep clean, and of shorter actual wear- 
ing length than the open center oval. 

We are decidedly in favor of the open center 
brush and recommend to users of oval paint 
and varnish brushes our Useful as the highest- 
grade brush of the type. 

For varnishing, this brush in the smaller sizes 
or a similar one, such as the Mikado, is sug- 
gested with confidence in your satisfaction. 

Many master painters prefer flat brushes for 
varnishing or enameling, and with a full knowl- 
edge of the requirements for the proper applica- 
tion of modern varnish and enamels, we created, 



[146] 



MERCHANDISING BRUSHES 









Paint and Varnish Brushes 
Moderate-priced brushes that are designed for severe service: the Black Filler Metal Bound Flat Paint Chnnn Fl t V ■ u u- ^ 
■ IW Metal Bound Flat Paint J*^ Flat Varnish, and ^Sffi^^ VarDlsh ' *"* 

All of these brushes enjoy tremendous popularity. 



several years ago, the master brush which is now 
known as the Apollo. The Apollo was offered for 
sale only after exhaustive tests in the hands of 
practical master painters; 
we recommend it as fully 
embodying the most com- 
prehensive knowledge of 
brush requirements. 

The Apollo, like all the 
other leaders of our line, 
is vulcanized in rubber 
and made of pure black 
Chinese bristle of selected 
quality. In the larger sizes 
it is of exceptional merit 
for flowing either varnish, 
enamels, or shellac; the 
one and one-half inch size 
is an excellent sash or trim- 
ming brush. 

Our XXX China, which 
is probably one of the best 
known styles of flat varnish 
brushes, is made of care- 




1 



Oval Varnish Brush Construction 



To the left is sectional view of a solid Oval Varnish Brush 
with plan of block in larger scale, showing separating 
pegs. In the center is an open center Oval Varnish Brush, 
and, at right, a sectional view showing its construction! 



fully selected black Chinese bristle, and since 
it is vulcanized in rubber can be used without 
danger of shedding in any vehicle that will not 
actually destroy the rub- 
ber. It is a brush thor- 
oughly established by 
years of continued success. 
Excellent sash or trim 
brushes of either flat or 
oval style, as desired, are 
offered in the Master Paint- 
er and Tycoon sash. Both 
are vulcanized in rub- 
ber, and the latter, which 
is oval, is made with a spe- 
cial seamless tubular steel 
ferrule which will not split. 
While unquestionably 
the use of Chinese bristle 
in paint or varnish brushes 
has been completely justi- 
fied, brushes for calcimine, 
however, require bristle 
of a heavier texture and 



[147] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 






Preferred by Those Who Know Good Varnish Brushes 

The XXX China and Apollo Flat Varnish Brushes; the Master Painter Flat Sash or Trim; the Winner Black 

and Tycoon Oval Sash Brushes. 



larger flag to maintain the necessary elasticity 
and carry the required amount of calcimine. 

For many years there has existed a marked 
preference for. white or yellow bristle in such 
brushes, and as the difference in 
cost between white, or yellow, and 
gray Russian bristle was small, 
many flat calcimine brushes were 
made entirely of white bristle, or 
yellow cased with white. 

With the shortage of Russian 
bristle, developed during the war, 
and a greater demand for the yel- 
low and white bristle for other pur- 
poses, the difference in cost be- 
tween the white and yellow, and the 
gray became so great that we do not 
believe the best interests of the 
calciminer are served by making 
these brushes of either all white or 
white and yellow stock. 

Obtained from the same kind of 
swine, the several colors of Rus- 
sian bristle are similar in texture 



No, 26 Stranglehold 

Painter's Duster 

The Guarantee: "If it sheds a knot 

within six months, we will give you 

another brush." 



and elasticity; no color has advantages for calci- 
mine brushes which the others have not. We, 
therefore, with the belief that we are providing 
the most efficient brushes, and brushes that still 
make for economy of the user, 
recommend to the calciminer our 
Superfine and Master Painter, both 
brushes made of gray bristle with 
a heavy yellow casing, and both 
made of the very finest qualities of 
bristle that are to be obtained. 

No painter's kit is complete with- 
out a suitable duster. The DLo. 26 
Stranglehold provides an inexpen- 
sive, thoroughly practical duster 
which is guaranteed not to shed. 
Its construction is that used in our 
Dutch calcimine brush. 

Calcimine brushes of the so- 
called "Dutch" types are almost 
exclusively used in the Western 
part of this country. 

With a thorough knowledge of 
the needs of the trade and the serv- 




[148] 



MERCHANDISING BRUSHES 






ice expected of such a brush after much experi- this brush, as in the Stranglehold, only Russian 



menting we introduced the Stranglehold family 
of calcimine brushes. 

These brushes carry more stock than can be 
put into the same size brush of other construction. 



(a) The Super- 
fins Flat Calci- 
mine Brush, a 
great favorite 

with users of the 
flat style. 




Types of Calcimine Brushes 



(b) Stranglehold Calcimine. 
This is a development of the Pitts- 
burgh Plate Glass Co. Insert shows 
the method of construction. 

The bristle is vulcanized 
into a solid rubber block 
which, of course unaf- 
fected by water, will not 
warp or split. 

The bristle is set in knots for the well-known 
advantages of this style of setting. Because of 
its compactness this brush will wear much closer 
to the block than any other calcimine brush with- 
out becoming stubby. 

If it sheds a knot in six months we will give 
you another brush. It is more costly than other 
Dutch types, but it is by far the most economical 
brush made. It is manufactured in various sizes 
and lengths of bristles. 

The construction of these brushes is clearly 
shown in the illustration. 

To those calciminers who prefer a Dutch brush 
with the bristle set in rows instead of knots, we 



bristle of the highest quality is used. The bristle 
is vulcanized in rubber. The brush, bound with 
a protective steel ferrule, is designed to combine 
compactness, strength, and comfortable balance 
with the greater calcimine capacity; it also is 
made in various sizes and lengths. 

With the growth of the motor-car industry 
has come a steadily increasing demand for de- 
pendable brushes for automobile painting. 

This Division maintains a soft hair brush 
factory which meets every possible need of the 
most exacting — in color, flowing, striping, and 
all the other special brushes of the soft hair 
trade. 

In this plant every sort of soft hair brush 
for the artist, the signwriter, and 
the letterer is made in a distinctly 
American way; it produces brushes 
to satisfy the most critical. 

With the introduction by the paint 
and varnish manufacturer of many 
specialties for household and non- 
professional use, there has followed 
a corresponding demand for brushes 
to apply these finishes. 

Unfor tunately too little consid- 
eration has been given to 



(c) The new Am- 
sterdam Continu- 
ous Row, Dutch 
Calcimine Brush. 




offer our latest development, the Amsterdam. In 



these tools for the amateur, too little considera- 
tion to the thought: "The brush— as important 
as the paint or varnish.' 9 

Good paint cannot be applied successfully 
with poor brushes. Every dealer should realize 
this and so instruct his clerks that suitable 



[149] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




«!»)»' 



HfiMPLOTbLi 







Horseshoe Brand Brushes are Packed for Protection 

Nearly all bristle brushes are individually wrapped, the wrappers of the small brushes fastened with rubber bands, the larger 
ones are tied with string. The brushes are then packed in boxes of convenient size. Soft hair brushes are packed in papers of one- 
half dozen brushes, two papers in a box. The boxes are distinctively labeled in two colors; these boxes are then packed in strong 
wooden cases, which are bound with metal strips, locked, and sealed for shipment. 

[150] 



MERCHANDISING BRUSHES 




The Rennous-Kleinle Brush Keeper 



Not only does this keeper give ample protection to the brushes, but keeps the bristle straight and 
the oil at a constant level at all times. 



brushes will be sold with every paint and varnish 
product. 

We do not believe it necessary for the- average 
paint dealer to carry a line of great variety; on 
the contrary, we suggest a small line of brushes 
carefully selected to meet his trade requirements. 
This class of trade being less likely to exercise 
proper care of brushes when not in use, we 
recommend the vulcanized in rubber lines here 
illustrated. 

As manufacturers of thousands of kinds of 
brushes we are able to meet every requirement 
for the application of paint or varnish in what- 
soever field of industry or art they are used. 

Complete stocks cf the most frequently used 
brushes are to be found in our many Warehouses. 
All inquiries covering special requirements di- 
rected to any of these Warehouses will be an- 
swered promptly through the proper channel. 

No treatise on brushes would be complete 
without reference to their care, both while in 
stock and after they have been put into use. 

Improvement in the setting material used 
makes brushes nowadays less liable to damage 
than formerly, but reasonable care should be ex- 



ercised to prevent their drying out and being 
damaged by moths. 

The best damage preventive is a frequent 
stock turnover. 

A carefully selected short line of brushes pur- 
chased under our plan of merchandising will 
insure better brushes to the consumer, at better 
prices, and at a far greater profit to the dealer 
than ever was possible under the old method. 
Our system of displaying stock can be followed 
with profit by every brush dealer. Let us tell 
you about it at your convenience. 

It has been said that more brushes are de- 
stroyed by improper care after being put into 
service than ever are worn out. The statement 
carries much truth. Strange to say, painters 
themselves are great offenders and do not give 
their brushes the care their cost and good work- 
manship demand. 

^ Never put paint or varnish brushes into water, 
either before or after they are put into service; 
water makes bristle soft and moppy; it spoils 
the best of brushes. 

Oval brushes can be tightened by pouring a 
little water on the butt end of the handle, in the 



[151] 






PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



center of the brush, allowing it to be absorbed 
by the butts of the bristle; but the brush should 
never be submerged. We illustrate on the pre- 
ceding page a brush keeper which insures per- 
fect protection for the brushes and which main- 
tains the proper level of oil at all times. 

After service, suspend your brushes in raw 
linseed oil, free of the bottom of the container, 
deep enough to allow the oil to reach above the 
bottom of the band or strap. 

Varnish brushes should be kept in a separate 
container and thoroughly washed out in some 
paint solvent, such as turpentine or Leptyne, be- 
fore being put into varnish again. 

Thoroughly wash out your calcimine and 
whitewash brushes and hang them, bristles down- 
ward, to dry after use. 



Never put a damp brush into work; you will 
find it lifeless. 

Flowing brushes should be suspended free 
from the bottom in varnish, color brushes in 
turpentine, in a dust proof container. 

Lettering and striping brushes are best kept 
by cleaning them and flattening them out in non- 
drying oil on a piece of glass. 

Naphthaline is the best moth preventive and 
should be used freely on all brushes kept in 
stock, with the single exception of pitch-set 
brushes — naphthaline will destroy pitch. 

All Rennous-Kleinle brushes are made with 
the purpose for which they are to be used defi- 
nitely in mind. They are finished to present the 
best sales appeal, and are sturdily and attrac- 
tively boxed, as high class merchandise should be. 




Soft Hair Brushes 

Miscellaneous soft hair brushes of Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. 
manufacture. These brushes are all favorites in their held. 



[152] 



LIST OF BRUSHES WITH SPECIFICATIONS 

PARTIAL LIST OF HORSESHOE BRAND BRUSHES 

WITH SPECIFICATIONS 



LEATHER BOUND OR STUCCO TYPE 
FLAT PAINT BRUSHES 

All Leather Bound Flat Paint brushes are made of pure 
black Chinese bristle. No adulterations will be found in them. 
They are set with cement, bound with black leather on natural 
varnished handles, and striped with black. Six brushes are 
packed in a box. 

Width inches 3 3^ 4 43^ 5 

Length Clear inches 

Extra Black Stucco 4A 4>A 4% 5 5 

Master Painter Stucco 4A ^A 4% 4% 4% 

Tycoon Stucco 8j| 4j/g 4%, 4% 

Duchess Stucco 3% 4% 4 X A *A ■ • 

METAL BOUND FLAT PAINT BRUSHES 

Metal Bound Flat Paint brushes are made of pure black 
Chinese bristle, vulcanized in rubber, and equipped with natural 
varnished handles. Six brushes are packed in a box. 

Width inches 23^ 3 3^ 4 4^ 5 6 

Length Clear inches 

Best Black 

Master Painter . . 

Arkay $A 

Black Filler %% 

Leader 234 

Crackerjack (cement set) %Y% 

Service. . •. " . '. " 3% 

345 Steelbound (Stucco 

Type) 4M *A 4% 5 5 

OVAL VARNISH BRUSHES 

USEFUL 
Pure black Chinese bristle, open center, elastic and toppy, 
cement set, nickel ferrule, bridled or unbridled, natural var- 
nished beaver-tail handle, black stripe. Packed six in a box. 

Size 6 

Width inches 23^ 

Length Clear inches 3 % 

MIKADO 
Similar in descriptive detail to the Useful 
smaller and lighter brush. 



4V* 


m 


iVn 


4H 


4V* 


3*A 


4 


h\i 


iVz 


m 


*M 


sy 2 


»H 


4 


4>4 


&A 


2 7 /s 


aH 


m 


sV?. 


%Vl 


w 


3 


%M 


sv?, 


2H 


*X 


&A 


m 


*Vs 



7 

*A 



8 

m 



9 10 12 

m *h m 

434 &A 4K 
but a much 



2 

1% 



Size 1/0 

Width inches \% 

Length Clear inches 9.% 

Size . 6/0 

Width. inches \% 

Length Clear inches $A &A 



3/0 

\% 

SA 

7/0 8/0 



4/0 
9/0 

m 



5/0 

m 

10/0 

m 

&A 



CHESAPEAKE 

An excellent brush of the flat oval type, pure black Chinese 
bristle, solid, vulcanized in rubber, nickel ferrule, natural 
varnished flat oval handle, striped black. Packed six in a box. 



Size . 



1 

3's 



m 



3 



Width inches 

Length Clear inches 

TRUMPS 

Identical in detail with the Chesapeake, except smaller 
dimensions. Packed six in a box. 

Size Spades Clubs Diamonds Hearts 

Width inches 1% 1% J% %y % 

Length Clear inches 23^ %A %K 3 



FLAT VARNISH BRUSHES 

The following Flat Varnish brushes are made of pure black 
Chinese bristle, chiseled, and vulcanized in rubber. They have 
nickeled ferrules and natural varnished handles, and are 
packed twelve in a box. In the three-inch and larger sizes the 
Arcadia and Spar are packed six in a box. The Black Bird and 
Fan Tan are cement set, tin bound, and have plain unvarnished 
handles. 

Width inches 1 lA 2 2^ 3 33^ 4 

Length Clear inches 

Arcadia %A %A 2% 3 SA ... 

Apollo &A 2J4 3A W% 3% $A 

XXX China.. %A m %% 3M SA %A 



Chang \% 2 %A tiA 2H 

Four-Fifty 1% \% 2}/ 8 2^ &A 

Black Bird 1% \% 1% 2 %A 

Fan Tan \% 1% 1% V>A \% 



SASH BRUSHES 

TYCOON (OVAL) 

Pure black Chinese bristle, chiseled, vulcanized in rubber, 
seamless oval nickel ferrule, natural varnished handle. Packed 
twelve in a box. 



Size . 



2 



8 



5 6 

Width inches % % % % 1 

Length Clear inches 1A 1% 1% ty* 1% 

Size 7 8 9 10 12 

Width inches l>jj VA lM \% 1% 

Length Clear inches 2 23^8 %H %% %H 

MASTER PAINTER (FLAT) 
Pure black Chinese bristle, double thick, chiseled, vulcanized 
in rubber, nickel bound, natural varnished long half-round 
handle. Packed twelve in a box. 



Width inches 

Length Clear inches 



iA 

%A 



2 






DUTCH CALCIMINE BRUSHES 

STRANGLEHOLD 
Gray Russian bristle of finest quality, vulcanized in a solid 
hard-rubber block, natural varnished block and handle. Packed 
one in a box. 



Size.. 1-S 3-S 

Dimensions inches 7Ax2% 

Length Clear inches 434 4 A 



5-S 
5 



CONTINUOUS ROW CALCIMINE BRUSHES 

A new type of Dutch Calcimine construction described and 
illustrated on page 149. These brushes are made of gray Rus- 
sian bristle. 



Size 10 20 30 

Length Clear . . inches 

Appingedam .. ... 4j^ 

Vreendam 4 4A 4A 

Amsterdam ... 4A* 

Rotterdam 4 4 l A ^A 

Vandam 4 4A 4>A 



40 

m 

4M 



50 Block 



2%*7A 



[ 153 ] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 

PARTIAL LIST OF HORSESHOE BRAND BRUSHES 
WITH SPECIFICATIONS — Continued 



FLAT CALCIMINE BRUSHES 

SUPERFINE 
Pure yellow Russian bristle casing, middle of pure gray 
Russian bristle, vulcanized in rubber, bound with galvanized 
iron, unvarnished poplar handle. Packed three in a box. 

Width indies 7 8 

Length Clear. . - -inches 5 l A 5 6 A 

MASTER PAINTER 

Pure yellow Russian bristle casing, middle of pure gray 
Russian bristle, similar to but of lighter weight than the 
Superfine. 

Width • inches 7 8 

Length Clear inches 5M &A 

ROSS 

Similar to but lighter than the Master Painter. 

Width inches 7 

Length Clear inches 5 

NICKEL PLATE 
Pure black Chinese bristle, stiff and heavy, vulcanized in 
rubber, nickel bound, natural varnished handle. Packed three 
in a box. 

Width inches 6 7 

Length Clear .inches W% 4% 



8 



8 



Packed six in a box. 



7 
4M 



8 

±y 2 



BULL DOG 
Pure yellow Russian bristle, vulcanized in rubber, nickel 
bound, natural varnished handle. 

Width inches 

Length Clear inches 

MIKADO 
Pure black Chinese bristle, cement set, nickel bound, 
natural varnished handle. Packed six in a box. 

Width inches 6 7 8 

Length Clear inches 3% 4 4M 

BUSTER 
Pure black Chinese bristle casing, middle of black Chinese 
bristle and horsehair, cement set, nickel bound, natural var- 
nished handle. Packed six in a box. 

Width ....inches 6 7 8 9 

Length Clear.. inches S% 3 l A 3% 4 



WHITEWASH BRUSHES 

MIKADO 
Pure black Chinese bristle, extra row of bristle set in 
center, cement set, nickel bound, natural varnished block, black 
stripe. Packed six in a box. 

Width -inches 6 7 8 

Length Clear inches 3M $A &A 

NICKEL PLATE 
Similar in detail to the Mikado. 

Width inches 6 7 8 9 

Length Clear inches %Vz %% 3 3 l A 

BLACK DIAMOND 
Pure black Chinese bristle casing, middle of Chinese bristle 
and horsehair, cement set, nickel bound, natural varnished 
block. Packed six in a box. 

Width inches 6 7 8 

Length Clear inches %M %Y% *M 

FLAT PAINTER-DUSTERS 

26 STRANGLEHOLD 
Pure black Chinese bristle casing, middle mixture of black 
Chinese bristle, horsehair and fiber, vulcanized in rubber, 
natural varnished handle. Packed six in a box. 
Size 26 Width ... in. 4M Length Clear . in. 4J4 

ROUND PAINTER-DUSTERS 

50 STRANGLEHOLD 
Pure white French bristle casing, middle of pure yellow 
Russian bristle, vulcanized in rubber, natural varnished handle. 
Packed six in a box. 
Size 50 Diameter. . in. 2}4 Length Clear ... in. 4 



ROYAL COACH 
Pure white Russian bristle casing, middle pure white French 
bristle, pitch set, natural varnished handle. Packed six in a 
box. 
Size . . 10 Diameter. . in. %Y% Length Clear ... in. 4 

WINNER 
Pure black Chinese bristle casing, middle mixture of black 
Chinese bristle, horsehair and fiber, other details identical with 
the Royal Coach. 
Size 2 Diameter.. in. %Y% Length Clear.. in. S 7 /s 



The brushes listed above are a partial list of the standardized Horseshoe 
Brand line, manufactured and distributed by the Pittsburgh Plate Glass 
Company. A complete catalogue can be obtained from the nearest 

warehouse. 



[154] 



PAINTERS, PAPERHANGERS, AND GLAZIERS 
TOOLS, EQUIPMENT, AND SUPPLIES 







A Row of Dry-Color Tubs in the Milwaukee Factory 




PAINTERS, PAPERHANGERS, AND GLAZIERS TOOLS, 
EQUIPMENT, AND SUPPLIES 



FIFTY years ago, even twenty-five years 
ago, the tools used by mechanics in 
every craft were comparatively simple 
in design and construction and limited in 
variety. It was not uncommon in those days 
to find the exacting workman fashioning his 
own instruments in order that he might per- 
form his work with greater ease and skill. 

Yankee inventive genius has ever sought 
to devise ways and means for the elimination 
of unnecessary motions and for lightening 
labor. Enterprising manufacturers quickly 
embraced the opportunities offered in the 
production of tools to meet the requirements 
of the artist and the mechanic. 

Thus, where formerly but one shape of 
instrument was manufactured for the per- 
formance -of a certain piece of work, today 
many and varied shapes of that type are 
available, and the mechanic may select from 
the numerous offerings such tools as suit his 
particular need or fancy. 

The average workman is very critical in 
the appraisal of a tool : the material must be 

[15 



of good quality and it must be of a design 
which he feels will enable him to perform 
his work with speed and satisfaction. 

Many improvements in tools and appli- 
ances used by the painter, paperhanger, and 
glazier have been advanced by the workmen 
in those lines, and have been adopted as 
soon as their practicability was established. 
For example, the original measuring rule 
was made of one piece of seasoned wood, 
and later reinforced with brass bindings 
and edges; today, rules are built in lam- 
inated construction, inset in brass, and are 
practically impervious to atmospheric influ- 
ence, retaining their alignment indefinitely. 
Valuable cutting and trimming devices have 
been developed, reducing labor and increas- 
ing precision. Devices which make for 
safety and convenience are constantly being 
perfected. 

The illustrations in the following pages 
represent the latest productions in tools, ap- 
pliances, and supplies used by the painter, 
paperhanger, and glazier. 

7] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




SUNDRIES 



RECOGNIZING the importance of Sundry- items to the success of paint- 
ing operations, provision has been made to supply the trade through 
our distributing Warehouses with a select line of Calcimines, Cold Water 
Paints, Dry Colors, Shellacs, Glues, Sandpaper, and other Abrasives; Steel 
Wool Sponges, Bronzes, and other paint sundries. . . 

Advantage has been taken of man) years' experience to eliminate un- 
necessary or duplicating items, while retaining all the essentials, so that we 
are able to present on the following pages a compact list of miscellaneous 
articles used and sold in connection with Paints, Varnishes, Enamels, 
Stains, and other finishing materials. 



[158] 



SUNDRIES 



CALCIMINES AND COLD WATER PAINTS 



KALKOMO WALL FINISH 

Kalkomo is the ideal calcimine for the decoration 
of interiors. It gives that soft, velvety, water-color 
effect so essential to refined surroundings and can be 
applied on plaster walls, wood, or wallboard. 




» 



s 



• 



Kalkomo is scientifically prepared from the finest 
washed and floated whiting, and the very best hide- 
stock glue. It is instantly soluble in cold water. One 
pound of Kalkomo when properly mixed will cover 
from 60 to 120 square feet, according to the surface. 

Kalkomo is made in white, attractive tints, and rich 
deep colors, all of which are intermixable, so that any 
desired shade may be produced. 




It is adaptable to the individual decorative require- 
ments of any class of building. 

5-pound packages (20 packages to the case) 
100-pound drums or kegs 
350-pound barrels 



KALKOMO FRESCO COLORS 

(Dry Sized) 
To be mixed with cold water for deep or solid color 
effect, or for tinting White Kalkomo Wall Finish or 
intermixing to produce other tints. 

Kalkomo Fresco Colors are prepared in dry powder 
form, with the right amount of size or binding ma- 
terial. Non-poisonous. 

2^-pound packages 50-pound boxes 

5-pound packages 100-pound kegs 
25-pound boxes 350-pound barrels 




MILL WHITE 

Soluble in cold water. Especially adapted to fin- 
ishing interiors of factories, mills, warehouses where 
the clean, sanitary, and improved light-reflecting ef- 
fect is desired without the use of an oil paint (see 
Alba-Lux, page 60) . 

Six pounds properly mixed with cold water makes 
one gallon of paint for application with brush or 
spraying machine. One pound covers from 40 to 60 
square feet, depending upon surface conditions. 
50-pound drums 
100-pound kegs 
400-pound barrels 

GRANITITE COLD WATER PAINT 
In white and tints, for exterior and interior use: 
warehouses, factories, fences, docks, walls in areaways, 
light shafts. Dry powder for mixing in cold water, 
two parts of Granitite to one part water. One pound 
covers from 40 to 75 square feet, depending upon 
surface. Strongly adhesive, for application with 
brush or spraying machine. Washable, will not rub, 
peel, or flake off, weather-proof and fire-retarding. 

25, 50, and 100-pound drums or kegs 

400-pound barrels 



[159] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



DRY SHELLAC AND SHELLAC VARNISHES 



SHELLAC 

Shellac or lac is a product of the East Indies, ob- 
tained especially from Bengal, Siam, and Assam. It 
is of interest that the crude shellac is the product of 
countless insects, which fasten themselves upon the 
trees that yield the sap on which they live. These 
minute insects exude a secretion resulting from the 
absorption of the sap, which gradually covers their 
entire body. 

Thus a hard resinous substance is formed on the 
branches of the trees by myriads of these parasites. 
The twigs are gathered with their living inhabitants 
in June and November. The secretion is known in 
commerce as "stick lac." It is melted, strained, and 
spread out in thin layers and comes to us as shellac 
in flake form. Shellac varies in color from a dark 
amber to an almost pure black. 

Shellac has many uses. It is an important factor 
in the making of phonograph records, shoe polish, 
felt hats, special cements, and insulating varnishes. 
When dissolved in alcohol, shellac is most widely used 
as a first coater before the application of varnish or 
wax, particularly when rapid drying is a requisite, and 
for sealing knots before painting. It dries quickly 
to a hard, brittle, and glossy surface. Shellac does 
not possess the qualities required for a final or finish- 
ing varnish, and because of its brittleness is not suit- 
able for use on floors or other surfaces exposed to 
hard wear. 




The different grades and kinds of the orange shellac 
gum are known to the trade by "marks." To insure 
the receipt of shellac of uniform quality and of the 
grade or kind for the purpose intended, the "marks" 
should be specified when ordering. 



The T. N. and Superfine are the grades generally 
used in connection with painting and varnishing; the 
V. S. 0. and D. C. for special finish such as mirror 
back paint and for pattern-makers' use. 

White shellac is the result of bleaching the orange 
gum; in barrels of about 400 pounds, and in smaller 
quantities as desired. 

Bone Dry Bleached 
Also for special trade : 

Fresh Ground 
Hanks 



U. S. Standard T. 


N. 


V. 


S. 0. 


Pure T. N. 






D. 


c. 


Superfine 






Diamond 1 




A 


C. 


Garnet 





In the original import packages of 164 pounds each, 
and in smaller quantities as desired. 




SHELLAC VARNISHES 

Orange and White 

Gum Shellac is dissolved or cut in denatured alco- 
hol — four to four and one-half pounds gum to the 
gallon for general finishing and five pounds for heavy- 
bodied shellac for pattern-makers and special purposes. 

Gum Shellac prepared in this way is known as 
Shellac Varnish and sometimes is called Spirit Var- 
nish. Shellac Varnish may be thinned with 188 proof 
denatured alcohol. 

Supplied in two grades: 

Pure Denatured Alcohol, Orange 
Pure Denatured Alcohol, White 
Denatured Alcohol Orange Compound 
Denatured Alcohol White Compound 



l/^-pint bottles 
14 -pint bottles 
3/2- pint bottles 
1-pint bottles 
1-quart bottles 



l/2-gallon cans 
1-gallon cans 
5-gallon cans 
25-gallon l/o-barrels 
50-gallon barrels 



[160] 



SUNDRIES 



SAND, EMERY, AND GARNET PAPER-OTHER ABRASIVES 



SANDPAPER 

The general term "Sandpaper" means a fabric of 
paper or cloth, or a combination of both, on which 
a crushed and graded abrasive is firmly glued. Each 
variety of sandpaper is assigned a trade name, usually 
the name of the abrasive with which it is coated. Thus 
paper coated with flint is known as flint paper; cloth 
covered with emery is known as emery cloth, etc. The 
abrasive or sand used in coating consists of natural 
or artificial crystals, crushed, cleaned, and graded. The 
first abrasive paper ever used to any extent commer- 
cially was coated with ground glass. The substitution 
ol ground flint for ground glass proved so superior 
that it jrapidly superseded glass paper. Flint crystal 
rock, from which flint paper, otherwise known as sand- 
paper, is made, is a natural mineral; largely silica 
with a small percentage of lime, oxide of iron, water 
and carbon, and when crushed into small grains it 
resembles ground glass. 

As the flint crystal rock is cleaned and crushed by 
machinery, it is put through sifting machines and 
successively sifts through various screens, each screen 
selecting a certain size grit and discarding the other 
sizes. He-grading machines take the selected grits and 
again pick out the exact size, the finer grits being 
silted through silk screens. In this manner the grains 
are prepared for the machine which applies them to 
the paper or cloth backing. Only tough-fibered paper 
is used It varies in weight to correspond with the 
size ot the gram with which it is to be coated 




The grits are known by number: 000 (finest), 00, 
u > 72> I 1 /^ 2, 2y 2 , 3 (coarsest). 

( The raw paper, while in course of manufacture, is 
imprinted with the brand, grit number, etc., and is 
reeled from the machine in large rolls and stored 
until properly seasoned, after which it is taken to the 
sandpaper-making machine, where a coat of the best 
hide stock glue at the proper consistency is applied; 
the abrasive grains are then accurately fed and spread 
over the glued surface of the paper, which then passes 



on in festoons to traveling hangers, and when partially 
dried reaches the sizing machine, by which a second 
coat of glue is applied, the paper continuing to travel 
on the hangers through the drying room, after which 
it is wound into large rolls, seasoned, and, finally, 
reaches the cutting room. 

For hand work or ream goods, Gibraltar brand, first 
quality, are cut into sheets 9x11 inches, and the Giant 
brand, 8y± x 10l/ 2 inches; tied into quires of 24 sheets 
and assembled in packages of 10 quires; two of the 
10-qmre packages make one ream of 480 sheets. The 
Giant brand differs from the Gibraltar in the backing, 
glue, and size, the grit being the same. 

Roll goods, although of the same grading as reams, 
are made on much heavier backing and with a heavier 
coating of glue and abrasives. This product is mainly 
used on sanding machines, and is manufactured in 
various widths, packed in 50-yard rolls. 

EMERY AND GARNET PAPER 

Garnet paper coated with crushed and graded garnet 
crystals is superior to flint for use on hard woods. 
Garnet is mined in the same manner as flint, the best 
source of supply being in the Adirondack mountains. 

Emery is a natural ore and has been used for many 
years in the polishing of metals. Our emery cloth and 
paper are coated with the best grade of genuine Turk- 
ish emery. 



OTHER ABRASIVES 

Abrasive cloth (artificial emery) , which is especially 
adapted to heavy finishing work on tough and hard 
metals, possessing unusual endurance and cool-cutting 
qualities, is made from Bauxite clay, found in Austria 
and Georgia, is converted by electrical furnaces into 
aluminum oxide, and is generally known as an abrasive 
with an aluminum base. 

Carbonite cloth (artificial emery) is recommended 
for use on soft cast metals of short fiber. It possesses 
a very hard, sharp edge, and is a rapid cutter. The 
grain is made from salt, sand, coke, and sawdust, 
properly fused in an electric furnace, becoming car- 
bide of silica. 

Cloth such as garnet, flint, emery, crocus, abrasite, 
and carbonite, is manufactured by the same process 
as flint paper, and is supplied in either reams 9 x 11 
mches or rolls of various widths in 50-yard length 
The cloth used as a backing for our abrasive is a 
strong, flexible, woven cotton fabric known in the trade 
as "drills." 

Finishing papers are made on thin paper with a 
light smooth coating, and are furnished in both single 
and double-face; garnet or flint, reams or rolls. The 
double-face is coated on both sides of a two-ply paper 
so made that the plies can be easily separated to give 
two sheets each on a lighter backing than could be 
used for "single-face." Four hundred and eighty sheets 
to a ream of single-face and two hundred and forty 
sheets to a ream of double-face paper. 



[161] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



STEEL WOOL, PUMICE STONE, GLUES, FELT 



STEEL WOOL 

Used instead of sandpaper and other abrasives in 
preparing surfaces for finishing. For removing, in 
connection with paint and varnish remover, old coats 
of paint, enamel, and varnish before refmishing. Steel 
Wool cuts quickly and uniformly, and because of its 
pliability is especially adapted for work on curved or 
uneven surfaces. 





P. P.O. Co. 

f^ET CONTENTS 
TWENTY H¥£ 

AMERICAN SIffl II 

GRADE No. 2 



J 



Steel Wool No. 00 corresponds to the grit of No. 
000 sandpaper. 

Steel Wool No. corresponds to the grit of No. 00 
sandpaper. 

Steel Wool No. 1 corresponds to the grit of No. 
sandpaper. 

Steel Wool No. 2 corresponds to the grit of No. % 
and No. 1 sandpaper. 

Steel Wool No. 3 is for work which would require 
No. l!/2 or No. 2 sandpaper. 

One-pound rolls, paper packages, 25 packages to 
the carton. 

Household Sizes 

Ie three grades: No. Fine, No. 1 Medium, No. 3 
Coarse. 

Large size — in cartons, 1 dozen in a carton. 
Small size — in cartons, 1 dozen in a carton. 

STEEL SHAVINGS 

Coarser than Steel Wool, in two grades: Fine and 
Medium. 1-pound rolls, paper packages, 25 packages 
to the carton. 

RUBBING FELT 

Used with pumice stone for rubbing down varnish 
coats, and with rotten stone for polishing. Supplied 



in sheets of %, %, and l/ 2 -inch thicknesses; original 



sheets are 36 inches square. Sheets will be cut to 
supply demands for smaller sizes. 

White, compressed hard 
White, soft texture 



PUMICE STONE 

Pumice Stone is imported from Italy in lump, or 
ground. That which is imported in the lump and 
ground in this country, is known as American Ground 
Pumice, and is the most satisfactory because of its 
uniform fineness and freedom from grit and foreign 
materials. Used for water-rubbing varnished and 
enameled surfaces, and as an abrasive. 

No. FFF. Very Fine Powder 

No. FF. Extra Fine Powder 

No. F. Fine Powder 

No. 00. Fine Medium Powder 

No. 0. Medium Powder 

No. Y 2 . Medium Coarse Powder 

No. 1. Coarse Powder 
In bags, barrels, 100 and 50-pound drums, and in 
bulk as required; also selected Lump Pumice Stone. 

ROTTEN STONE 

For oil-rubbing and polishing varnished and en- 
ameled surfaces. Selected grade in very finely pow- 
dered form. 

In 100 and 50-pound drums, and, in bulk, any 
quantity. 

RUBBING STONE 

For water-rubbing rough surfaces and for cleaning. 
In bricks of about 1 pound each. Soft and Medium 
Hard. 

GLUES 
Liquid Glue 
Used for hanging burlap, for cabinet work, and for 
general household use. 

Ounce bottle, 1 dozen in display box 
Gill can, 1 dozen in display box 
14-pint can, 2 dozen in case 
Pint can, 1 dozen in case 
Quart can, 1 dozen in case 
l/2-gallon can, % dozen in case 
Gallon can, % dozen in case 
5-gallon can, boxed 

DRY GLUES 

In barrels; 100 and 50-pound drums, and in*smaller 
quantities. 

For Fresco Work 
Clear Gelatine Glue, Thin Cut Clear Hide Glue. 

For Calcimining 
Thin Cut White Flake Glue, Extra White Ground 
Glue. 

For Sizing 

Light Amber Sizing Glue. 

For Cabinet Work 
Flake Cabinet Glue, Noodle Cabinet Glue, Ribbon 
Cabinet Glue, Sheet Cabinet Glue. 



[162] 



SUNDRIES 




STEEL WIRE BRUSHES 



These brushes are made of fine tempered Steel 
Wire in solid block. They are used for removing old 
paint, varnish, wax, or other finishes, and also in con- 
nection with Paint and Varnish Remover. 

Steel Wire Brushes are also efficient in removing 
loose or scaling paint, cleaning radiators and other 
metal work, preparatory to painting or finishing. 



Painter's Scrub- 



No. 27 . 

No. 77. 



—Curved Back, Round Wire 

Rows Block Length Wire 

7x21 2^x7 lj/" 

9x21 234x7 114" 



Painter's Scrub— Flat Back, Round Wire 



No. 21 



No. 16 



No. 28. 



Rows 

6x19 



Block 

2Mx7 
Butcher's Block — Flat Wire 

Rows Block 

5x10 2%x7^ 

Painter's Duster— Round Wire 

Rows Block 

6x10 1^x2% 

Bent Handle Scratch— Round Wire 



Length Wire 



Length Wire 



Length Wire 

2M" 



No. 9. 



Rows 

3x19 



Brush 
part 



Length 
over all 



6^" 14" 
Shoe Handle Scratch — Round Wire 



Length 
wire 



]' 



No. 36. 



Rows 

4x16 



Brush 
part 

5" 



Length 
over all 

9H" 



Length 
wire 



Steel Wire Brush Assortments 
These are put up in attractively packed boxes for 
counter, window, or show-case display. 




wire; brushes 




This assortment contains: 

2 Brushes No. 77 



4 
2 
4 

4 

2 



No. 21 
No. 28 
No. 9 
No. 36 
No. 16 



[163] 



Total contents \y % Dozen 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



SPONGES 



THE supply of Sponges for the American market 
is obtained principally from the West Coast of 
Florida, the waters about the Florida Keys and the 
Bahama Islands, where the sponge fishers use modern 
diving armor and apparatus for clipping sponges from 
their moorings on the sea bottom. The catch is taken 
ashore, where, after thorough washing, the sponges, 
the skeletons of what had been bodies with animal 
life, are strung in bunches and are then ready for 
market. 

After selections, made by the buyers on the ground, 
of such grades as meet the requirements of our stand- 
ards, the sponges are packed for shipment to a central 
point, where they are again washed and freed from 
shells, fragments of coral, and other foreign matter, 
sorted as to size and clipped to form. 

Sponges in bales of either 25 or 50 pounds are sold 
by the pound and the sizes specified indicate the 
number of pieces to the pound, as: 

1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 6/8, 8/10, 10/12, 12/16, 16/20, 
20/30; 6/8, for instance, indicating that from 6 to 8 
sponges weigh one pound. Sold in full bales, gross 
weight, 3 per cent allowance for tare is made; in 
smaller quantities, net weight as desired. 

"Forms" are original shapes, "Cuts" result from 
cutting the Forms into two equal pieces. Forms are 
preferred for the smaller and medium sizes of the 
better grades of wool sponges. Cuts are more service- 
able in those sponges which grow to large sizes, such 
as the Bahama or Nassau Wool, the Florida Yellow, 
and the Velvet sponges. 

SHEEP'S WOOL SPONGES 

Florida Rock Island. Best grade, firm soft texture, 
compact; have great water -holding properties; best 
for automobile washing. Florida Key Wool, Cuba 
Wool, Bahama or Nassau Wool. 

FLORIDA YELLOW VELVET SPONGES 

Not so smooth as wool sponges, with larger aper- 
tures, and less capacity for holding water, 

GRASS SPONGES 

An inexpensive sponge for rough work on walls and 
for use in general cleaning. 



NEPTUNE BRAND SPONGES 

(In Cartons) 

Especially selected, packed in display cartons as 
illustrated, sold by the piece — the most satisfactory 
way to handle sponges for resale — thoroughly washed 
and cleaned, air-dried, and bleached in the sun. Ready 
for use. 

Pure Wool Sponges, Forms Number of 

Identification Pieces in 

Number Carton 

P. W. 25 25 

P. W. 35 25 

P. W. 50 25 

P. W. 75 12 

P. W. 100 6 

P. W. 150 6 

P. W. 175 6 

P. W. 200 6 

P. W. 250 6 

Pure Wool Sponges, Cuts 

P. W. C. 45 25 

P. W. C. 75 25 

P. W. C. 125 25 

P. W. C. 150 12 

P. W. C. 200 12 

P. W. C. 225 6 

Pure Velvet Sponges, Cuts 

P. V. 25 25 

P.V. 50 a. 25 

P.V. 50 b... 12 

P.V. 75 a 25 

P.V. 75 b 12 

P.V. 75 c 6 

P.V. 100 a 25 

P.V. 100 b.... 12 

P.V. 100 c 6 

Pure Florida Yellow, Forms 

P. Y. 10 .100 

P. Y. 15 -.100 

P.Y. 25 50 

P. Y. 40 50 

P.Y. 60 25 

P.Y. 75 25 

The identification number is also the approximate 
retail selling price. 



[164] 



SUNDRIES 







SPONGES 

The method of packing Neptune 
Brand Sponges in cartons assures 
profitable handling of this commod- 
ity for the merchant and satisfac- 
tion to the customer. 

Costs and retail prices are estab- 
lished on the value of the individual 
pieces. 

Neptune Brand Sponges are thor- 
oughly washed free from all foreign 
matter and bleached ready for use. 







[ 165 ] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 







A Section in One of Our Dry Paint and Color Rooms 



DRY PAINTS AND COLORS 



WE are manufacturers of Dry Colors, producing 
chemically pure pigments in Reds, Yellows, and 
Greens. This insures uniformity of strength and color, 
and places us in a position to take care of the demand 
for this class of material. 

We list herewith both chemically pure colors and 
dry paints, which are furnished in packages of all 
sizes and in any quantity. 



LAMPBLACK 

Lampblack is a deep black pigment consisting of 
pure carbon in a very fine state of division. Various 
grades are produced in the reduction of rosin pitch, 
oils, and fats. 

The finest Lampblack is obtained in the combustion 
of oils and the better grades afford a pigment of great 
permanency and strength. 



SUN-PROOF GERMANTOWN LAMPBLACK 
COMMERCIAL LAMPBLACK 

Both grades packed for the trade in 1-pound, half- 
pound, 14-pound, and %-pound packages, 50 pounds 
to the carton. Also in smaller quantities. 

OTHER COMMERCIAL BLACKS 

Drop Black Graphite 

Bone Black Swedish Black 

In barrels, drums, and smaller packages as required. 

BLUES 
P Brand Chinese Blue 

PP Brand Cobalt Blue 

PPG Brand K.K. Prussian Blue 

PPGC Brand Pure Prussian Blue 

In barrels, 28-pound boxes, and smaller packages 
as required. 



[166] 



±M d ■ 



SUNDRIES 



DRY PAINTS AND COLORS 



BROWNS 



American Umber, Raw 
American Umber, Burnt 
American Sienna, Raw 
American Sienna, Burnt 
Genuine Turkey Umber, Raw 
Genuine Turkey Umber, Burnt 
Genuine Italian Sienna, Raw 
Genuine Italian Sienna, Burnt 
Vandyke Brown 
Spanish Brown - 
Bismarck Brown 



GREENS 



C.P. Chrome Green (Light, Medium, Dark) 
KK Chrome Green (Light, Medium, Dark) 
Alfalfa Green (Light, Medium, Dark) 
Lime Proof Green (Light, Medium, Dark) 



VENETIAN REDS 

American Venetian Red 
Venetian Red Oxide 
English Venetian Red 

Barrels (about 336 pounds) , 50 to 100-pound drums 
and smaller packages as required. ' 



WHITES 

Silver White 

White Ochre 

Commercial Whiting Silica (Silex) 

Dental Plaster 

White Lead, Basic Carbonate 

White Mineral Primer 

Extra Gilders' Bolted Whiting 

Plaster of Paris 



REDS 

Indian Red 

Turkey Red 

English Rose, Lake 

Navajo Red (Light, Dark) 

Toluidine Red, D.S. 272 

K.K. Vermilion, D.S. 8 

Tuscan Red 

English Rose, Pink 

American Vermilion 

Corona Red, D.S. 613 

Gobbler Vermilion, D.S. 71 

Genuine English Vermilion, Pale and Deep 

Ked Lead (Oxide) 






ZINCS— DRY 

Standard American Zinc 
French Green Seal Zinc 
French Red Seal Zinc 



MINERAL PAINTS 

French Gray Mineral 
Prince's Metallic 
Iron Mineral 



YELLOWS 

K.K. Chrome Yellow (Light, Medium, Dark) 
C.P. Chrome Ye ow (Light, Medium, Dark) 
Corona Yolk YeHow (Light, Medium, Dark 
Litharge (Lead Oxide) 
Orange Mineral (Lead Oxide) 
Dutch Pink 



OCHRES 

American Ochre 
Double Washed Ochre 
Buff Ochre 

French Imported Ochre 
Golden Ochre (Chrome) 



MORTAR COLORS 
Used for coloring mortar. 

Buff 

Dark Red 

Chocolate Brown 

Purple 

Black 

Furnished in bulk in any quantity 
rels, and 100 and 50-pound drums. 



Put up in bar- 



PARIS GREEN 

h^fl^^J"^^ 10 ° t0 "S-pound 
Kegs, 14 28, and 56-pound kits, and in %, l£ and 
5-pound boxes. /4 ' /2 ' 



f 167 ] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 
PUTTY AND SCRAPING KNIVES 




No. 100. Blade 3% x 1 T % inches, rolled, tempered, 
polished, and cross polished; large natural beech 
handle, iron rivets. Stiff or elastic. 



No. 107. Made exclusively for glaziers' use. 
heavy stiff blades, only 4x1% inches. 



Extra 
















HI 


,. ___ — .. 


.. 




. -- - 





No. 101. Blade 3% x iy 2 inches, rolled, tempered, 
polished, and cross polished; swelled polished walnut 
handle, brass rivets, medium lap metal bolster. Stiff 
or elastic. 



No. 108. Blade 334 x 1% inches, tempered, pol- 
ished; French walnut handle, metal ferrule. Stiff or 
elastic. 




No. 102. Blade 3%xl^4 ins -> tempered, straight, pol- 
ished ferrule, burnt wood handle. Stiff or elastic. 




No. 109. Blade 3% x 1*4 inches, rolled, tempered, 
polished, and cross polished; short lap metal bolster; 
swelled polished walnut handle, brass rivets. Stiff 
or elastic. 




No. 103. Blade rolled, tempered, polished, and cross 
polished, width 3 inches; polished walnut handle, 
brass rivets, heavy metal bolster. Stiff or elastic. 
Square point only. 

No. 104. Same, with 31/ 2 -inch blade. 



No. 110. Blade 3% x 2 inches, rolled, tempered, 
polished, and cross polished; swelled polished walnut 
handle with metal bolster, brass rivets. Stiff or elastic. 




No. 105. Blade rolled, tempered, polished, and cross 
polished, 3 inches wide. Shell-ebony handle, brass 
rivets; heavy brass bolster, projecting % inch over 
blade, protecting it from breaking or bending at tang. 

No. 106. Same, with 3y 2 -inch blade. 



No. 111. Blade rolled, polished, and cross polished, 
3 inches wide. Polished walnut handle with heavy 
metal bolster, brass rivets. Stiff or elastic, with clip 
point only. 

No. 112. Same, with 3y 2 -inch blade. 



[168] 



■L 



SUNDRIES 
SCRAPERS, SEAM ROLLERS, KNIVES 




WALL SCRAPERS 

No. 120. Blade, Sy 2 inches wide; beechwood handle. 
No. 121. Blade, Sy 2 inches- wide; not beveled, beech- 
wood handle. 




SOCKET OR POLE SCRAPER 

No. 122. This style of wall scraper is used on the 
end of a pole for scraping walls or removing wall 
paper. The blade is made of polished spring steel, 
31/2 inches wide; malleable iron screw socket. 




SEAM ROLLERS 

No. 140. Genuine hard maple roller, 1-inch face; 



frame highly nickel-plated; polished handle. 

No. 141. Genuine rosewood roller, 2-inch 
nickel-plated frame; polished handle. 



face; 




HACKING KNIVES 

No. 143. Light blades, 4% x 1V 8 x y 8 
leather handles. 

No. 144. Heavy blades, 4y 2 xiy 8 x% 2 
leather handles. 



inches; 
inches ; 



_. 



No. 130 



K 



No. 132 



m 



j 



No, 134 



PAPERHANGERS' KNIVES 

No. 130. Blade, 3% x 1% inches, of highest grade 
steel, but not taper rolled; square point, stained maple 
handle. 

No. 132. Blade, 3% x 1% inches, high grade steel, 
taper rolled; round point, stained maple handle. 

No. 134. Same, with square point. 




CASING AND CORNER KNIVES 

No. 150. Wheel, \y 2 inches in diameter; serrated 
edge; maple handle. 

No. 151. Wheel, iy> inches in diameter; smooth 
edge; maple handle. 

No. 152. Wheel, 2 inches in diameter; smooth edge, 
with thumb guard; maple handle. 

No. 153. Milled Wheel and Knife Wheel, 1 inch in 
diameter. Knife \y 2 inches long. Serrated edge; 
maple handle. 



[169] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 
PASTE TABLES, LADDERS, ROOF BRACKETS 




FOLDING PASTE TABLES 

Table top is made of clear, air-dried lumber (not 
kiln-dried) , in two or three pieces, tongued and 
grooved, and glued to prevent warping. The table 
may be folded, as shown in the inset illustration, in 
ten seconds. Space inside for straight edge and tools. 
Height to top of table when open, 33 inches; width 
of top, 22 inches; folds to 11 inches. Average weight, 
17 pounds. In lengths 6, 7, and 8 feet. 




STEP LADDERS 

This ladder is substantially built and is suitable for 
all-around work. It is made of selected, char-seasoned 
Norway or Southern Pine. Steps are of a standard 
width. Stamped steel brackets are secured at top 
with steel rivets. Metal spreader. Iron brace rods 
under each step, with bucket shelf. In lengths 5, 6, 
7, 8, 10, and 12 feet. 




PAINTERS' LADDERS 

The "Painter's Favorite." Made of selected stock, 
thoroughly braced, of great strength and durability. 
In lengths 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, and 12 feet. 



EXTENSION LADDERS 

Automatic extension 
ladders for operation with 
or without ropes. Best 
selected Norway or South- 
ern pine, side rails, and 
hickory rungs. Gravity 
catch or rest, requiring 
no spring or extra rope. 
Furnished in two or three 
sections. Upper and low- 
er sections from 10 to 24 
feet long, for extension to 
20 to 44-foot lengths. 



Specify total length wanted and, for extremejengths, 
whether two or three sections. 



ROOF BRACKETS 

Known also as safety stage 
supports. Placed in position 
by pushing the points under a 
shingle. So constructed that 
any increase in pressure in- 
creases the stability of the 
bracket. Made of heavy sheet 
steel. Sold singly or in sets 
of six. 





[170] 



SUNDRIES 
TRESTLES, JACKS, TORCHES, PLANKS, STAGES, TINWARE 




PAINTERS' TRESTLES 



These trestles are made of selected pine with hickory 
rungs. Hinged at top by heavy wrought eye bolts. 
In lengths 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 feet. 



ADJUSTABLE SAFETY 
HOOK 

Made of sheet iron, ja- 
panned. Spans two rungs 
of the ladder and is secure- 
ly fastened by thumb set- 
screw. Will fit any ladder. 
The hook drops over ridge- 
board, insuring safety at 
roof work. 




LADDER JACKS 

Made of heavy sheet iron, japanned, formed to 
fit securely over two rungs of a ladder. The slotted 
rack receives the free end of the upper hook in any- 
one of the notches, which permits adjustment of the 
lower members to a perfect level. Furnished in pairs. 




GASOLINE PAINT 
BURNERS 

For burning off paint 
this Gasoline Torch is 
very efficient and economi- 
cal, both for exterior and 
interior use. It generates 
a hot blue flame, and has 
adjustable heat pressure. 

Made of polished brass. 

Pint and quart size. 




ADJUSTABLE EXTENSION PLANK 

Made of ten pieces of clear Norway pine, each piece 

1 inch thick by iy 2 inches wide, total width 111/, 

inches. Much stronger and lighter than a solid board" 

more convenient to handle and safer to use. 

Closed, 6 feet, extended 10% feet 

Closed, 8 feet, extended 13% feet 

Closed, 10 feet, extended 17% feet 

PAINTERS' STAGE OR SCAFFOLD 
Made of best clear pine, very strong and heavy. 
Regular stage, 20 inches wide, in 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 
20, 22, and 24-foot lengths. 

Stage Hooks, 39 inches over all, clearance 21 inches. 
Cross Bars with rollers. 
Stirrups for cross bars. 

PAINTERS' FALLS 

Complete Manila rope and pulleys for Double Fall. 
Specify %-inch or %-inch rope. Lengths, 40, 50, 60, 
70, 80, and 100 feet. 

TINWARE 

Paint and Calcimine Strainers, 11%-inch and 
13%-inch diameter. 

Paint and Calcimine Pails, 12 and 14-quart capacity. 

Shellac and Varnish Pots, 1-pint, 1-quart, and 2- 
quart capacity. 

[171] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



GLAZIERS' DIAMONDS, STEEL WHEELS, CUTTERS 

GLAZIERS' DIAMONDS STEEL WHEELS 




No. 200. Ebony handle, nickel-plated key; a good 
glaziers' diamond for general use. 

No. 201. Rosewood handle, nickel-plated key; an 
excellent diamond for cutting single and double-thick 

glass. 

No. 202. Cocobola handle, nickel-plated key; dia- 
mond of good quality and cutting spark. Recom- 
mended for heavy work and constant duty. 



UNIVERSAL "SURE-CUT" 
GLAZIERS' DIAMONDS 

No. 204. Diamond is set in one 
end of the key and steel roller 
wheel in the other, by means of 
which correct angle for cutting is 
maintained. Key nickel-plated. 
For cutting single thick glass. 

No. 205. Same as above with 
larger diamond for cutting glass 
of both single and double thick- 



GLAZIERS' DIAMOND RESET 

When the diamond no longer has a satisfactory 
cutting point, it may be sent to us for resetting. 



TURRET HEAD GLASS CUTTER 




, - •- "* 




~s> 



\i\ 




No. 208. Equipped with hand-honed, carbonized 
steel wheels or cutting discs. Correctly designed 
handle, finished in red. 

No. 209. Extra steel wheels for cutters. 

"TROJAN" SELF-OILING CUTTER 



No. 206. This cutter is provided with a turret head 
in which are fastened six hardened steel cutting discs. 
The plate holding the discs may be released and new 
discs inserted as required. Cuts circles 3y 2 to 24 
inches in diameter. Rod graduated to Vs inch. Base 
is made of brass and is fitted with rubber cloth mat 
to prevent slipping. 



nXI 



Cr7 a 



No. 210. Cutting discs or wheels are made of a 
specially selected grade of carbonized steel. The self- 
oiling feature is provided in the felt wick embedded 
in the head of the instrument, just below the cutting 
wheel. Dipped in Trojan cutting oil or kerosene, the 
disc is constantly lubricated, preventing chipping as 
well as dulling the edge of the cutter. Art glass work- 
ers find this tool especially adapted for their use. 

CIRCULAR GLASS CUTTERS 




No. 211. Steel disc cutter. Cuts circles 2 to 40 
inches in diameter. Round steel rod and adjustable 
steel head. Wooden base and handles, rubber cloth 
mat on face to prevent slipping. 




No. 212. Steel disc cutter. Cuts circles 2 to 22 
inches in diameter. Bar graduated to % 6 inch on one 
side. Heavy iron base fitted with rubber cloth mat to 
prevent slipping. Two extra cutting wheels supplied. 



[172] 



SUNDRIES 
GLAZIERS' POINTS, DRIVERS, PLIERS, CUTTING BOARDS, RULES 




GLAZIERS' TRIANGLE POINTS 

Made of pure zinc. Illustrations are exact size. 




GLAZIERS' DIAMOND POINTS 

May be set or driven only by using the diamond 
point driver shown in the accompanying illustration. 
Points are made of pure zinc. Illustrations actual size. 




DIAMOND POINT DRIVERS 

Frame is cast iron, finished in black japan, striped 
in bronze. Points are placed in the magazine and 
are fed to the barrel, one at a time. As the trigger is 
drawn toward the handle, the plunger is forced against 
the coil spring; after passing a certain point the trig- 
ger releases plunger which drives the point to its seat. 
No. 1. For No. 1 Points on small glass 
No. 2. For No. 2 Points on large glass 




PLATE GLASS PLIERS 
No. 3. Made of malleable iron, well finished. Tool 
steel inset jaws. Length over all, 8% inches; width 
of jaws, n /i6 inch. 




GLASS MEASURING AND CUTTING BOARD 

Frame is made of seasoned lumber and is warranted 
to remain true. It is ruled both ways in inches, and 
the steel rule at the front is graduated in halves, 
fourths, and eighths of an inch. The straight-edge or 
rule is adjustable, being fitted at each end with ad- 
justable gauges. The rule moves on metal guides and 
rollers, so that both ends travel the same distance. It 
is impossible to move one end of the straight-edge 
without the other. If several lights are to be cut to 
the same size, the straight-edge may be fastened by 
means of a set screw. These boards are indispensable 
to the dealer as they reduce breakage and make for 
accuracy and speed in handling. 

Size 24 x 36 inches 

Size 30 x 48 inches 

Size 36 x 54 inches 

Size 42 x 60 inches 

Size 48 x 72 inches 




Length 
Length 
Length 
Length 
Length 
Length 
Length 
Length 
Length 
Length 



GLAZIERS' RULES 

36 inches, width iy 2 inches, plain end 
48 inches, width 1% inches, plain end 
60 inches, width 1% inches, plain end 
72 inches, width 1% inches, plain end 
84 inches, width 2 inches, plain end 
36 inches, width 1% inches, lip end 
48 inches, width 1% inches, lip end 
60 inches, width 2y 2 inches, lip end 
72 inches, width 2y 2 inches, lip end 
84 inches, width 3 inches, lip end 



[173] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 
SHEARS, TRIMMERS, STRAIGHT-EDGES, PASTE BOARDS, DROP CLOTHS 







ZINC STRIPS 

No. 175. Length 6 feet, width 3 inches 
No. 176. Length 7 feet, width 3 inches 
No. 177. Length 8 feet, width 3 inches 




PAPERHANGERS' SHEARS 

No. 162. 10-inch, Japanned straight handle, nickeled 
blade. 

No. 163, 12-inch, Japanned straight handle, nickeled wn i te pme 
blade. 

No. 164. 14-inch, Japanned straight handle, nickeled 
blade. 

No. 165. 16-inch, Japanned straight handle, nickeled 
blade. 

No. 166. 10-inch, Nickeled straight handle and 
blade. 

No. 167. 12-inch, Nickeled straight handle and 
blade. 

No. 168. 14-inch, Nickeled straight handle and 
blade. 

No. 169. 12-inch, Japanned bent handle, nickeled 
blade. 



HARDWOOD STRAIGHT-EDGES 

Without Brass Edge 
Hard maple on outer edges, with redwood and 



No. 180. Length 6 feet 
No. 181. Length 7 feet 
No. 182. Length 8 feet 




BRASS BOUND STRAIGHT-EDGES 



Made of the very best white pine and California 
redwood, air dried. Built up in five sections, alter- 
No. 170. 14-inch, Japanned bent handle, nickeled na tely, with grain reversed in each section. Width 3 
blade. inches, by i/^-inch thick. Highly finished. All brass 

set with screws. 

No. 185. Length 6 feet 
No. 186. Length 7 feet 
No. 187. Length 8 feet 




WALL PAPER TRIMMER 
This trimmer trims lincrusta walton, burlap, and 
heavy pressed paper as easily as the ordinary kinds 
and cuts to a perfectly smooth edge. Several thick- 
nesses of paper may be cut at one time, and each 
piece will be cut straight. Can be used only with 
a trimmer straight-edge. Straight-edge has a brass 
track running its full length, and the trimmer has a 
steel clip guide which runs on this track. 

The cut is made on a strip of zinc 3 inches wide, 
which is laid on the cutting table or board. An out- 
fit consists of trimmer, straight-edge, and zinc strip. 

No. 171. 6-foot outfit 

No. 172. 7-foot outfit 

No. 173. 8-foot outfit 



PASTE BOARDS 



23 inches when open, 
ends. Three back-flap 



Paste board y 2 inch thick 
IIV2 inches closed. Batted 

malleable hinges. Made of clear, air-dried basswood. 
Average weight, 11 pounds. 

No. 190. Length 6 feet 

No. 191. Length 7 feet 

DROP CLOTHS 

These cloths are used by painters, paperhangers, 
and decorators for covering merchandise while work 
is in progress. Supplied in three grades of fabric, 
Sheeting, Heavy-Drill and 8-ounce Duck, double-sewed 
on seams and hemmed all around. 9 x 12 feet, 12 x 15 
feet, and 14 x 16 feet. 



[174] 



SUNDRIES 



GRAINERS, CHAMOIS SKINS, SMALT, SAVOGRAN, ROOF PAINT, PACKAGES 



EVERYBODY'S GRAIN- 
ING SET 

No. 5. The set consists 
of a rubber grainer and a 
steel comb. Sold sepa- 
rately or in connection 
with Pitcairn Waterspar 
Colored Varnishes for 
producing grain effects in 
refinishing old work. 




piTC^ 



STEEL GRAINING COMBS 




ENGLISH BLUE STEEL 
GRAINING COMBS, 

J i 

FAMED FOR EXCELLENCE 



No. 6. Set comprises eleven steel combs assorted, 
having six, nine, and twelve teeth per inch. The 
combined width of the comb in the set is 30 inches. 
Packed in partitioned tinned cases. 

LEATHER GRAINING COMBS 




No. 7. Made of oak-tanned, pliable leather, as- 
sorted for different graining; five in a set. Combined 
width, 20 inches. 



CHAMOIS SKINS 

Our Chamois Skins are oil-tanned, without the use 
of alum or acids. Skins of even thickness, soft and 
pliable. Packed in kips of 30 skins each, and in less 
quantities by the dozen in the following sizes: 

8 x 10 inches 16 x 21 inches 

10 x 13 inches 17 x 23 inches 

12 x 14 inches 19 x 25 inches 

13 x 16 inches 23 x 26 inches 

14 x 18 inches 26 x 28 inches 

15 x 20 inches 

SMALT 

Smalt is a vitreous sand furnished in various screen- 
ings and colors for signwriters' and painters' use. 
Used for decorative effect by the signwriter to produce 
brilliancy and sparkle, as the facets of the glass par- 
ticles reflect light; also used by painters for the pro- 
tection of a painted surface subjected to wind and 
weather. Furnished in 25-pound sacks, two sacks to 
a carton, and in bulk. Colors: Black, blue, maroon, 
and green. 

SAVOGRAN 

Savogran is a dry powder used by painters and 
decorators to remove grease, smoke stains, dirt, loose 
Hakes, and discolorations from painted and varnished 
surfaces before repainting or revarnishing. It does 
not remove filling, or discolor the wood. It is used 
also for removing paint from glass, marble, and metal 
work. Put up in bulk; may be had in any quantity. 

ROOF LAST CARBON PAINT 

Roof Last Carbon Paint is well known as a weather 
and waterproof paint of great durability. It is ex- 
tensively used on shingle, metal, or felt roofs, also 
pumps, pipes, storage tanks, fences, iron and steel 
work, boilers, stacks, and farm implements. It is 
used also as a preservative and decay-resistant on 
fence posts, telegraph and telephone posts. Put up 
in 1 and 5-gallon cans, half-barrels of 25 gallons, and 
in full barrels of 50 gallons. 



EMPTY PACKAGES 



Empty varnish 

% 6 -gallon 

Vs-gallon 

14-gallon 

y 2 -gallon 

1-gallon 

5-gallon 

2-gallon 

3-gallon 

5-gallon 

10-gallon 



cans as follows: 

square varnish cans 
square varnish cans 
square varnish cans 
square varnish cans 
square varnish cans 
square cans, boxed 
jacket cans 
jacket cans 
jacket cans 
jacket cans 



[175] 



PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



GOLD AND ALUMINUM ENAMELS, BRONZE POWDERS AND LIQUIDS, LEAF 



PITCAIRN GOLD ENAMEL 
In special cans, Gold and Liquid in special com- 
partments ready for mixing; also bottles, ready-mixed. 
For picture frames, radiators, and general household 
decoration, or for any article of iron, leather, wood, 
or glass. 




No. 1 Size contains 1 oz. (Ready-mixed in bottles) 

No. 2 Size contains 2 oz. (Compartment cans) 

No. 3 Size contains 4 oz. (Compartment cans) 

No. 4 Size contains 8 oz. (Compartment cans) 

PITCAIRN ALUMINUM ENAMEL 
In special cans, Aluminum Powder and Liquid in 
separate compartments ready for mixing; also bottles, 
ready-mixed. For bedsteads, gas fixtures, radiators, 
bric-a-brac, and general household decoration. 




No. 1 Size contains 1 oz. (Ready-mixed in bottles) 
No. 2 Size contains 2 oz. (Ready-mixed in bottles) 




No. 3 Size contains 4 oz. 
No. 4 Size contains 8 oz. 



(Compartment cans) 
(Compartment cans) 



BRONZE POWDERS 

Pale Gold is color of Gold Leaf, Rich Gold is Brass 
Color. Five grades, according to quality — No. 500, 
No. 1000, No. 2000, No. 4000, No. 8000. 

Each grade furnished in Pale Gold or Rich Gold, 
1-ounce papers, 1-pound cans, 50-pound drums. 

Decorators' and Fresco Bronzes 
Pale Gold Fresco, Extra Superior Fresco, Pale Gold, 
French Pale Gold Leaf Bronze. 1-ounce papers, 1- 
pound cans, 50-pound drums. 

Aluminum Bronze Powders 
C. P. Aluminum, Extra Superior Fresco Aluminum, 
Commercial Aluminum, ^-pound cans, 1-pound cans, 
50-pound drums. 

Radiator Bronzes 
Pale Gold Radiator, Extra Fine Pale Gold Radiator, 
Copper, C. P. Aluminum Radiator. 1-pound cans, 
50-pound drums. 

Colored and Special Bronzes 
For the manufacturing trade, decorators; metallic 
fixtures, statuary, moulding and frame makers. 

The many shades of Colored Copper Bronzes, 
Patented Bronzes, Aniline Dyed Shades, Fire Bronzes, 
Antique Bronze Statuary, Vernis Martin and Roman 
Gold, Brass Fixture Bronzes. In ^-ounce and 1-ounce 
papers, 1-pound cans, 50-pound drums. 

BRONZING LIQUIDS 

1. Manhattan — Commercial Grade. 2. Empire — 
Medium. 3. Pitcairn — Highest Grade Liquid. In 
cans: ^-pint, pint, quart, ^-gallon, 1-gallon; and in 
half-barrels and barrels for the manufacturing trade. 

The Bronze Powders are ready for use when mixed 
with the Bronzing Liquid to proper consistency for 
application. For average surfaces 1 pound Gold 
Bronze Powder to V± gallon Liquid; 1 pound Alumi- 
num to 1 gallon Liquid. 

With the proper liquid, the bronzes listed dry out 
quickly to a smooth flat finish, and when dry are 
free from odor. Best results are obtained by apply- 
ing bronzes with soft hair brushes; camel or goat hair. 

GOLD, SILVER, AND ALUMINUM LEAF 

For decorators' and signpainters' use. 

Gold Leaf XX Deep (for interior use) 

Gold Leaf Patent (for exterior use) 

All Gold Leaf is 3% x 3% inches. 25 leaves to the 
book and 20 books to the pack. 

Silver Leaf, 3% x 3% inches. 25 leaves to the 
book ; 20 books to the pack. 

Aluminum Leaf, 5^j x S 1 /^ inches. 50 leaves to the 
book; 10 books to the pack. 

ALUMINUM PAINT, READY-MIXED 

For use on iron, stoves, ranges, boilers, engines, 
smoke stacks, furnace fronts, oven interiors. One 
gallon will cover about 300 square feet, one coat, on 
metal surface. 1-gallon cans, ready-mixed. 






[176] 



SUNDRIES 



LEADS, LINSEED OIL, PUTTY 



WHITE LEAD 
Strictly pure White Lead, dry, and in oil. Popular 
brands supplied in original packages; 1 and 5-pound 
cans, 12i/ 2 , 25, 50, and 100-pound kegs, and barrels. 

LEAD OXIDES 

Red Lead, dry, and in oil, 12l/ 2 , 25, 50, and 100- 
pound kegs. Litharge and Orange Mineral dry only; 
in kegs or in quantities as required. 

AMERICAN WHITE 
A combination paste, white, ground in oil, for 
plumbers' use and general utility purposes. 1 and 5- 
pound cans. 

WHITE COTTON WASTE 
For painters, mechanics, garages, and general use. 
In bales 100-pound, 50-pound, and in bulk as desired. 

STRICTLY PURE PUTTY 
Made from pure whiting and linseed oil. A reliable 
putty recommended to those desiring the best ?rade. 
Put up in 900-pound barrels; 500-pound half -bar- 
rels; also 100, 50, and 25-pound packages. 

STANDARD PUTTY 

This is an intermediate grade of putty for general 
glazing purposes. 

Put up in 900-pound barrels; 500-pound half-bar- 
rels; also 100, 50, and 25-pound packages. 

COMMERCIAL PUTTY 

This grade of putty is made for ordinary use. 
Put up in 900-pound barrels; 500-pound half-bar- 
rels; also 100, 50, and 25-pound packages. 



STEEL SASH PUTTY 

For glazing metal sash. Specially prepared for ad- 
hering to glass and metal. Dries hard but not brittle. 
Does not shrink or crumble. 

Put up in 900-pound barrels; 500-pound half-bar- 
rels; also 100, 50, and 25-pound packages. 

LIQUID GREENHOUSE PUTTY 

For application with glazing gun, putty bulb, or 
with putty knife. 

Put up in barrels, 100-pound and 25-pound kegs. 

LINSEED OIL 

Strictly pure, raw and boiled, sold by weight, seven 
and one-half pounds constituting a gallon; in drums, 
barrels, and in smaller containers as required. 

TURPENTINE 

Pure gum spirits of Turpentine, sold by weight, 
seven pounds constituting a gallon; in drums, barrels, 
and in smaller quantities as required. (See also Lep- 
tyne, the superior Paint Thinner.) 



DENATURED ALCOHOL 



For cutting shellac gums, thinning shellac var- 
nishes, spirit stains, varnishes, and for use as an anti- 
freeze solution in water-cooled motors. Denatured 
in accordance with U. S. Government formulas, 180° 
and 188° proof; in drums, and in smaller containers 
as required. 




Dry Color on Racks in Drying Room, Milwaukee Factory 

[177] 













LINSEED OIL- MILL 
NEWARK, NEW JER 



RED WING QUALITY LINSEED OIL 



RED WING LINSEED OIL has been manufactured 
and marketed for more than twenty years by our 
mill at Red Wing, Minnesota. It is produced from the 
very choicest flaxseed obtainable. Every care is ex- 
ercised, from the cleaning of the seed to the filling 
of the container in which the oil leaves the mill, to 
produce the very highest grade of Oil that can be 
made. Every mill operation is under the actual con- 
trol and thorough supervision of the experienced 
chemists and associates in charge of our laboratory. 

The Linseed Oil Mill at Newark, New Jersey, is 
advantageously located, not only for convenience to 
the imported raw material and the distribution of 
the finished product in the eastern territory, but also 
for the export of the oilcake, an important by-product 
of Linseed Oil manufacture, most of which finds its 
market in Europe. The ultimate capacity of this plant 
will be 1,500,000 bushels of flaxseed. 

Linseed Oil is marketed for the most part in two 
forms, "Raw" and "Boiled," except when special oils 



are required for special purposes. Raw Linseed Oil 
is the oil in its natural state. Every gallon of Red 
Wing Quality Raw Linseed Oil is filtered several 
times and properly aged, the result being a perfectly 
clear product. 

Boiled Linseed Oil is made from Red Wing Quality 
Raw Linseed Oil and pure Linoleate Drier, which we 
make according to our own formula. The boiling 
process consists of two distinct operations: one, the 
manufacture of the pure lead-manganese Linoleate 
Drier, and the other, the preparation of the Raw Oil 
for the incorporation of the Drier. After these two 
are thoroughly blended, the Oil is allowed to cool 
for days. It then goes through our special process 
of clarification, which results in a clear, brilliant Oil, 
possessing the same perfect brushing qualities as our 
Raw Linseed Oil, and drying to a smooth, elastic 
film in from twelve to sixteen hours. 

Red Wing Quality Boiled Linseed Oil contains no 
rosin or resin ates of any kind. 



[178] 









INDEX 
GLASS SECTION 






INDEX— GLASS SECTION 



Adding machine, 119 
Aeroplane signals, 124 
Alkalies affect polished glass, 195 
All-mirror rooms, 68 
All-plate-glass building fronts, 

'52 
America, credit for developing 

glass-making belongs to, 4 
Annealing — 

bent glass, 200 

kiln, glass-making, 176, 178 
Apex pattern, 136 
Appert wire-glass process, 140 
Arcade display windows, 92 
Aristotle, on mirrors, 55 
Art nouveau panel, 154 
Assyrians' knowledge of glass, 7 
Automobile maker, service of 

plate glass to, 80 
Automobile mirrors, 71 
Automobiles — 

bent glass in, 199 

glass setting for, 204 

plate glass in, 75-80 

"Bait," term in glass-blowing, 175 
Banks, many uses for plate glass 

in, 51 
Barber shops, mirrors in, 69 
Barberton (O.) chemical plant, 38 
Basement sidewalk lighting, 135 
Bathrooms — 

glass appliances in, 117 

mirrors in, 61-63 
Bent glass, 199-201 

diagrams, 201 
Beveling of plate glass, 196-198 
Bevels, diagrams, 196 
Black Glass, 158-170 

specifications, 167-170 

uses summarized, 165 
Blackboards, glass, 120 
Blowing of glass — 

first mentioned, 9 

in Egypt, 7 

mechanical, 172 
Blue glass, how produced, 147 
Bohemia, glass-making in, 8 
"Boil," defect in plate glass, de- 
fined, 191 
Bookcases with mirror doors, 63, 

64 
Booths, glass in, 118 
Border tiles, prism glass, 134 
Boxing, 204 



Break in auto glass, how to treat, 

204 
Breakage — 

from poor construction, 203 

in transportation, 194 
Bridge windows on ships, 117 
"Bubbles," defect in plate glass, 

defined, 191 
Buffing wheels for polishing, use 

of, 197, 198 
Building fronts, all-glass, 52 
Buildings — 

modern, glass in, 41-46 

planned for light, 115 
Bulkheads, in store fronts, 95-104 
Butchers' refrigerators, 113 

Cafeteria display cases, 112 
Cafeterias, Carrara and Black 

Glass in, 162 
Camera lens, humanity's debt to, 2 
Carrara Glass, 158-170 

and marble contrasted, 162 
for bulkheads, 99 
in lavatories, 44 
in restaurants, 158, 162 
in the Woolworth Building, 44 
specifications, 167-170 
uses summarized, 165 
Cars — 

railroad and street, bent glass 

in, 199 
use of plate and window glass 
in, contrasted, 40 
Casting table, for plate glass, 19 
Cathedral glass, 147-149, 156, 157 
Chamfered polished edge, dia- 
grams, 196 
Chancel window, 148 
Charleroi (Pa.) glass plant, 34, 36 
Chemical composition of plate 

glass, 195 
Cheshire (Mass.) , plate glass mak- 
ing in 1850 at, 31 
Chipped and double-chipped 
glass — 
pattern of, 132 
process of making, 125, 126 
Church windows, leaded glass in, 

147, 148, 149, 156, 157 
Cigar case, 185 
Clarksburg (W. Va.) window 

glass works, 37 
Clay pots used in plate glass mak- 



ing, L -19 



Cleaning mirror glass, 56, 57 
Clothing, display store front for, 

98, 101 
Colonial clear glass design, leaded 

glass, 152 
Colored cylinder glass, 184, 185 
Colored figured glass, 147 
Colored glass, 145-157 
Coloring glass, process, 146, 147 
Color-lighted glass, 146 
Columbia Chemical Company, 38 
Column mirrors, 68-70 
Column show cases, 109 
Comfort stations, Carrara Glass 

in, 162, 165, 167 
Common glass — See Window 

glass 
Confectionery refrigerator, 109 
Conservatory, private, plate glass 

in, 47 
Contractors, Pittsburgh service to, 

188 
Copper, for store fronts, 100 
Corona Chemical Company, 37 
Corridors — 
lighting, 50 

use of Carrara Glass in, 164 
Courcelles (Belgium) glass works, 

38 
Creighton (Pa.) glass works, 37 
Crystal City (Mo.) glass works, 

34, 35 
Curtain design, leaded glass, 144 
Cutting of plate glass, 195 
Cutting room, window glass mak- 

ing, 179 
Cylinders of blown glass, 172, 

175-178 

Dancing pavilion, glass walls for, 

180 
Daylight illumination in office 

buildings, 49 
Dealers, Pittsburgh service to, 188 
Demonstrating machine, use of 

glass in, 121 
Department store interior, 107 
Design suggestions, store-front, 

97-104 
Desks, glass -top, 45 
Dining-car windows, 118 
Dining hall, Carrara Glass in, 161 
Dining rooms — - 

leaded glass for, 154, 155 
mirrors in, 59, 63 



[iii] 



INDEX— GLASS SECTION 



Dining table, mirror and plate 

glass tops for, 64, 82 
Directory cases, office, 116 
Discovery of glass, 1, 5 
Display — 

for narrow store fronts, 91, 93 

for shop windows, 85-104 

for shops, 105-114 
Display cases — 

end, 108 

in partitions, 111 

in small spaces, 114 

photographers', 116 
Distortion mirrors, 72, 73 
Diving tank, 122 
Door shields, 116 
Doors, glass, in office buildings, 43 
Dressers — 

glass tops for, 83 

mirrors in, 60 
Dressing tables, mirrors in, 64 
Drilling holes in plate glass, 197, 

198 
Drug store, glass-top display tables 

for, 110 
Drugs, display cases for, 105, 106 

display store front for, 100 
Duquesne (Pa.) glass plant, 34 
Dwellings, plate glass for windows 
in, 47 

Edgework, plate glass, 196-198 

Egyptian glass-blowing, 176 

Elevator doors, polished wire 
glass, 45 

El wood (Ind.) glass plant, 34 

Embossed plate glass, 127, 128 

Emery, grading, 25 
grinding, 25 
mill, 197, 198 

Emory University, plate glass win- 
dow in, 46 

Enameled glass, 129 

Equitable Life Assurance Society 
of the United States, build- 
ing, 41, 43-45 

Estimating Departments, Pitts- 
burgh Plate Glass Company, 
189 

Etched glass, 125, 127, 128, 129, 
131 

Expert advice, given by Pitts- 
burgh Plate Glass Company, 
189 

Exportation of plate glass, 194 

Eyesight, vision and, and transpar- 
ency of glass, 39, 40 

Factory, window glass for, 180 
Factory installations, rolled glass 

for, 129 
Factr elite pattern, 130, 141 



Fire — 

protection, by metal setting for 
glass, 88 
Flashed colors, producing, 185 
Flat polished edge, diagram, 196 
Flattening oven, glass - making, 

178 
Florentine glass pattern, 132 
Florist's display — 

refrigerator, 113 

store front, 101 
Ford, Captain John B., 33 
Ford City, Pa., 187 

glass works, 34 
French mirrors, 61 
French windows, 146 
Furnaces, plate glass, 16, 17 
Furnishings, display store front 

for, 98 
Furniture — 

display store front for, 99 

mirrors in, 63-67 

plate glass covering for, 81-84 
Furrier's display store front, 99 

Game exhibition case, 184 
"Gather," in glass-making, 174 
Gilbert, Cass, on the Woolworth 

Building, 43 
Glass — 

and eyesight, 39, 40 

auto, setting, 204 

beads as currency, 10 

bent, 50, 199-201 

bent, diagrams, 201 

bent, in automobiles, 80 

bent, in boats, 199 

Black — See Black Glass 

blowing, 172-179 

blowing, Egyptian, 7 

blowing machines, 172, 175- 

178 
blown, first mentioned, 9 
blue, how produced, 147 
Carrara — See Carrara Glass 
cathedral, 147-149, 156, 157 
cleaning, for mirrors, 56, 57 
cleanliness of, 120 
colored, 145-157, 184, 185 
common — See Window glass 
discovery, 1, 5 
doors, frameless, 107 
doors, in office buildings, 43 
enameled, 129 
etched, 129, 131 
for ornament and utility, 5 
future possibilities, 115 
green, how produced, 147 
ground, 125-127, 132 
history, 5-10 

in typical modern buildings, 
41-46 

[iv] 



ob- 



and gross 



Glass — continued 
leaded, 142-157 
lenses, sidewalk, 134, 135 
making in America, first, 9 
manufacture, governmental 

struction to, 9 
maximum sizes, thicknesses, and 
approximate net 
weights (table), 207 
mirrors — See Mirrors 
miscellaneous uses, 115-124 
mosaic, in church windows, 157 
opalescent, 147, 155-157 
orange, how produced, 147 
pattern surfaces for, 125-132 
plate — See Plate glass 
prism — See Prism glass 
production at time of discov- 
ery of America, 9 
resistance of, to the elements, 

122 
rolled figured, 128-130, 132 
romance of, 1-4 
stained, 145-157 
top display tables, 110 
tops for furniture, in Wool- 
worth Building, 45 
violet, how produced, 147 
white, unknown to early glass- 
makers, 7 
window — See Window glass 
wire — See Wire glass 
works in the United States, his- 
tory of, 9, 10 
Glazing — 

above grade floors, 205 
grading of plate glass for, 190 
steel sash, 203, 204 
store front, 202 
Goggles, 185 

Greeks, glass-making by, 7 
Green glass, how produced, 147 
Greenhouses, glass for, 182 
Grill design, leaded glass in, 144 
Grinding — 

machinery, plate glass making, 

23-27 
of glass, 125-127, 132 
tables, in plate glass making, 
22-27 
Grocery display cases, 112 

Hallidie Building, 52 
Hallways, mirrors suitable for? 66 
Hanging window signs, 116 
Hardware store front, design for, 

102 
Heliograph, 71 
History of American plate glass 

industry, 31, 32 
Holes, drilling, in plate glass, 

197, 198 






Honed finish for glass, 164 
Hospitals, wire-glass doors in, 140 
Hotels, mirrors in, 68, 69 
Hygiene and sanitation, promoted 
by use of Carrara Glass, 167 

Ice cream parlor, use of Black- 
Glass in, 161 
Imperial prism patterns, 136 
Installation of glass in store fronts, 

etc., 202, 203, 205 
Interior shop displays, 105-114 
Island show cases, 87, 103 

Jeweler, display store front for, 

100 
Jewelry store show cases, 108 
"Jointing" in plate glass making, 

24 

Kitchen, glass in, 117, 118 
Knox Presbyterian Church, Cal- 
gary, soldiers' memorial win- 
dow in, 149 
Kokomo (Ind.) glass works, 34, 36 

Ladies' wearing apparel, display 

store front for, 103 
Lavatories, mirrors in, 61-63 
Laying yard, plate glass making, 

Lead, meaning of the term in glass 

setting, 143 
Leaded beveled plate glass, 151 
Leaded glass, 142-157 
curtain designs, 142 
designs, 150-157 
Lehrs, in making of glass, 21-23, 

176, 178 
Lenox Plate Glass Company, 31 
Lenses, sidewalk, for basement 

lighting, 134, 135 
Lettering and designs in process of 

glass manufacture, 126, 127 
Libraries — 

increasing natural light in, 122 
plate glass in, 82 
Library windows, leaded glass de- 
signs for, 155 
Lighthouses, glass panes for, 124 
Lighting of corridors, plate glass 

for, 50 
Litharge putty, 203 
Living rooms, leaded glass designs 

for, 154, 155 

McFatrick, George W., on glass 

and eyesight, 39 
Mail-chutes in the Woolworth and 

Equitable buildings, 45 
Mansell, Sir Robert, on mirrors, 55 
Mantel mirrors, 58 



INDEX— GLASS SECTION 

Map showing warehouse system of 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Com- 
pany, 192, 193 
Marble- 
contrasted with Carrara Glass, 
44, 162, 164 
Marginal designs on glass, by 

sandblast, 126, 127 
Massachusetts, first glass works in, 

10 
Maze glass pattern, 132, 141 
Mercury as foiling for mirrors, 

55, 56 
Metal store front construction, 88- 

104 
Millinery shop — 

store front design for, 104 
mirrors in, 60 
Mirror glazing, grading of plate 

glass for, 190 
Mirror making, United States 

supremacy in, 56 
Mirrors, 53-74 

as looking-glasses, 61-63 
as partitions, in Equitable Build- 
ing, 44 
• counter, 69, 70 
distortion, 72, 73 
foiling of, 55, 56 
for hallways, 66 
for house decoration, 65-67 
frames for, 65-67 
history of, 55, 56 
horizontal panel, 58 
in barber shops, 69 
in bathrooms, 61-63 
in bookcase doors, 63, 64 
in dentistry, 74 
in dining rooms, 59, 63 
in doors, 61 
in dressers, 60 
in dressing tables, 64 
in furniture, 63-67 
in hotels and restaurants, 68 
in lavatories, 61-63 
in millinery shops, 60 
in oculist's practice, 74 
in public places, 68-71 
in telescopes, 74 
in thaumaturgy, 74 
in the home, 58-61 
in wardrobe doors, 60 
mantel, 58 
metal, 3 

of Rome, Athens, Pompeii, 3 
resilvering, 206 
restoration of, 57 
shaving, 62, 63 
silvering, 57 
unframed, 61 
uses of, 58-74 
wall, 59-61, 68^71 



Missouri State Capitol, lighting of 

corridors in, 50 
Mitered edge, polished, plate 

glass, 196 
Monitor sash, 204 
Mosaic glass in church windows, 

157 
Motoring, joy of, enhanced by 

plate glass, 76 
Motoring, safety in, dependent on 

plate glass, 77 
Mount Vernon (0.) glass works, 

38 
Muranese pattern wire glass, 141 
Museum exhibition cases, 121 

National Plate Glass Company, 31 

New Albany, Ind., attempts at 
plate glass making in, 33 

New York City Plate Glass Com- 
pany, 33 

Newark (N. J.) paint and varnish 
factory, 37 

Office, leaded windows in, 145 
Office building — 

largest in the world, 41 

tallest in the world, 42 
Ondoyant pattern in rolled figured 

glass, 132 
Opalescent glass, 147, 155-157 
Operating room — 

Carrara Glass for, 166 

glass in, 119 
Orange glass, how produced, 147 
Ovens — 

Carrara Glass for, 169 

glass-making, 178 
Oxide of iron as color-material, 
146, 147 

Packing of plate glass, 191, 194 
Packing room, window glass, 179 
Painting on glass, distinguished 

from painted glass, 145 
Paints, "Pittsburgh Service," 188- 

190 
Paneling, glass, 122 
Partitioned work tables, glass, 84 
Partitions — 

display cases in, 111 
glass, in office buildings, 45 
Patton Paint Company, of Mil- 
waukee, Wis., 37 
Pentecor glass pattern, 130, 141 
Phoenicians, reputed discoverers 

of glass, 1, 5, 6 
Photographer's display case, 116 

studio, 128 
Photography, camera lens in, 2 
Pictures, window glass for, 183 
Pitcairn, John, portrait, 30 



[v] 



INDEX— GLASS SECTION 



Pitcairn, John — continued 

associated in plate glass manu- 
facture, 33 
Pitcairn Varnish Company, 37 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company- 
beginnings and development, 

33, 34 
distributing system, 35, 36 
largest plate glass manufacturer 

in world, 32 
organization for service, 188 
products, wide scope of, 36-38 
system of distribution, educa- 
tion, and service, 187-195 
today, 35-38 

warehouse system, 192, 193, 208 
Plate glass — 

advantages for building, 47-52 
and common glass, comparative 

cost of, 47, 48 
and common glass, contrasted 

for visibility, 39, 40 
and furniture, 81-84 
and the automobile, 75-80 
bent, 199 
beveling, edgework, and holes, 

196-198 
care of, 194, 195 
chipped, 125, 126, 132 
cutting, 195 
edging, 196-198 
embossing, 127, 128 
export shipment, 194 
for store fronts, 85-104 
for windshields, 77, 79 
furnaces, 16, 17 
grading, 190, 191 
grinding, 22-25 
handling, 194 
making, 11-28 
mirrors, 56, 57 
miscellaneous uses, 115-1Z4* 
output, 13 
packing, 191, 194 ^ 
percentage of loss m making, lo 
polishing, 25-27 
rolling process, 20 
skimming, 18 

store windows, requirements, 97 
storing, 27 

story of, in America, 29-34 
tops for furniture, 81-84, 110 
visibility, 114 
windows, beauty of, 3 
Pliny, account of discovery of 

glass, 1, 5 
Polished mitered edge, 196 
Popcorn machine, 121 
Porte-cochere, plate glass in, 48 
Portholes, 117 
Pot colors, producing, 184 
Pot-making, 14 



Pots — 

for plate glass making, 13-20 
how removed from furnaces, 17 
storage of, 15 
Prentice, Charles F., on glass and 

eyesight, 39 
Prism, scientific explanation of 

the, 137 
Prism glass, 133-137 

in connection with leaded glass, 

144, 153 
in store windows, 90 
Private offices, glass partitions in, 

45 
Profits increased by plate glass 

show cases, 109, 110 
Provision stores, Carrara and 

Black Glass for, 168 
Public comfort stations, Carrara 

Glass for, 167 
Pugging machines, 15 
Push plates, 120, 121 
Putty for steel sash, 203 

Radiator window seats, glass, 120 
Railroad danger, signal, and 

switch lights, 184 
"Ream," defect in plate glass, de- 
fined, 191 
Rear counter mirrors, 69, 70 
Red glass, how produced, 146, 

147 
Red Wing Linseed Oil Company, 

37 
Refrigerator, confectionery, 109 
Refrigerator accessories, 70 
Rennous, Kleinle & Company, 37 
Resilvering mirrors, 206 
Restaurants — 

Black Glass in, 164 

Carrara and Black Glass used in, 

158, 160 
mirrors in, 68, 69 
Ribbed glass, 130, 141 
Rippled pattern, 132 
Rolled figured glass, 128-130, 132 
Rolling molten glass, 19 
Romance of glass, 1-4 
Romanesque pattern, 132, 141 
Romans — 

glass-making among, 7, 8 
knowledge of mirrors, 55 
Rough stock, plate glass, 23 
Rough wire glass, 141 
Roughing wheel, 197, 198 
Round polished edge plate glass, 
diagrams, 196 

Saint Sophia, Church of, windows 

in, 8 
Sand mine, 12 
Sand mountain, 13 

[vi] 



Sandblast patterns, 130 
Sandblasting of glass, 125-127 
Sanitation, glass and, 166, 167 
Saw-tooth — 
lights, 138 
sash, 204 
Schmertz process for making wire 

glass, 140 
Searchlights, 71 

"Seed," defect in plate glass, de- 
fined, 191 
Selling without salesmen, 86, 87, 

105, 108 
Setting — 

auto glass, 204 
blocks, window, 202 
glass above grade floors, 205 
glass in steel sash, 203, 204 
large window-panes, 202, 203, 
205 
Shaving mirrors, 62, 63 
"Shawls," in window glass manu- 
facture, 177, 178 
Shipping room, window glass, 179 
Ships — 

bent glass in, 199 
plate glass in, 117 
Shop display, interior, 105-114 
Show cases, 105-114 
Show windows — 

double-storied, 88, 96 
fifty years ago and now, 86, 87 
metal-front construction, 88-104 
Shower bath, glass-protected, 123 
Shuman wire-glass process, 140 
Sidewalk vault lights, 135 
Signs, etched glass, 131 
Silver as foiling for mirrors, 56 
Silvering, methods of, 56, 57 
grading plate glass for, 190, 
191 
Skimming molten glass, 175 
Soda fountain, use of Carrara and 

Black Glass in, 159 
Soldiers' memorial window, 149 
Stained glass, 145-157 
Stair -landing windows, leaded 

glass designs for, 154, 155 
Stationery store front, design for, 

102 
Steel sash glazing, 203, 204 
Storage warehouse, plate glass, 23 
Store — 

directory frame, 186 
display, plate glass opportuni- 
ties for profitable, 94 
Store front designs, 85-104 
Store fronts — 

Carrara and Black Glass, 163, 

169 
glass breakage in, 203 
glazing, 202, 203, 205 



INDEX— GLASS SECTION 



Store fronts — continued 
installation of, 189 
metal-construction, 88-104 
prism glass for, 133, 134 
signs, 116 
Street lights, 186 

"Striae," defect in plate glass, de- 
fined, 191 
"String," defect in plate glass, de- 
fined, 191 
"Stripping," in plate glass mak- 
ing, 26, 27 
Studk) — 

photographer's, 128 
skylight for, 184 
Summer kitchen, glass walls for, 

181 
Sun pailor, plate glass in, 49 
Switchboards, Carrara Glass for, 

165 
Syenite glass pattern, 132, 141 

Tables — 

Carrara Glass tops for, 160 
plate glass tops for, 82-84 
with glass centers, 124 
Tarentum (Pa.) glass works, 34 
"Teeming," term in plate glass 

making, 19 
Telephone booth, plate glass in, 

118 
Templates, for measuring bent 

glass, 200 
Tesserae in ceilings, 43 
Theatre — 

billboards, 118, 119 
fronts of plate glass, 115 
Tiles, pressed prism, 133, 134 
Towel rods, 117 

Train carrying plate glass, 189 
Transoms, designs in leaded glass, 

153, 155 
Transparency of plate and window 
glass contrasted, 39, 40 



Treves, church windows at, 8 
"Tuile," door of glass furnace, 19 
Turkish baths, plate glass in, 44 
Tyrian mariners, legend of glass 
discovery by, 1 

Underwriters' type of steel sash, 
204 

Union Arcade of Pittsburgh, 49 

United States, glass works in, be- 
fore 1883, 10 

Urinals, use of Carrara Glass for, 
162, 167 

Varnishes, "Pittsburgh Service," 

189, 190 
Vending-machine, 186 

mirrors, 71 
Venetians, makers of mirrors, 55 
Venice, glass-making in, 7, 8 
Ventilators, glass, 84 
Verandas, enclosed, 122, 123 
Violet glass, how produced, 147 
Virginia, first glass-making in, 9 
Visibility through glass, 39, 40 

Wainscoting — 

Carrara Glass for, 160 
in office buildings, Carrara 
Glass for, 166 
Wall mirrors, 59-61, 68^-71 
Walton (Pa.) glass works, 34 
Wanamaker stores, visibility in- 
creases sales at, 109 
Wardrobe doors, effective use of 

mirrors in, 60 
Warehouse system, Pittsburgh 
Plate Glass Company, 187- 
193, 208 
Warehouses — 

for storage of rough glass, 23 
in plate glass distribution, 35 
Water tanks, glass, for interior 
decoration, 123 



Wearmouth Church, glazing of; 9 
Weatherproof glass cases, 111 
Webbing for setting glass, 202 
Weighing scales, 119, 186 
Window braces, 206 
Window display areas, enlarged by 
improved arrangements of 
glass frontage, 89-96 
Window glass — 

grades, weights, sizes, and 

packing, 182-185 
making contrasted with plate 

glass-making, 173 
making in early Virginia, 9 
manifold values of, 181-186 
manufacture, 171-186 
unsuited for automobiles, 78 
Window-panes — 

art of casting, lost for centuries, 

3,9 
blown, first record of, 9 
large, setting, 202, 203, 205 
Window signs, hanging, 116 
Windows — 

age of, beginning of, 5 
as substitutes for pictures, 46, 51 
walls of, 130 
Windshield, automobile, 77, 79 
Wire glass, 138-141 
bending, 200 
processes, 140 
Wireless telegraphy, dependent on 

glass, 2 
Wood, polished, protected by plate 

glass top, 81-84 
Woolworth Building, 41-45, 109 
Wool worth and other chain store 
profits increased by plate 
glass show cases, 109, 110 

York Cathedral, windows, 9 

Zanesville (O.) limestone quar- 
ries, 38 



[vii] 




INDEX 
PAINT SECTION 



INDEX— PAINT SECTION 



Abrasives, 161 

Adjustable extension plank, 171 

Air Drying Body and Fender 

Enamel, Pitcairn, 70 
Alba-Lux, Patron's (Gloss, Flat, 

and Egg-Shell Gloss), 60 
Alcohol, denatured, 177 
Aluminum paint, enamel, and leaf, 

176 
American white, paste, 177 
Animal sources of organic colors, 

11 
Architectural Varnishes, Pitcairn, 

66, 67 
Asbestine, inert pigment, 6, 11 
Asphaltum, 68, 73 
Auto Gloss Finish, Patton's, 40-42 
Automobile — 

Black Elastic Baking Finishing 

Enamel, 70 
Body and Fender Enamel, 70 
chamois skins, 175 
colors, 71 
enamels* 70 
finishing, Pitcairn System for, 

72 
painting, brushes for, 149 
sponges, 164 
top dressings, 71 
Underframe Enamel, 70 
Automobile Yarnishes, Pitcairn — 
Black Body-Rubbing, 70 
Double-Quick Rubbing, 70 
Extra Black Body-Rubbing, 70 
Extra Pale Wearing Body, 69 
Finest Wearing Body, 69 
Hard-Drying Body, 69 
Hard-Drying Gear, 69 
Heavy Gear, 69 
One-Coat, 69 

Pale Chassis or Elastic Gear, 69 
Pale Rubbing Body, 69 
Quick-Rubbing, 70 
Wagon Coach, 70 
Azurite, ancient blue pigment, 2 

Baking Finishing Enamel, Pitcairn 

Black Elastic, 70 
Banzai White Enamel and Double- 
Cover Undercoater, 74 
Barn Paints — 

Industrial Building Paint, 36- 

38 
Tuscar, 64 
Baryte, inert pigment, 6, 10 



Batavia Damar Varnish, Pitcairn 

Pure, 67 
Benzole, coal tar distillate, 14 
Berenice, Queen, gave name to 

varnish, 19 
Black pigment, early Egyptian and 

Cretan, 2, 3 
Blackboard Slating, Patton's, 64 
Blacks — 
dry, 166 
in japan, 71 
in oil, 33-34, 62 
Blow torch, gasoline, 171 
Blues — 
dry, 166 
in japan, 71 
in oil, 33-34, 62 
Body— 

and Fender Enamels, Pitcairn 

Air Drying and Baking, 70 
finishing, automobile, Pitcairn 

System for, 72 
Rubbing Varnishes, Pitcairn 

Auto, 70 
Varnishes, Pitcairn Auto, 69, 70 
Bone black, carbon pigment, II 
Brackets, roof, 170 
Bristle — 

and where it comes from, 127- 

131 
Chinese, 127-131, 135 
early use of, for brushes, 126 
European, 135 
"flag" on, defined, 129 
gray, for calcimine brushes, 148 
mixing, by machine, 135 
peculiarity of, that fits it for 

brush-making, 129 
preparation of, 128-131 
Russian, 129, 148 
vulcanized in rubber, 138, 147, 
149 
Bronze enamels, powders, and liq- 
uids, 176 
Browns — 
dry, 167 
in japan, 71 
in oil, 32-34, 62 
Brush — 

American, superiority of, 133, 

145 
catalogue, how to obtain, 154 
display boxes for dealers, il- 
lustrated, 144 
handles, specifications, 153, 154 

[xi] 



Brush — continued 

industry, American, growth of, 

133 
its history, 125, 126 
Keeper, the Rennous - Kleinle, 

151 
making, 125-143 
Brushes — 

calcimine, 148, 149, 153, 154 
"camel hair," 141, 143 
care of, 151, 152 
cement set, 153, 154 
classification of soft-hair, 141- 

143 
Dutch Calcimine, 153 
first made by Egyptians from 

reed, 125 
Flat Calcimine, 154 
Flat Varnish, 153 
for japan colors, lacquer, and 
fine bronzing, 141-143, 149 

Horseshoe Brand 

Calcimine, Dutch, Continuous 
Row, 

Amsterdam, 149, 153 

Appingedam, 153 

Rotterdam, 153 

Vandam, 153 

Vreendam, 153 
Calcimine, Dutch, Stranglehold, 

149, 153 
Calcimine, Flat, 

Boss, 154 

Bull Dog, 154 

Buster, 154 

Master Painter, 148, 149, 154 

Mikado, 154 

Nickel Plate, 154 

Superfine, 148, 149, 154 
Flat Paint, Leather Bound, 

Duchess Stucco, 153 

Extra Black Stucco, 145, 153 

Master Painter Stucco, 153 

Tycoon Stucco, 153 
Flat Paint, Metal Bound, 

Arkay, 147, 153 

Best Black, 146, 153 

Black Filler, 147, 153 

Crackerjack, 153 

Leader, 153 

Master Painter, 147, 153 

Service, 153 

345 Steelbound, Stucco Type, 
146, 153 



INDEX— PAINT SECTION 



Brushes, Horseshoe Brand — 

continued 
Painter-Dusters, Flat, 

Stranglehold No. 26, 148, 154 
Painter-Dusters, Round, 

Royal Coach, 154 

Stranglehold No. 50, 154 

Winner, 154 
Sash, 

Master Painter (flat), 147, 
148, 153 

Tycoon (oval) , 147, 148, 153 
Varnish, Flat 

Apollo, 147, 148, 153 

Arcadia, 153 

Black Bird, 153 

Chang, 147, 153 

Fan Tan, 153 

Four-Fifty, 147, 153 

Spar, 153 

XXX China, 147, 148, 153 

Varnish, Oval, 

Chesapeake, 153 

Mikado, 146, 153 

Trumps, 153 

Useful, 146, 153 
Whitewash, 

Black Diamond, 154 

Mikado, 154 

Nickel Plate, 154 
leather bound flat paint, 153 
lettering and striping, 141, 142, 

149, 152 
making of, 125-143 
merchandising of, 145-154 
metal bound flat paint, 153 
moths in, to prevent, 152 
oriental, 145 
oval varnish, 153 
packing of, 150 
paint, 145, 146, 153, 154 
painter-dusters, 154 
sash and trimming, 147, 148, 

153 
sizes of, 153, 154 
soft hair, for various uses, 141- 

143 
specifications of, 153, 154 
steel wire, 163 
stucco type, flat paint, leather 

bound, 153 
stucco type, flat paint, steel- 
bound, 153 
varnish, 146, 147, 153 
vulcanized in rubber, 138, 147, 

153, 154 
whitewash, 154 
Brush-making, 125-143 
Building Paint, Patton's Industrial, 

36-38 
Bulk varnishes, Manhattan, 73 
Burners, gasoline paint, 171 



Cabinet — 

Rubbing and Polishing Spar 

Varnish, Pitcairn, 66 
Varnish, Pitcairn To-Yo-Lac, 67 
Calcimine — 

brushes, 148, 149, 153, 154 
pails and strainers, 171 
Calcimines and cold water paints, 

159 
"Camel hair" brushes, 141 
Cans, empty, 175 
Carbon — 

colored pigments containing, 11 
paint, Roof Last, 175 
Carbonite cloth, 161 
Carmine, animal origin of, 11 
Carriage and Auto Top Dressing, 

Pitcairn, 71 
Carriage Varnishes, Pitcairn, 69- 

71 
Casing and corner knives, 169 
Cementhide, Patton's, 43, 44, 100, 

101 
Chamois skins, 175 
Charcoal black, carbon pigment, 

11 
Chassis or Elastic Gear Varnish, 

Pitcairn Pale Auto, 69 
Chemist, work of, in varnish pro- 
duction, 19 
China clay, inert pigment, 6 
China wood oil, use of, in var- 
nishes and paints, 13 
Chinese blue, classified, 11, 12 
"Chiseling" brushes, never done 
by trimming or grinding, 139 
Chrome, See Greens, Yellows 
Church Pew and Seat Finish Var- 
nish, Pitcairn, 66 
Clarifier, enamel, 13 
Cnossus, Crete, paintings discov- 
ered in, 3 
Coach — 

Colors, Pitcairn, 71 
Japan, Pitcairn Pale, 70 
Varnish, Empire Old Fashioned 

No. 1, 68 
Varnish, Pitcairn Painters', 66 
Varnish, Pitcairn Wagon, 70 
Coal tar, colors derived from, 11 
Cochineal insect, source of red 

pigment, 11 
Cold Water Paint— 
Granitite, 159 
Kalkomo, 159 
Color — 

Patton's Graining, 62 
suggestions for use in selecting 

paints, 97-121 
use of, 25 
Color chips — 

Patton's Auto Gloss Finish, 42 

[xii] 



Color chips — continued 

Patton's Cementhide, 43, 44 
Patton's Florhide Enamel, 30 
Patton's Industrial Building 

Paint, 38 
Patton's Ironhide, 45 
Patton's Oil Colors, 32, 33 
Patton's Porchite, 30, 31 
Patton's Sun-Proof Liquid 

Paint, 26, 27 
Patton's Tor-on Shingle Stain, 

39 
Patton's Velumina, 35 
Patton's Wagon and Tractor 

Enamel Paint, 38 
Pitcairn Waterspar Colored 

Varnish and Enamel, 54 
Pitcairn Wood Stain, 55 
Plasco Ready-Mixed Paint, 48, 
49 
Colored Rubbing Varnishes, Pit- 
cairn, 72 
Colored Varnish and Enamel, Pit- 
cairn Waterspar, 52-54 
Colors — 

dry, 166, 167 
for mortar, 167 
fresco, 159 

in distemper, Patton's, 64 
in japan, Pitcairn, 71 
in oil, Patton's, 32-34 
in oil, Pittsburgh, 62 
organic, 11 
Combs, graining, 175 
Commercial interiors, white paint 

best for, 25 
Commercial interiors white paint, 

cold water paint, 159 
Compo Drier, Pitcairn, 66 
Copal, application of term, 19 
Corner knives, 169 
Cotton waste, white, 177 
Crack Pack, Patton's, 64 
Crete, development of painting in, 

3 
Crimson oxide, composition of, 11 
Crocus cloth, 161 
Cutters, glass, 172 
Cutting boards, glaziers', ¥13 
Cyanide compounds, among pig- 
ments, 12 

Damar — 
gums, 19 

Patton's French Zinc in, 63 
varnish in enamels, 15, 16 
Varnish, Pitcairn Pure Batavia, 
67 
Dealer helps in merchandising 
brushes, provided by Pitts- 
burgh Plate Glass Company, 
144 



INDEX— PAINT SECTION 



Dealers, paint proposition for, 59 
Dealers, varnish proposition for, 

77 
Deck Spar Varnish, Pitcairn, 66 
Denatured alcohol, 177 
Diamonds, glaziers', 172, 173 
Dimensions of brushes, 153, 154 
Display boxes, brush, illustrated, 

144 
Distemper Colors, Patton's, 64 
Double-Cover Undercoater, Ban- 
zai, 74 
"Drier" and "japan," terms dis- 
tinguished, 20 
Drier — 
japan, 73 

Linoleate, used in making Red 
Wing Quality Linseed Oil, 
178 
Oil, Pitcairn Public Building, 

67 
Pale Coach Japan, 70 
Pitcairn Compo, 66 
Drop cloths, paperhangers', 174 
Dry colors — - 

expressing moisture and mould- 
ing, 7 
mixing and grinding, 10-12 
tanks for precipitating, 7 
Dry glues, 162 
Dry paints and colors, listed, 166, 

167 
Dutch Calcimine brushes, 153 
Dutch pink, yellow pigment, 11 
dry, yellow pigment, 167 

Egg-Shell finish— 

Alba-Lux, 60 

Banzai Enamel, 74 
Egyptians, paint-making by early, 

' 2-4 
Elastic Baking Finishing Enamel, 

Pitcairn Black, 70 
Elastic Gear Varnish, Pitcairn 

Pale Auto Chassis or, 69 
Emery cloth and paper, 161 
Empire Asphaltum, 68 
Empire Liquid Wood Filler, 68 
Empire Varnishes — 

Flat Finish, 68 

Floor Finish, 68 

Furniture, 68 

Interior Finish, 68 

Old Fashioned No. 1 Coach, 68 

White Enamel, 68 
Empty cans, 175 
Enamel — 

Air-Drying Body and Fender, 
70 

automobile, 70 

Baking, Finishing, Black Elas- 
tic, Pitcairn, 70 



Enamel — continued 
Banzai White, 74 
brushes, 146, 147 
clarifying of, 13 
Colored, Waterspar, 52-54 
Empire White, 68 
Florhide, Patton's, 29, 30 
gold and aluminum, 176 
mills for grinding, 13 
Paint, Wagon and Tractor, 37, 

38 
Pitcairn Waterspar Colored Var- 
nish and, 52-54 
Stovepipe, Patton's, 64 
Undercoater, Banzai, 74 
Underframe, Pitcairn Black, 70 
white, improvements in, 15, 16 

Enamels, oil-base, development of, 
16 

Everybody's Graining Set, 175 

Extension ladders, 170 

Extension plank, adjustable, 171 

Exterior Pitcairn Public Building 
Varnish, 67 

Extra Black Body-Rubbing Var- 
nish, Pitcairn, 70 

Falls, painters', 171 

Felt, rubbing, 162 

Fender Enamel, Pitcairn, 70 

Filler — 

Iron and Steel, Patton's, 63 
Wood, Empire Liquid, 68 
Wood, Patton's Liquid, 63 
Wood, Patton's Paste, 62 
Wood, Red Seal Liquid, 63 
See also Tector, Pitcairn, 75 

Filling paint and varnish contain- 
ers, special machinery for, 14 

Finishing Enamel, Pitcairn Black 
Elastic Baking, 70 

Finishing Spar Varnish, Pitcairn. 
66 

Fitch brushes, made from skunk 
hair, 142 

"Fla^," split end of bristle, essen- 
tial for brushes, 129, 139 

Flash-point — 
of Leptyne, 73 
of turpentine, 14, 73 

Flat calcimine brushes, 153 

Flat Finish, Empire, 68 

Flat paint brushes, 153 

Flat Varnish, Pitcairn, 66 

Flat varnish brushes, 153 

Flat Wall Paint, Velumina, 34, 35, 
104, 105, 120 

Flaxseed, source of linseed oil, 12, 
13, 178 

Flint cloth, 161 

Floor Finish, Empire, 68 

Floor Spar Varnish, Pitcairn, 66 

[ xiii ] 



Florhide Enamel, Patton's, 29, 30 
Fossil gums, as varnish ingredi- 
ents, 19 
France, prehistoric paint remains 

in, 1 
French — 

Crown Golden Ochre in Oil, 

Patton's, 62 
Green Seal Zinc Compound in 

Oil, Patton's, 63 
Red Seal Zinc Compound in Oil, 

Patton's, 63 
Washed Yellow Ochre in Oil, 

Patton's, 62 
Zinc in Damar, Patton's, 63 
Fresco Colors, Kalkomo, 159 
Furniture Polish, Patton's Sun- 
Bright, 64 
Furniture Varnish, Empire, 68 

Garnet cloth and paper, 161 
Gasoline paint burners, 171 
Gear Varnishes, Pitcairn, 69 
Gibraltar sandpaper, 161 
Gilsonite, used in making japans, 

20 
Glass cutters, 172 
Glass measuring and cutting 

boards, 173 
Glaziers' — 

diamonds, steel wheels, and 
cutters, 172 

points, drivers, pliers, measur- 
ing and cutting boards, rules, 
173 

tools, equipment, and supplies, 
168, 172, 173, 177 
Glues, 162 
Gold enamel, 176 
Gold leaf, 176 

Gold Size, Pitcairn Japan, 70 
Graining Colors, Patton's, 62 
Graining combs, 175 
Graining Set, Everybody's, 175 
Granitite Cold Water Paint, 159 
Graphite — 

Patton's (liquid and paste), 63 

Red Seal (formerly Keystone) 
Liquid, 64 

Red Seal (paste), 63 
Grass sponges, 164 
Green Seal Zinc Compound in Oil, 

Patton's French, 63 
Greens — 

dry, 167 

in japan, 71 

in oil, 33, 34, 62 

Paris, 167 
Greenona, Patton's, 61 
Grinding — 

enamel, mills for, 13 

paint, mills for, 11, 12 



INDEX— PAINT SECTION 



Gums, fossil, as varnish ingredi- 
ents, 19 
Gypsum, inert pigment, 6, 10 

Hacking knives, 169 

Hook, adjustable safety, 171 

India, origin of madder and indigo 

in, 3 
Indian red, composition of, 11 
Indigo, early use of, 3 
Industrial Building Paint, Patton's 

36-38 
Industrial paint users, Pittsburgh 

Service for, 96 
Inside work, selecting paints for, 

25 
Interior Finish, Empire, 68 
Interior Pitcairn Public Building 

Varnish, 67 
Interiors, commercial, best colors 

for use in, 25 
Iron — 

and Steel Filler, Patton's, 63 
colored pigments containing, 11 
in miscellaneous pigments, 12 
oxide of, in paint-making, 5, 12 
Ironhide, Patton's, 45, 46, 121 
Italy, early painting in, 2, 4 

Jacks, ladder, 171 
"Japan" and "drier," terms dis- 
tinguished, 20 
Japan — 

Colors, Pitcairn, 71 

Drier, 66, 73 

Gold Size, Pitcairn, 70 

Pitcairn Pale Coach, 70 
Japans, materials for making, 20 

Kalkomo — 

Fresco Colors, 159 

Wall Finish, 159 
Keystone Liquid Graphite — See 

Red Seal 
Knives — 

paperhangers', 169 

putty and scraping, 168 

Label — 

"The Sunface with its Rays" 

(Proof Products motto), 59 
Universal, selling power of, 78, 
79 
Laboratories of Paint and Varnish 

Division, 6 
Lacquer, Pitcairn Spirit, 73 
Ladder jacks, 171 
Ladders, painters', 170 
"Lakes," pigments, early use of, 3 
Lamp Blacks — 
dry, 166 



Lamp Blacks — continued 
in japan, 71 
in oil, 62 
Lead — 

basic carbonate and sulphate of, 

6 
blue, 6 

colored pigments containing, 11 
oxides of, dry (Litharge, Orange 
Mineral, Red Lead) 167, 177 
oxides of, in oil, Red, 177 
Red, 167, 177 
white, See White Lead 
Leaf, gold, silver, aluminum, 176 
Leather bound flat paint brushes, 

153 
Leather graining combs, 175 
Leptyne, Pitcairn paint thinner, 

73, 82-95 
Light-reflecting value of various 

colors, 25 
Linoleate drier, used in making 
Red Wing Quality Linseed 
Oil, 178 
Linseed Oil — 

mills of the Paint and Varnish 

Division, 8-9, 178 
paint-making, its use in, 5 
raw and boiled, 177 
Red Wing Quality, 178 
Liquid glue, 162 
Liquid Graphite, Patton's, 63 
Liquid Graphite, Red Seal (for- 
merly Keystone) , 64 
Liquid Wood Filler — 
Empire, 68 
Patton's, 63 
Red Seal, 63 
Litharge, dry, 167 
Lithopone, opaque pigment, 6, 10 

Madder, early use of, 3 
Manhattan bulk varnishes, 73 
Manufacture — 

of brushes, 127-143 

of paint, 5-16 

of varnish, 19-24 
Mast Spar Varnish, Pitcairn, 66 
Master Painters' Spar Varnish, 

Pitcairn, 66 
Measuring boards, glaziers', 173 
Merchandising brushes, 145-154 
Metal, Pitcairn Transparent Sealer 

for, 70 
Metal bound flat paint brushes, 

153 
Metal Paint, Ironhide, 45, 46, 121 
Metal Polish, Patton's Sun-Bright, 

64 
Mill white, Alba-Lux, 60 
Mill white, cold water paint, 159 
Millstones, dressing, 12 

[ xiv J 



Mineral paints, dry, 167 
Mohair Top Dressing, Pitcairn, 71 
Mortar colors, 167 
Moths in brushes, to prevent, 152 
Murex, the royal purple of Tyre, 
2, 3 

Naphtha, painters', 14 

Naphthaline, to prevent moths in 
brushes, 152 

Nile, ancient civilization of, pre- 
served by paints and var- 
nishes, 3, 4 

Ochre- 
composition of, 11 
in early paint-making, 5 
Ochres — 
dry, 167 
in japan, 71 
in oil, 32, 34, 62 
Oil- 
China wood, 13 
Colors, Patton's, 32-34 
Colors, Pittsburgh, 62 
Drier, Pitcairn Public Building, 

67 
Linseed, 177 
Linseed, Red Wing Quality, 

178 
Perilla, 13 
Soya bean, 13 
Oil-base enamels, development of, 

16 
Oilcake, by-product of Linseed oil 

manufacture, 178 
Oils- 
development of, 12, 13 
oriental, introduction of, 13 
varnish-making, use in, 20 
Old Dutch Process, in white lead 

making, 6 
Old Fashioned No. 1 Coach Var- 
nish, Empire, 68 
Opaque pigments, what they in- 
clude, 6 
Orange mineral, 11, 12 
Orange Mineral, dry, 167 
Organic colors, pigments contain- 
ing, 11 
Oriental Varnish Stain, Patton's, 

62 
Origin and first use of paint, 1-4 
Original package sizes, paints and 

varnishes, quantities, 80 
Orr, discoverer of lithopone, 10 
Outside work, selecting paints for, 

25 
Oval brushes, 146, 147, 148, 153 

to tighten, 151, 152 
Oval varnish brushes, construc- 
tion of, illustrated, 147 



Oxide— 
black, 11 
crimson, 11 
of lead — See Lead 
of zinc — See Zinc 
Titanium white, 6, 10 

Pails, paint and calcimine, 171 
Paint— 

a definition of, 5 

and calcimine pails and strain- 
~ers, 171 

and Varnish Remover, Pitcairn, 
73 

brushes, 123-154 

burners, gasoline, 171 

early methods of manufacture, 5 

first used for pictorial purposes, 

origin and first use of, 1-4 
progress and development in 
manufacture of, 5-16 
Paint and Varnish Division, Pitts- 
burgh Plate Glass Company — 
laboratories of, 6 
Linseed oil mills of, at Red 
Wing, Minn., and Newark, N. 
J., 8, 9, 178 
Paint and varnish plants of, at 
Milwaukee, Wis., and New- 
ark, N. J., 8, 9 
Varnish plant at Milwaukee, 

Wis., 24 
Varnish plant at Newark, N. J., 
24 
Paint proposition for dealers, 57- 

59 
Painter-dusters, 154 
Painters' — 

brushes, 123-154 

Coach Varnish, Pitcairn, 66 

falls, 171 

ladders, 170 

stage or scaffold, 171 

tools, equipment, and supplies, 

155-171, 174-178 
trestles, 171 
Paint-making — 

among early Egyptians, 2, 3, 4 
conservatism in development of, 

o 
early, 5, 6 
filling containers, 14 
grinding mills, 11, 12 
labeling containers by machine, 

16 
modern methods described and 

illustrated, 5-16 
prehistoric, 1, 2 
probable lines of future prog- 
ress in, 16 
sampling and testing, 15 



INDEX— PAINT SECTION 

Paint store, model, showing dis- 
play of Pitcairn products (il- 
lustration), 76 
Paint users, industrial, Pittsburgh 

Service for, 96 
Paints — 

aluminum, 176 

and varnishes, original quanti- 
ties in which packed, 80 
color suggestions for selecting, 

97-121 
dry, 166, 167 
mineral, 167 

Patton's, See Patton's Paints 
Plasco, See Plasco Ready-Mixed 

Paint 
selection of, 25 
Palace of Cnossus, excavations in 

the, 3 
Palaeolithic age, paint in, 1 
Paperhangers' — 
knives, 169 
paste boards, 174 
shears, 174 

tools, equipment, and supplies, 
164, 165, 168-170, 174 
Paris Green, 167 

Paste, American White, in oil, 177 
Paste Boards, 174 
Paste Tables, folding, 170 
Paste Wood Filler, Patton's, 62 

Patton's Paints and Finishes 

Alba-Lux (Gloss, Flat, and Egg- 
Shell Gloss), 60; example of 
work, 121; specifications for 
use, 85 

Auto Gloss Finish — color chips, 
42; description, 40; examples 
of work, 41 

Blackboard Slating, 64 

Cementhide — color chips, 43 ; 
description, 44; examples of 
work, 43, 100, 101; specifica- 
tions for use, 83 

Crack Pack, 64 

Distemper Colors, 64 

Florhide Enamel — color chips, 
30; description, 29; specifica- 
tions for use, 84, 86 

French Crown Golden Ochre in 
. Oil, 62 

French Green Seal Zinc Com- 
pound in Oil, 63 

French Red Seal Zinc Com- 
pound in Oil, 63 

French Washed Yellow Ochre in 
Oil, 62 

French Zinc in Damar, 63 

Graining Color, 62 

Graphite (liquid and paste), 63 

Greenona, 61 

[xv] 



Patton's Paints and Finishes 

(Continued) 

Industrial Building Paint — 
color chips, 38; description, 
37; example of work, 36; 
specifications for use, 82 
Iron and Steel Filler, 63 
Ironhide — color chips, 45; de- 
scription, 46; example of 
work, 121; specifications for 
use, 83 
Liquid Wood Filler, 63 
Oil Colors— color chips, 32, 33; 

description, 34 
Oriental Varnish Stain, 62 
Paste Wood Filler, 62 
Porchite — color chips, 30; de- 
scription, 29; examples of 
work, 31, 99-103; specifica- 
tions for use, 82 
Seventeenth Century Wax, 62, 

87, 88, 90-94 
Shufli Screen Paint, 64 
Silk- White Velumina, 61 
Snolite (semi-paste) , 61 
Stovepipe Enamel, 64 
Sun-Bright Furniture Polish, 64 
Sun-Bright Metal Polish, 64 
Sun-Proof Liquid Paint — color 
chips, 26, 27; description 28; 
examples of work, 99-103; 
specifications for use, 82, 84, 
86 
Sun-Proof White (paste), 60 
Titanic Liquid White, 61 
Tor-on Shingle Stain — color 
chips, 39; description, 40; 
examples of work, 99, 102, 
103; specifications for use, 83 
Velumina — color chips, 35; de- 
scription, 34; examples of 
work, 104-120; specifications 
for use, 85, 86 
Venetian Red in Oil, 62 
Wagon and Tractor Enamel 
Paint — color chips, 38; de- 
scription, 37 
well-displayed stock of, 58 
Pew and Seat Finish, Pitcairn 

Church, 66 
Pigment Primer, for automobile 

finishing, 70 
Pigments — 

classified according to opacity, 

6 
colored, classified, 11 
hiding power of various, 6, 10, 

11 
inert, function in paint manu- 
facture, 11 
metallic, improvement in, 6 



INDEX— PAINT SECTION 



Pigments — continued 

modern methods of making, de- 
scribed and illustrated, 5-16 
prehistoric, 1, 2 
Pitcairn products — 

display of, in model paint store, 

76 
original-size packages, 80 
Pitcairn proposition for dealers, 
the, 77 

Pitcairn Varnishes and Finishes 

Air-Drying Body and Fender 

Enamel, 70 
Architectural, 66, 67 
Auto Hard-Drying Body, 69 
Automobile, 69, 70 
Banzai Double-Cover Under- 

coater, 74 
Banzai Enamel, 74 
Black Body-Rubbing, 70 
Black Elastic Baking Finishing 

Enamel, 70 
Black Underframe Enamel, 70 
Cabinet Rubbing and Polishing 

Spar, 66 
Carriage Top Dressing, 71 
Church Pew and Seat Finish, 66 
Colored Rubbing, 72 
Compo Drier, 66 
Deck Spar, 66 
Double-Quick Rubbing, 70 
Exterior Public Building, 67 
Extra Black Body-Rubbing, 70 
Extra Pale Auto Wearing Body, 

69 
Finest Auto Wearing Body, 69 
Finishing Spar, 66 
Flat, 66 
Floor Spar, 66 
Hard-Drying Gear, 69 
Heavy Gear, 69 
Interior Public Building, 67 
Japan Colors, 71 
Japan Gold Size, 70 
Leptyne, 73 
Mast Spar, 66 
Master Painters 5 Spar, 66 
Mohair Top Dressing, 71 
One-Coat Auto, 69 
Paint and Varnish Remover, 73 
Painters' Coach, 66 
Pale Auto Chassis or Elastic 

Gear, 69 
Pale Auto Rubbing Body, 69 
Pale Coach Japan, 70 
Public Building Oil Drier, 67 
Pure Batavia Damar, 67 
Quick-Rubbing, 70 
Rough Stuff, 70 
Spirit Lacquer, 73 
Tector, 75 



Pitcairn Varnishes and Finishes 

(Continued) 

To-Yo-Lac Cabinet, 67 
Wagon Coach, 70 
Waterspar Colored Varnish and 
Enamel — color chips, 54; de- 
scription, 52; package sizes, 
80; examples of work, 53; 
specifications for use, 90, 93 
Waterspar Transparent — de- 
scription, 50; example of 
work, 51 
Wood Stain — color chips, 55; 
description, 56; examples of 
work, 100-107, 110, 111, 
113-117, 119; package sizes, 
80 ; specifications for use, 88- 
94 
Pittsburgh Oil Colors, 62, 80 
Plank, adjustable extension, 171 
Plasco Ready-Mixed Paint — color 
chips, 48, 49; description, 47; 
specifications for use, 82, 84, 
86 
Plate glass pliers, 173 
Points and point drivers, glaziers', 

173 
Pole scraper, 169 
Polish, Furniture, Patton's Sun- 
Bright, 64 
Polish, Metal, Patton's Sun-Bright, 

64 
Polishing Spar Varnish, Cabinet 

Rubbing and, 66 
Porchite, Patton's, 29-31 
Pots, shellac and varnish, 171 
Pottery, use of glazed, in paint- 
making, 2 
"Pound brush" — 
origin of, 126 

oval style outgrowth of, 146 
Prehistoric paint-making, 1, 2 
Primer Pigment, for automobile 
underframe and parts, 70 
See also Tector, Pitcairn 
Proof Products — 

For complete list of Proof Prod- 
ucts with Specification refer- 
ences — See page xix 
original quantities in which 

packed, 80 
reputation of, 59 
scope of the Pittsburgh Plate 
Glass Company's line of, 57 
selling power of, strengthened 
by Universal Label, 78, 79 
Prussian Blue — 

classed as cyanide compound, 

12 
dry, 166 
in japan, 71 
in oil, 33, 62, 80 

[ xvi ] 



Public Building Oil Drier, Pit- 
cairn, 67 

Public Building Varnishes, Pit- 
cairn, 67 

Publicity helps and plans for 
paint dealers, 59, 60, 77-79 

Pumice stone, 162 

Pure Batavia Damar Varnish, Pit- 
cairn, 67 

Purple, royal, of Tyre, 2, 3 

Putty, 177 

Putty knives, 168 

Quantities and packages, origi- 
nal size, paints and varnishes, 
80 

Quercitron bark, pigment derived 
from, 11 

Radiator bronze, 176 
Red- 
Indian, 11 
Para, 12 
Tuscan, 12 
Venetian, 11 
Red Lead — 
dry, 167, 177 
in oil, 177 
Reds- 
dry, 167 ^ 
in japan, 71 
in oil, 32-34, 62 
Red Seal- 
Graphite (paste), 63 
Liquid Graphite (formerly Key- 
stone) , 64 
Liquid Wood Filler, 63 
Zinc Compound in Oil, Patton's 
French, 63 
Red Wing Quality Linseed Oil. 178 
Remover, Paint and Varnish, Pit- 
cairn, 73 
Renaissance painters, Italian, pig- 
ments used by, 2, 4 
Rennous-Kleinle Division — 

development and growth of, 

133, 134, 145 
Horseshoe brand of brushes 

made by, 134, 153, 154 
plant of, 132 
Resins, use of, in varnish-making, 

19 
Roller grinding mill, for paint, 12 
Rollers, seam, 169 
Roof brackets, 170 
Roof Last Carbon Paint, 175 
Roof paints, 36, 37, 38, 63 
Rosin of commerce, manufacture 

of, 20 
Rotten stone, 162 
Rough Stuff, Pitcairn, for auto 
finishing, 70 






Rubbing — 

and Polishing Spar Varnish, 

Cabinet, 66 
Body Varnishes, Pitcairn Auto, 

69,70 
felt, 162 
stone, 162 
Varnishes, colored, how to 

make, 72 
Varnishes, Pitcairn Auto, 69, 70 
Varnishes, Pitcairn Colored, 72 
Rules, glaziers', 173 

Safety hook, adjustable, 171 
Sandpaper, 161 
Sash brushes, 147, 148, 153 
"Save the Surface and You Save 
All"— Paint and Varnish, 122 
Savogran, 175 
Scaffold, painters', 171 
Scrapers, 169 
Scraping knives, 168 
Screen Paint, Patton's Shufli, 64 
Sealer, Transparent, made from 
Pitcairn Waterspar Varnish, 
70 
Seam rollers, 169 
Seat Finish, Pitcairn Church Pew 

and, 66 
Service, merchandising, for deal- 
ers, 59, 60, 77-79 
Service, technical, for industrial 

paint users, 96 
Seventeenth Century Wax, Pat- 
ton's, 62, 87, 88, 90-94 
Shears, paperhangers', 174 
Sheep's wool sponges, 164 
Shellac — 

and varnish pots, 171 
dry, 160 
varnish, 160 
Shingle Stain, Patton's Tor-on, 39, 

40, 83, 99, 102, 103 
Shufli Screen Paint, Patton's, 64 
Sienna — 

in early paint-making, 5 
iron in composition of, 11 
Silica, inert pigment, 6, 10 
Silk-White Velumina, Patton's, 61 
Silver leaf, 176 
Sizes and measurements of 

brushes, 153, 154 
Sizing or Ceiling Varnish, 73 
Slating, Patton's Blackboard, 64 
Smalt, 175 
Snolite, Patton's, semi-paste paint, 

61 
Socket scraper, 169 
Soft hair — 

bearing animals, 140, 141 
brushes for various uses, 141- 
143, 149 



INDEX— PAINT SECTION 

Soft hair — continued 

brushes, miscellaneous, illus- 
trated, 152 
varieties illustrated, 142 
what it is and where it comes 
from, 140-143 
Soya bean oil, use of, 13 
Spain, evidence of prehistoric 

paint-making in, 1 
Spar Varnishes, Pitcairn, 65, 66 
Specifications for use of Proof 

Products, 81-95 
Specifications of brushes, 153, 154 
Spirit Lacquer, Pitcairn, 73, 88, 

91, 93 
Sponges, 164, 165 
Stage or scaffold, painters', 171 
Stain — 

Patton's Oriental Varnish, 62 
Pitcairn Wood, 55, 56 
Shingle, Patton's, Tor-on, 39, 40 
Steel- 
Filler, Patton's Iron and, 63 
graining combs, 175 
protective paint for — See Iron- 
hide 
shavings, 162 

wheels and glass cutters, 172 
wire brushes, 163 
wool, 162 
Step ladders, 170 
Stone-dresser, in paint mill, 12 
Storage and aging tanks for var- 
nish, 18 
Stovepipe Enamel, Patton's, 64 
Straight-edges, 174 
Strainers, paint and calcimine, 171 
Structural iron and steel paint, 

Ironhide, 45, 46, 121 
Stucco type flat paint brushes, 153 
Sun-Bright Furniture Polish, Pat- 
ton's, 64 
Sun-Bright Metal Polish, Patton's, 

64 
Sun-Proof Liquid Paint, Patton's, 

26-28 
Sun-Proof White, Patton's (paste), 

60 
Sundries Section, 155-178 
Surface-protection campaign, 122 
Surfacer — See Tector, Pitcairn 

Tables, paste, folding, 170 

Talc, inert pigment, 6, 11 

Tampico, samples of, 130 

Tanks, storage and aging, for var- 
nish, 18 

Taper, or "chisel," on brushes, 
how obtained, 139 

Tector, Pitcairn, undercoater, 75, 
80, 83, 84, 87, 94 

Terre verte, green pigment, 2 

.[ xvii ] 



Testing paints, 15 

Theophilus, monk, describes early 

varnish-making, 20, 21 
Thinners, volatile, function and 

source of, 14, 15 
Titanic Liquid White, Patton's, 61 
Titanium white, opaque pigment, 

6, 10 
Top Dressing, Pitcairn Carriage, 

71 
Top Dressing, Pitcairn Mohair, 71 
Torch, gasoline, 171 
Tor-on Shingle Stain, Patton's, 

39, 40, 83, 99, 102, 103 
To-Yo-Lac Varnish, Pitcairn, 67 
Tractor Enamel Paint, Patton's 

Wagon and, 36-38 
Transparent Sealer, 70 
Transparent Varnish, Pitcairn Wa- 
terspar, 50, 51 
Trestles, painters', 171 
Trimmer, wall paper, 174 
Trimming brushes, 147, 148 
Turpentine — 

distillation, source of resin sup- 
ply, 19, 20 
spirits of, 177 
substitutes, 14 

volatile thinner, source of, 14 
Tuscar Barn Paint, 64 
Tyre, royal purple of, 2, 3 

Ultramarine blue, ancient, or "az- 
urite," 2 

Umber — 

in early paint-making, 5 
iron in composition of, 11 

Undercoater, Banzai Double-Cov- 
er, 74 

Undercoater — See also Pitcairn 
Tector, 75 

Undercoaters, improvements in, 15 

Underframe Enamel, Pitcairn 
Black, 70 

Universal Label, selling power of, - 
78, 79 

Varnish — ■ 

brushes, 146, 147, 153 

cans, empty, 175 

damar, in enamels, 15, 16 

directions for using, 65 

manufacture of, 19-24 

materials for making, 19, 20 

origin of word, 19 

pots, 171 

Remover, Pitcairn Paint and, 73 

shellac, 160 

Sizing, 73 

Stain, Patton's Oriental, 62 

use of, on Egyptian mummies, 



INDEX— PAINT SECTION 



Varnishes — 

Architectural, 66, 67 
Automobile, 69-71 
bulk, Manhattan, 73 
Carriage, 69-71 
Empire, 68 

Pitcairn, See Pitcairn Varnishes 
and Finishes 
Varnish-making — 

ancient and modern methods of, 

compared, 20, 21, 23 
antiquity of, 3 
chemist's work in, 19 
in Eleventh Century, 20, 21 
rapid development of, in recent 

years, 19 
storage and aging tanks in, 18 
testing finished product in, 23 
Vegetable sources of organic col- 
ors, 11 
Velumina — 

Patton's, 34, 35, 104^120 
Patton's Silk-White, 61 
Venetian reds — 
dry, 167 
in japan, 71 
in oil, 32, 34, 62 
Vermilion colors, See Reds 
Vulcanizing brushes in rubber, 
138, 147-149 



Wagon and Tractor Enamel Paint, 

Patton's, 36-38 
Wagon Coach Varnish, Pitcairn, 

70 
Wall Finish, Kalkomo, 159 
Wall paper trimmer, 174 
Wall scrapers, 169 , 
Walls, plaster, fiat effect, 85 
Waste, white cotton, 177 
Waterspar Colored Varnish and 

Enamel, Pitcairn, 52-54 
Waterspar Transparent Varnish, 

Pitcairn, 50, 51 
Wax, Patton's Seventeenth Cen- 
tury, 62 
White Enamel — 
Banzai, 74, 95 
Empire, 68 

recent improvements in, 15, 16 
Waterspar, 54 
White lead- 
as paint material, value of, 6, 

10 
dry, 167, 177 

in early paint-making, 5, 6 
in oil, 177 
Old Dutch Process, 6 
oldest white pigment, 6 
White paste, in oil, American, 
177 



Whites- 
dry, 167 ^ 
in japan, 71 
in oil, zinc, 63 

Whitewash brushes, 154 

Whiting, 167 

Wire brushes, steel, 163 

Wood Filler- 
Empire Liquid, 68 
Patton's Liquid, 63 
Patton's Paste, 62 
Red Seal Liquid, 63 
Tector, 75 

Wood Stain, Pitcairn, 55, 56, 88- 
94, 100-107, 110, 111, 113- 
117, 119 

Yellows — 
dry, 167 
in japan, 71 
in oil, 32, 34, 62 

Zinc — ■ 

Compound in Oil, 63 

dry, 167 

in Damar, Patton's French, 63 

in japan, 71 

leaded, opaque pigment, 6 

oxide, use of, 6, 10 

strips, for paperhangers, 174 



[ xviii ] 



INDEX— PAINT SECTION 
PROOF PAINT AND VARNISH PRODUCTS 

{Listed in the order in which they appear in this book. The items are also indexed alphabetically.) 



Pattern's Sun-Proof Liquid Paint — color 
chips, 26, 27; description, 28; ex- 
amples of work, 99-103; specifi- 
cations for use, 82, 84, 86 

Patton's Porchite — color chips, 30; de- 
scription, 29; examples of work, 31, 
99-103; specifications for use, 82 

Patton's Florhide Enamel — color chips, 
30^ description, 29; specifications 
for use, 84, 86 

Patton's Oil Colors — color chips, 32, 33 ; 
description, 34; examples of work, 
114, 115, 117 

Patton's Velumina — color chips, 35; de- 
scription, 34 ; examples of work, 104 
-120; specifications for use, 85, 86 

Patton's Industrial Building Paint — col- 
or chips, 38; description, 37; ex- 
ample of work, 36; specifications 
for use, 82 

Patton's Wagon and Tractor Enamel 
Paint — color chips, 38; description, 
37; example of work, 36 

Patton's Tor-on Shingle Stain — color 
chips, 39; description, 40; examples 
of work, 99-103; specifications for 
use, 83 

Patton's Auto Gloss Finish — color chips, 
42; description, 40; examples of 
work, 41 

Patton's Cementhide — color chips, 43; 
description, 44; examples of work, 
43, 100; specifications for use, 83 

Patton's Ironhide — color chips, 45; de- 
scription, 46; example of work, 121 ; 
specifications for use, 83 

Plasco Ready-mixed paint — color chips, 
48, 49; description, 47; specifica- 
tions for use, 82, 84, 86 

Pitcairn Waterspar Transparent Varnish 
— description, 50; example of work, 
51 

Pitcairn Waterspar Colored Varnish and 
Enamel — color chips, 54; descrip- 
tion, 52; example of work, 53; spe- 
cifications for use, 90, 93 

Pitcairn Wood Stain — color chips, 55; 
description, 56; examples of work, 
100-107, 110-119; specifications for 
use, 88-94 

Patton's Alba-Lux, gloss, flat, and egg- 
shell gloss, described, 60; example 
of work, 121 ; specifications for use, 
85 

Patton's Sun-Proof White (paste), 60 

Patton's Snolite (semi-paste), 61 

Patton's Titanic Liquid White, 61 

Patton's Silk- White Velumina, 61 

Patton's Greenona, 61 

Patton's French Crown Golden Ochre 
in Oil, 62 

Patton's French Washed Yellow Ochre 
in Oil, 62 

Patton's Venetian Red in Oil, 62 



Patton's Seventeenth Century Wax, 62; 
specifications for use, 87, 88, 90-94 
Patton's Oriental Varnish Stain, 62 
Patton's Graining Color, 62 
Patton's Paste Wood Filler, 62; specifi- 
cations for use, 84-95 
Pittsburgh Oil Colors, 62 
Patton's Liquid Wood Filler, 63 
Red Seal Liquid Wood Filler, 63 
Patton's Iron and Steel Filler, 63 
Patton's French Green Seal Zinc Com- 
pound in Oil, 63 
Patton's French Red Seal Zinc Com- 
pound in Oil, 63 
Patton's French Zinc in Damar, 63 
Patton's Graphite (paste), 63 
Red Seal Graphite (paste), 63 
Patton's Liquid Graphite, 63 
Red Seal Liquid Graphite (formerly 

Keystone), 64 
Keystone Liquid Graphite — See Red 

Seal Liquid Graphite, 64 
Tuscar Barn Paint, 64 
Patton's Blackboard Slating, 64 
Patton's Crack Pack, 64 
Patton's Shufli Screen Paint, 64 
Patton's Stovepipe Enamel, 64 
Patton's Sun-Bright Metal Polish, 64 
Patton's Sun-Bright Furniture Polish, 64 
Patton's Distemper Colors, 64 

Architectural Varnishes 

Pitcairn Aged Spar Varnish, 65 

Pitcairn Mast Spar Varnish, 66; speci- 
fications for use, 84 

Pitcairn Deck Spar Varnish, 66 

Pitcairn Finishing Spar Varnish, 66; 
specifications for use, 86~94 

Pitcairn Floor Spar Varnish, 66; spe- 
cifications for use, 94, 95 

Pitcairn Flat Varnish, 66; specifications 
for use, 86-94 

Pitcairn Cabinet Rubbing and Polishing 
Spar Varnish, 66 

Pitcairn Master Painters' Spar Varnish, 
66 

Pitcairn Painters' Coach Varnish, 66 

Pitcairn Church Pew and Seat Finish, 66 

Pitcairn Compo Drier, 66; specifications 
for use, 82 

Pitcairn Pure Batavia Damar Varnish, 
67 

Pitcairn To-Yo-Lac Cabinet Varnish, 67 

Pitcairn Public Building Varnishes 

Pitcairn Interior Public Building Var- 
nish, 67 

Pitcairn Exterior Public Building Var- 
nish, 67 

Pitcairn Public Building Oil Drier. 67 

Empire Varnishes 

Empire White Enamel, 68 
Empire Interior Finish, 68 



Empire Floor Finish, 68 
Empire Flat Finish, 68 
Empire Old Fashioned No. 1 Coach Var- 
nish, 68 
Empire Furniture Varnish, 68 
Empire Asphaltum, 68 
Empire Liquid Wood Filler, 68 

Pitcairn Automobile Varnishes 

Pitcairn Extra Pale Auto Wearing Body 
Varnish, 69 

Pitcairn Finest Auto Wearing Body Var- 
nish, 69 

Pitcairn Auto Hard-Drying Body Var- 
nish, 69 

Pitcairn One-Coat Auto Varnish, 69 

Pitcairn Pale Auto Chassis or Elastic 
Gear Varnish, 69 

Pitcairn Heavy Gear Varnish, 69 

Pitcairn Hard-Drying Gear Varnish, 
69 

Pitcairn Pale Auto Rubbing Body Var- 
nish, 69 

Pitcairn Quick-Rubbing Varnish, 70 

Pitcairn Double-Quick Rubbing Varnish, 
70 

Pitcairn Extra Black Body- Rubbing Var- 
nish, 70 

Pitcairn Black Body-Rubbing Varnish, 
70 

Pitcairn Wagon Coach Varnish, 70 

Pitcairn Japan Gold Size, 70 

Pitcairn Pale Coach Japan, 70 

Pitcairn Rough Stuff, 70 

Pitcairn Air-Drying Body and Fender 
Enamel, 70 

Pitcairn Black Elastic Baking Finishing 
Enamel, 70 

Pitcairn Black Underframe Enamel, 70 

Transparent Sealer Made from Pitcairn 
Varnish, 70 

Pigment Primer, 70 

Pitcairn Mohair Top Dressing, 71 

Pitcairn Carriage Top Dressing, 71 

Pitcairn Japan Colors, 71 

Pitcairn Colored Rubbing Varnishes, 
72 

Pitcairn Spirit Lacquer, 73; specifica- 
tions for use, 90—94 

Pitcairn Leptyne, 73; specifications for 
use, 82-95 

Pitcairn Paint and Varnish Remover, 
73 

Manhattan Bulk Varnishes, 73 

Pitcairn White Enamel and 

Undercoaters 

Pitcairn Banzai Enamel, 74; examples of 

work, 98, 103-109, 112, 115-118; 

specifications for use, 95 
Pitcairn Banzai Double- Cover Under- 

coater, 74; specifications for use, 95 
Pitcairn Tector, 75; specifications for 

use, 82-88, 94, 95 



[ xix ] 






INDEX— PAINT SECTION 
SPECIFICATIONS FOR USE OF PROOF PRODUCTS 

(The number in parenthesis is the specification number; the page number follows.) 



All work, specifications for (Specifica- 
tion No. i— General), 82 
Ash wood, early English effect, varnish 
finish, five-coat work (73), 93 

exterior, varnish finish, five-coat work 
(22), 84 

floors — See Floor Finishes 

golden oak effect ; varnish finish, 
five-coat work (59) , 90; same, four- 
coat work (62), 90; same, mission 
finish (60), 90; same, wax finish, 
three-coat work (61), 90 

greenish weathered effect; varnish 
finish, five-coat work (55), 89; 
same, four-coat work (56), 89; 
same, mission finish (57) , 89 ; same, 
wax finish, three-coat work (58), 
89 

natural ; varnish finish, four-coat work 
(40) , 86; same, mission effect, four- 
coat work (41), 86; same, wax 
finish, three-coat work (42), 86 

silver gray effect; varnish finish, five- 
coat work (63), 90; same, mission 
finish, four-coat work (64), 91; 
same, wax finish, four-coat work 
(65), 91 
white enamel on, (84, 85) , 95 

Banzai System white enamel finish; on 
birch, maple, cypress, gum, white- 
wood, redwood, poplar, also metal 
and plaster; high-gloss finish, five- 
coat work (86), 95; same, egg-shell 
finish, four-coat work (87), 95 
on oak and ash woods, high-gloss 

finish, five-coat work (84), 95 
on oak and ash woods, egg-shell 
finish, four-coat work (85), 95 
Beech floors — See Floor Finishes 
Birch, early English effect ; interior var- 
nish finish, four-coat work (74), 
93; same, mission finish (75), 93; 
same, wax finish, three-coat work 
(76), 93 
Birch, exterior, varnish finish, four-coat 
work (23), 84 
floors; varnish finish, three-coat work 
(82) , 94; same, wax finish, two-coat 
work (83), 94 
mahogany effect on — See Mahogany 

Effect 
natural; varnish finish, three-coat 
work (43), 87; same, mission effect, 
three-coat work (44), 87; same, 
wax finish, two-coat work (45), 87 
silver gray effect; varnish finish, five- 
coat work (63), 90; same, mission 
finish, four-coat work (64), 91; 
same, wax finish, four-coat work 
(65), 91 
white enamel on, (86, 87), 95 
Brick; commercial, or mill white inte- 
rior, flat finish (28), 85; repainting 
(29), 85; same, gloss finish (30), 
85; repainting (31), 85 
exterior or interior, flat finish (14), 

83; repainting (15), 83 
floors — See Floors 

walls, painting (18, 20), 84; repaint- 
ing (19, 21), 84 
Brickwork or plaster, interior, gloss fin- 
ish (38), 86; repainting (39), 86 



Cedar, priming mixture for (2), 82 
Ceilings, metal, flat effect (34), 86; 

repainting (35), 86 
Cement, exterior or interior, flat finish 
(14), 83; repainting (15), 83 
floors — see Floors 

old or new work, commercial, or mill 
white interior; flat finish (28), 85; 
repainting (29), 85; same, gloss fin- 
ish (30), 85; repainting (31), 85 
walls, exterior (18), 84; repainting 
(19), 84 
Circassian walnut effect, on gum, pine, 
fir wood; varnish finish, four-coat 
work (77), 93; same, mission finish 
(78), 94; same, wax finish, three- 
coat work (79) , 94 
Commercial, or mill white interior, old 
or new work; on wood, plaster, 
brick, or cement; flat finish (28), 
85; repainting (29), 85; same, gloss 
finish (30), 85; repainting (31), 85 
Concrete, exterior or interior, painting 
(14), 83; repainting (15), 83 
walls, exterior (18), 84; repainting 
(19), 84 
Cypress, early English effect; varnish 
finish, four-coat work (74), 93; 
same, mission finish (75), 93; 
same, wax finish, three-coat work 
(76), 93 
exterior, varnish finish, four-coat work 

(23), 84 
golden oak effect ; interior varnish fin- 
ish, five-coat work (59), 90; same, 
four-coat work (62), 90; same, 
mission finish, four-coat work (60), 
90; same, wax finish, three-coat 
work (61), 90 
greenish weathered oak effect; var- 
nish finish, four-coat work (56), 
89; same, mission finish (57), 89; 
same, wax finish, three-coat work 
(58), 89 
priming mixture for (2, 4), 82 
silver gray effect; varnish finish, five- 
coat work (63), 90; same, mission 
finish, four-coat work (64), 91; 
same, wax finish, four-coat work 
(65), 91 
white enamel on (86, 87), 95 

Decks, porch floors and (4), 82; re- 
painting (5), 82 

Dull finish — See under varnish finish 
specifications for various woods 

Early English effect; on oak and as 1 ! 

woods (73), 93; on birch, pine. 

cypress, redwood, fir wood (74-76) . 

93 
Egg-shell white enamel finish, oak and 

ash woods, four-coat work (85), 95 
Enamel, white— See White Enamel 
Exterior stucco, brick, cement, and 

concrete walls, gloss surface (18), 

84; repainting (19), 84 
Exterior varnish finish; birch, pine, 

cypress, fir; four-coat work (23), 

84 
oak and ash; five-coat work (22), 84 
Exterior woodwork, painting (2), 82; 

repainting (3), 82 



Fir, exterior, varnish finish (23), 84 
Fir wood, Circassian walnut effect; var- 
nish finish, four-coat work (77), 
93; same, mission finish (78), 94; 
same, wax finish, three-coat work 
(79), 94 
early English effect; varnish finish, 
four-coat work (74), 93; same, mis- 
sion finish, four-coat work (75), 
93; same, wax finish, three-coat 
work (76), 93 
floors — See Floor Finishes 
golden oak effect; varnish finish, five- 
coat work (59), 90; same, four- 
coat work (62), 90; same, mission 
finish, four-coat work (60 >, 90; 
same, wax finish, three-coat work 
(61), 90 
greenish weathered effect; varnish 
finish, four-coat work (56), 89; 
same, mission finish (57), 89; same, 
wax finish, three-coat work (58), 
89 
natural; varnish finish, three-coat 
work (46), 87; same, mission ef- 
fect, three-coat work (47), 87; 
same, wax finish, two-coat work 
(48), 87 
priming mixture for (4), 82 
Flat finish — See under specifications for 

various surfaces 
Flemish effect, on oak wood (50~53), 88 
Floor finishes, maple, birch, beech, pine, 
fir; varnish finish, three-coat work 
(82), 94; same, wax finish, two- 
coat work (83) , 94 
oak, ash wood; varnish finish, four- 
coat work (80), 94; same, wax fin- 
ish, three-coat work (81), 94 
Floors; brick and cement, interior gloss 
(16), 84; repainting (17), 84 
wood, interior, (36), 86; repainting 

(37), 86 
porch (4), 82; repainting (5), 82 
Fumed effect, on oak wood; varnish 
finish, five-coat work ( 70 ) , 92 ; 
same, mission finish, four-coat work 
(71), 92; same, wax finish, three- 
coat work (72), 92 

Galvanized iron, painting (12), 83; re- 
painting (13) , 83 
Gloss finish; interior brick and cement 
floors (16), 84; repainting (17), 84 
interior woodwork (24), 84; re- 
painting (25), 84 . 
Gloss surface, exterior stucco, brick, 
cement, and concrete walls (18), 
84; repainting (19), 84 
Golden oak effect, on oak, ash, cypress, 

pine, fir, redwood (59-62), 90 
Gum wood, Circassian walnut effect; 
varnish finish, four-coat work-(77), 
93; same, mission finish (78), 94; 
same, wax finish, three-coat work 
(79), 94 
natural; varnish finish, three-coat 
work (46), 87; same, mission effect, 
three-coat work (47), 87; same. 
wax finish, two-coat work (48), 87 
white enamel on, (86, 87). 95 
Gutters, tin, painting (8), 83; repaint- 
ing (9), 83 



[xx] 



Interior, commercial, or mill white ; old 
or new work; wood, plaster, brick, 
or cement; flat finish (28), 85; re- 
painting (29), 85 
gloss finish (30), 85; repainting (31). 
85 

Interior brick or cement floors, gloss 
finish (16), 84; repainting (17), 84 

Interior brickwork or plaster, gloss fin- 
ish (38), 86; repainting (39), 86 

Interior wood floors (36), 86: repaint- 
ing (37), 86 

Interior woodwork; flat finish (26), 85; 
repainting (27), 85 
gloss finish (24), 84; repainting (25), 

84 
white enamel finish (84-87), 95 

Iron and steel, painting (10), 83; 
repainting (11), 83 

Iron, galvanized, painting (12), 83; re- 
painting (13), 83 

Leaders, tin, painting (8), 83; repaint- 
ing (9), 83 

Mahogany effect, on birch wood; dark 
or extra-dark mahogany, varnish fin- 
ish, four-coat work (67), 91; same, 
mission finish, (68), 92; same, wax 
finish, three-coat work (69), 92 
Mahogany wood, genuine, dark or extra- 
dark effect, varnish finish, five-coat 
work (66), 91 
varnish finish, four-coat work (49), 87 
Maple, floors— See Floor Finishes 
natural; varnish finish, three-coat 
work (43), 87; same, mission effect, 
three-coat work (44), 87; same, 
wax finish, two-coat work (45), 87 
white enamel on, (86, 87), 95 
Metal, white enamel on, (86, 87), 95 
Metal ceilings, flat effect (34), 86; re- 
painting (35), 86 
Mill white interior— See Commercial, or 

Mill White 
Mission effect, natural gum, pine, fir 

redwood (47), 87 
Mission finish; oak and ash woods, 
natural (41), 86; on oak, Flemish 
or weathered (50), 88; same, white 
silhouette effect (52), 88 
on birch, mahogany effect (68), 92 
on fumed oak (71), 92 
with Circassian walnut effect (78), 
94; early English (75), 93; golden 
oak (60), 90; greenish weathered 
oak (57), 89; silver gray (64), 91 

Natural wood finish, genuine mahogany; 
varnish finish, four-coat work (49) 
87 

Natural wood finishes ; birch and maple, 
varnish finish, three-coat work (43) , 
87; same, mission effect (44), 87; 
same, wax finish, two-coat work 
(45), 87 
gum, pine, fir, redwood; varnish fin- 
ish, three-coat work (46) , 87; same. 
mission effect (47), 87; same, wax 
finish, two-coat work (48), 87 
oak and ash; varnish finish, four-coat 
work (40), 86; same, mission effect 
(41), 86; same, wax finish, three- 
coat work (42), 86 

Natural wood floor finishes; maple, 
birch, beech, pine, and fir woods' 
varnish finish, three-coat work (82), 



INDEX— PAINT SECTION 

Natural wood floor finishes — continued 
94; same, wax finish, two-coat work 
(83), 94 
oak or ash wood; varnish finish, four- 
coat work (80), 94; same, wax 
finish, three-coat work (81), 94 

Oak effect; weathered, on all soft 
woods, varnish finish, four-coat 
work (54), 89 
greenish weathered, on oak and ash 
woods ; varnish finish, five-coat work 
(55), 89 
Oak wood; early English effect, varnish 
finish, five-coat work (73), 93 
exterior, varnish finish, five-coat work 

(22), 84 
Flemish effect; mission finish, four- 
coat work (50), 88; same, wax fin- 
ish, three-coat work (51), 88 
floors — See Floor Finishes 
fumed effect; varnish finish, five-coat 
work (70), 92; same, mission fin- 
ish, four-coat work (71), 92; same, 
wax finish, three-coat work (72), 92 
golden effect; varnish finish, five- 
coat work (59), 90; same, four- 
coat work (62), 90; same, mission 
finish, four-coat work (60), 90; 
same, wax finish, three-coat work 
(61), 90 
greenish weathered effect; varnish 
finish, five-coat work (55), 89; 
same, four-coat work (56), 89; 
same, mission finish (57), 89; 
same, wax finish, three-coat work 
(58), 89 
natural; varnish finish, four-coat work 
(40), 86; same, mission effect, four- 
coat work (41), 86; same, wax 
finish (42), 86 
silver gray effect; varnish finish, five- 
coat work (63), 90; same, mission 
finish, four-coat work (64), 91; 
same, wax finish, four-coat work 
(65), 91 • 
weathered effect ; mission finish, four- 
coat work (50), 88; same, wax fin- 
ish, three-coat work (51), 88 
white enamel on, (84, 85), 95 
white silhouette effect ; mission finish, 
four-coat work (52), 88; same, wax 
finish, four-coat work (53), 88 
Old work, wood, plaster, brick, cement, 
commercial, or mill white interior; 
flat finish (28), 85; repainting (29), 
85; same, gloss finish (30), 85; 
repainting (31), 85 

Pine wood, Circassian walnut effect; 
varnish finish, four-coat work (77), 
93; same, mission finish (78), 94; 
same, wax finish, three-coat work 
(79), 94 

early English effect; varnish finish, 
four-coat work (74) , 93 ; same, 
mission finish (75), 93; same, wax 
finish, three-coat work (76), 93 

exterior, varnish finish, four-coat 
work (23). 84 

floors — See Floor Finishes 

golden oak effect; varnish finish, five- 
coat work (59), 90; same, four- 
coat work (62), 90; same, mission 
finish, four-coat work (60), 90; 
same, wax finish, three-coat work 
(61), 90 



f xxi ] 



Pine wood — continued 
greenish weathered effect; varnish 
finish, four-coat work (56), 89; 
same, mission finish, four-coat work 
(57), 89; same, wax finish, three- 
coat work (58), 89 
natural; varnish finish, three-coat 
work (46), 87; same, mission effect, 
three-coat work (47), 87; same, 
wax finish, two-coat work (48) 87 
silver gray effect; varnish finish, five- 
coat work (63), 90; same, mission 
finish, four-coat work (64), 91- 
same, wax finish (65), 91 
yellow, priming mixture for (4), 82 
Plaster; commercial, or mill white in- 
terior, old or new work; flat finish 
(28), 85; repainting (29) 85- 
same, gloss finish (30), 85; repaint- 
ing (31), 85 
exterior or interior, painting (14) 

83; repainting (15), 83 
interior, gloss finish (38), 86* re- 
painting (39), 86 
walls, new or old work, flat effect 

(32), 85; repainting (35), 86 
white enamel on, (86, 87), 95 
Poplar, white enamel on, (86, 87) 95 
Porch floors and decks (4), 82; repaint- 

. ing (5), 82 
Priming mixture, for cypress, cedar, and 
redwood (2), 82 
for cypress, yellow pine, and fir (4), 
82 

Redwood; early English effect, varnish 
finish, four-coat work (74), 93- 
same mission finish (75), 93; same 
wax finish, three-coat work (76), 93 

golden oak effect; varnish finish, five- 
coat work (59),. 90; same, four- 
coat work (62), 90; same, mission 
finish, four-coat work (60), 90* 
same, wax finish, three-coat work 
(61), 90 

natural; varnish finish, three-coat 
work (46), 87; same, mission effect, 
three-coat work (47), 87; same, 
wax finish, two-coat work (48), 87 

priming mixture for, (2), 82 

white enamel on, (86, 87), 95 
Roofs, leaders, gutters, tin; painting 

(8), 83; repainting (9), 83 
Roofs, shingle (6), 83; repainting (7), 
83 

Shingle roofs (6), 83; repainting (7), 
83 

Silhouette effect, white, on Flemish or 
weathered oak wood (52, 53), 88 

Silver gray effect, on pine, birch, 
cypress, oak, or ash wood (63-65), 
90, 91 

Soft woods, weathered oak effect, var- 
nish finish, four-coat work (54), 89 

Stained wood finishes; early English ef- 
fect, on birch, pine, cypress, red- 
wood, fir wood; varnish finish, four- 
coat work (74), 93, same, mission 
finish (75), 93; same, wax finish, 
three-coat work (76), 93 
early English effect, on oak and ash 
woods, varnish finish, five-coat work 
(73), 93 
Flemish or weathered finish, on oak 
wood; mission finish, four-coat 
work (50, 52), 88; same, wax finish, 
three-coat work (51, 53) , 88 



Stained wood finishes — continued 

fumed effect, on oak wood; varnish 
finish, five-coat work (70), 92; 
same, mission finish, four-coat work 
(71), 92; same, wax finish, three- 
coat work (72), 92 
golden oak effect, oak, ash, cypress, 
pine, fir, redwood; varnish finish, 
five-coat work (59), 90; same, mis- 
sion finish, four-coat work (60), 
90; same, varnish finish, four-coat 
work (62), 90; same, wax finish, 
three-coat work (61), 90 
greenish weathered effect, on cypress, 
pine, fir, ash, oak woods; varnish 
finish, four-coat work (56), 89; 
. same, mission finish (57), 89; same, 
wax finish, three-coat work (58), 
89 
greenish weathered effect, on oak 
and ash woods, varnish finish, five- 
coat work (55), 89 
mahogany effect, dark or extra-dark, 
on birch wood; varnish finish, four- 
coat work (67), 91; same, mission 
finish (68), 92; same, wax finish, 
three-coat work (69), 92 
mahogany wood, genuine, dark or 
extra-dark effect, varnish finish, five- 
coat work (66), 91 
silver gray effect, on pine, cypress, 
birch, oak, ash woods ; varnish 
finish, five-coat work (63), 90; 
same, mission finish, four-coat work 
(64) , 91 ; same, wax finish (65) , 91 
weathered oak effect, on all soft 
woods, varnish finish, four-coat 
work (54), 89 
weathered oak finish — See Flemish, 

above 
white silhouette effect, Flemish ^ or 
weathered stain; mission finish, 
four-coat work (52), 88; same, wax 
finish (53), 88 
Steel, iron and, painting (10), 83; re- 
painting (11), 83 
Stucco, brick, cement, concrete; exte- 
rior or interior, flat finish (14), 83; 
repainting (15), 83 



INDEX— PAINT SECTION 

Stucco, brick, cement, concrete— con- 
tinued 
walls, exterior, gloss finish (18), 84; 
repainting (19), 84 

Tin roofs, leaders, gutters; painting (8), 

83; repainting (9), 83 
Wallboard, flat effect (33), 86; repaint- 
ing ( 35 ) , 86 
Walls, brick, exterior (18, 20), 84; re- 
painting (19, 21), 84 
Walls, brick, painting (20), 84; repaint- 
ing (21), 84 
plaster, new or old work, flat effect 

(32), '85; repainting (35), 86 
stucco, brick, cement, concrete (18), 
84; repainting (19), 84 
Walnut effect, Circassian, on gum, pine, 
and fir woods; varnish finish, four- 
coat work (77), 93; same, mission 
finish (78), 94; same, wax finish, 
three-coat work (79), 94 
Wax finish; floors, three-coat work (81) , 
94; same, two-coat work (.83), 94 
on ash (42), 86 

on birch, mahogany effect (69), 92 
on Flemish or weathered oak (51), 
88; same, white silhouette effect 
(53), 88 
on fumed oak (72), 92 
on gum, pine, fir, redwood (48), 87 
on oak (42), 86 

with Circassian walnut effect (79), 94 
with early English effect (76), 93 
with golden oak effect (61) , 90 
with greenish weathered oak effect 

(58), 89 
with silver gray effect (65), 91 
Weathered oak* effect, greenish, on oak 
and ash woods, varnish finish, five- 
coat work (55), 89; on cypress, 
pine, fir, ash, and oak woods, var- 
nish finish, four-coat work (56) , 89; 
same, mission finish, four-coat work 
(57), 89; same, wax finish, three- 
coat work (58), 89 
Weathered oak effect; on all soft woods, 
varnish finish, four-coat work (54), 
89 



Weathered oak effect — continued 
on oak wood; mission finish, four-coat 
work (50), 88; same, wax finish, 
three-coat work (51), 88; same, 
with white silhouette effect, mission 
finish, four-coat work (52), 88; 
same, wax finish (53), 88 
White enamel finishes; on birch, maple, 
cypress, gum, whitewood, redwood, 
and poplar wood, also metal and 
plaster, Banzai System, five-coat 
work (86), 95; same, four-coat 
work (87), 95 
on oak and ash woods, Banzai System, 

five-coat work (84) , 95 
on oak and ash woods, Banzai egg- 
shell enamel finish, four-coat work 
(85), 95 - 
White interior, commercial (or mill 
white); flat finish (28), 85; re- 
painting (29), 85; same, gloss 
finish (30), 85; repainting (31), 
85 
White silhouette effect, on oak wood, 
Flemish or weathered (52, 53), 88 
Whitewood, white enamel on, (86, 87), 

95 
Wood floors, interior (36), 86; repaint- 
ing (37), 86 
Wood, old or new work, commercial, 
or mill white interior; flat finish 
(28), 85; repainting (29), 85; 
same, gloss finish (30), 85; repaint- 
ing (31), 85 
Woods, varnish finish, exterior; birch, 
pine, cypress, fir, four-coat work 
(23), 84 
oak and ash, five-coat work (22), 84 
Woodwork; exterior (2), 82; repainting 
(3). 82 
interior, flat finish (26), 85; repaint- 
ing (27), 85 
interior, gloss finish (24), 84; re- 
painting (25), 84 
interior, white enamel finish (84-87), 
95 

Yellow pine, priming mixture for (4), 
82 



[ xxii ]